Princípios de Neurociências - Kandel - 5ª Edição - - eBook - Português - By Aclerton. Uploaded by unidad7_recurso5 ronaldweinland.info Uploaded by. O6mAiLKZaOaDPYpKzr2IKq01Znq1d1aKMhwyjHJfMvc Cardinali – Manual de Cardinali – Manual de Neurofisiologia ronaldweinland.info?id=0B6FE9xEvh9k- TDlkV2hWNlh2LWM&export=download Kandel – Principios de Neurociencia. Este documento en formato PDF fue enviado en ronaldweinland.info el kandel - principios de neurociencia - ronaldweinland.info (PDF, MB).
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All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of , no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. This book is printed on acid-free paper. Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file for this title at the Library of Congress. Areas of high NMDA receptor expression are shown as light regions in this horizontal section of an adult rat brain.
However, in view of the possibility of human error or changes in medical sciences, neither the editors nor the publisher nor any other party who has been involved in the preparation or publication of this work warrants that the information contained herein is in every respect accurate or complete, and they are not responsible for any errors or omissions or for the results obtained from use of such information.
Readers are encouraged to confirm the information contained herein with other sources.
For example and in particular, readers are advised to check the product information sheet included in the package of each drug they plan to administer to be certain that the information contained in this book is accurate and that changes have not been made in the recommended dose or in the contraindications for administration.
This recommendation is of particular importance in connection with new or infrequently used drugs. Preface The goal of neural science is to understand the mind—how we perceive, move, think, and remember. As in the earlier editions of this book, in this fourth edition we emphasize that behavior can be examined at the level of individual nerve cells by seeking answers to five basic questions: How does the brain develop?
How do nerve cells in the brain communicate with one another?
How do different patterns of interconnections give rise to different perceptions and motor acts? How is communication between neurons modified by experience? How is that communication altered by diseases? When we published the first edition of this book in , these questions could be addressed only in cell biological terms. By the time of the third edition in , however, these same problems were being explored effectively at the molecular level.
In the eight years intervening between the third and the present edition, molecular biology has continued to facilitate the analysis of neurobiological problems. Initially molecular biology enriched our understanding of ion channels and receptors important for signaling.
We now have obtained the first molecular structure of an ion channel, providing us with a threedimensional understanding of the ion channel pore. Structural studies also have deepened our understanding of the membrane receptors coupled to intracellular second-messenger systems and of the role of these systems in modulating the physiological responses of nerve cells.
Molecular biology also has greatly expanded our understanding of how the brain develops and how it generates behavior. Characterizations of the genes encoding growth factors and their receptors, transcriptional regulatory factors, and cell and substrate adhesion molecules have changed the study of neural development from a descriptive discipline into a mechanistic one.
We have even begun to define the molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental processes responsible for assembling functional neural circuits.
These processes include the specification of cell fate, cell migration, axon growth, target recognition, and synapse formation. In addition, the ability to develop genetically modified mice has allowed us to relate single genes to signaling in nerve cells and to relate both of these to an organism's behavior.
Ultimately, these experiments will make it possible to study emotion, perception, learning, memory, and other cognitive processes on both a cellular and a molecular level.
Molecular biology has also made it possible to probe the pathogenesis of many diseases that affect neural function, including several devastating genetic disorders: muscular dystrophy, retinoblastoma, neurofibromatosis, Huntington disease, and certain forms of Alzheimer disease. Finally, the 80, genes of the human genome are nearly sequenced. With the possible exception of trauma, every disease that affects the nervous system has some inherited component. Information about the human genome is making it possible to identify which genes contribute to these disorders and thus to predict an individual's susceptibility to particular illnesses.
In the long term, finding these genes will radically transform the practice of medicine. Thus we again stress vigorously our view, advocated since the first edition of this book, that the future of clinical neurology and psychiatry depends on the progress of molecular neural science.
Advances in molecular neural science have been matched by advances in our understanding of the biology of higher brain functions. The present-day study of visual perception, emotion, motivation, thought, language, and memory owes much to the collaboration of cognitive psychology and neural science, a collaboration at the core of the new cognitive neural science.
Not long ago, ascribing a particular aspect of behavior to an unobservable mental process—such as planning a movement or remembering an event—was thought to be reason for removing the problem from experimental analysis.
Today our ability to visualize functional changes in the brain during normal and abnormal mental activity permits even complex cognitive processes to be studied directly. No longer are we constrained simply to infer mental functions from observable behavior. As a result, neural science during the next several decades may develop the tools needed to probe the deepest of biological mysteries—the biological basis of mind and consciousness.
Despite the growing richness of neural science, we have striven to write a coherent introduction to the nervous system for students of behavior, biology, and medicine.
Indeed, we think this information is even more necessary now than it was two decades ago. Today neurobiology is central to the biological sciences—students of biology increasingly want to become familiar with neural science, and more students of psychology are interested in the biological basis of behavior. At the same time, progress in neural science is providing clearer guidance to clinicians, particularly in the treatment of behavioral disorders.
Therefore we believe it is particularly important to clarify the major principles and mechanisms governing the functions of the nervous system without becoming lost in details. Thus this book provides the detail necessary to meet the interests of students in particular fields. Areas of high NMDA receptor expression are shown as light regions in this horizontal section of an adult rat brain.
Molecular cloning and characterization of the rat NMDA receptor.
According to James Breasted, who translated and published the document inthe word brain occurs only eight times in ancient Egyptian records, six of them in these pages, which describe the symptoms, diagnosis, principios de neurociencia kandel prognosis of two patients, with compound fractures of the skull. Columns IV of the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus Men ought to know that from the brain, and from principios de neurociencia kandel brain only, arise our pleasures, joys, laughter and jests, as well as our sorrows, pains, griefs and tears.
It is the same thing which makes us mad or delirious, inspires us with dread and fear, whether by night or by day, brings principios de neurociencia kandel, inopportune mistakes, aimless anxieties, absent-mindedness, and acts that are contrary to habit.
These things that we suffer all come from the brain, when it is not healthy, but becomes abnormally hot, cold, moist, or dry, or suffers any other unnatural affection to which it was not accustomed. Madness comes from its moistness.
When the brain is abnormally moist, of necessity it moves, and when it moves neither sight nor hearing are still, but we see or hear now one thing and now another, and the tongue speaks in accordance with the things seen and heard on any occasion.
But when the principios de neurociencia kandel is still, a man can think properly. Notice Medicine is an ever-changing science. As new research and clinical experience broaden our knowledge, changes in treatment and drug therapy are required. The editors and the publisher of this work have checked with sources believed to be reliable in their efforts to provide information that is complete and generally in accord with the standards accepted at the time of publication.