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But the advantages of a more scrupulous or competent edition may not be immediately clear, especially if a well-thumbed edition has apparently served the performer well in the past, while its disadvantages, if it is expensive or hard to obtain qualities not uncommon in critical editions , may be only too evident.

This did not proceed beyond the first CD, but similar later projects have had more success. In contrast, the much less numerous but equally meritorious alto cantatas have so far failed to stimulate a comparable project. Every Vivaldi cantata so far uncovered can now be consulted in at least one adequate modern edition and listened to in at least one adequate recorded performance.

This is an achievement scarcely conceivable thirty years ago. All the same, congratulation has its proper limits. It shares in the general public diffidence towards the Baroque cantata as an art-form that is not merely musical but also literary. Before we go any further, therefore, we have to examine the literary premises of this genre.

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On the other hand, these musical realities must not be conceived too inflexibly. Probably the best basis for assigning a work to a generic category is its conformity to most — but not necessarily all — items in a list of criteria, in which the generic title appears only as one item among several. For the Italian chamber cantata, this list might look as follows: It is for a single voice.

There is instrumental accompaniment. The composition is multi-sectional or in several discrete movements. Single-movement compositions are likely to be simple arias. University of North Carolina Press, , pp. The poetic text is purpose-written for a musical setting. In this respect, it has more in common with an opera libretto, despite the disparity of length, than with a sonnet, which, in the first instance, is self-sufficient as poetry.

The poetic theme is secular pastoral, heroic, or historical. It may also be devotional as in the cantata morale or didactic as in the lezione amorosa but is never suitable for performance at a religious service. Since the edition in question is not a first edition, the putative date should be brought forward by a few years — and, in any case, one would expect this use of the term in manuscript sources to have predated its appearance in print.

The new genre takes at least a couple of decades to establish itself firmly and develop a profile that is the common property of composers.

In seventeenth-century terms, which are rooted in concepts established in classical antiquity by such authorities as Aristotle, a sung work is dramatic whenever two or more singers engage in dialogue and therefore have different texts, irrespective of whether they act and memorize their parts or merely stand or sit and read from music.

On this basis, operas, oratorios, serenatas, and dialogues are equally dramatic genres. Such cantatas take the form of a monologue addressed by the poet in the guise of an older, wiser person to a young lover. The second edition of the New Grove art. If the two parts which will usually bear the names of two characters have distinct texts, it is quite clearly a dramatic cantata. If, however, the texts are identical except that certain portions may be reserved for only a single voice , it is a chamber cantata — unless the lack of any clear separation into distinct movements makes the description of chamber duet more apt for ordinary analytical purposes.

The distinction between a multi-sectional and a multi-movement work is so fundamental and rich in consequences that it is surprising how little attention has so far been paid to the question in studies of the cantata — as opposed, notably, to ones of the sonata. In ordinary musicological discourse the boundary between the two terms is rather hazy, so what one is seeking is a distinction that is sufficiently clear-cut to be analytically useful but not so rigid as to appear artificial or contrary to everyday perception.

I drew up a set of criteria for establishing their separate identities in another context, and it will be appropriate to reproduce them here: The most interesting of the criteria is the last. In a musical context, typical expressions of syntactic organization are tonal rounding the opening key returns at the end and thematic rounding the opening theme returns at the end.

A paratactic structure is one in which the units have a simple additive relationship — like the carriages making up a train. A musical unit that is wholly through-composed and tonally open is fully compatible with paratactic organization. Like sonatas, cantatas moved from multi-sectional to multi-movement design in the mid-seventeenth century.

This is not the first occasion on which we will find the structural evolution of cantatas and sonatas proceeding almost in parallel. Schmitz saw this process, rightly, not as the renunciation of unity but as its achievement by alternative means. Whereas recitatives are through-composed and usually tonally open so that in a different context the same music could be held equally well to constitute a section of a larger unit , the arias with which they alternate possess a clearly syntactic structure that marks them out as movements.

Pursuing the analogy of a train, one could liken arias to the carriages, recitatives to the short corridors through which one passes from one carriage to the next.

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The fifth criterion is no less fundamental to the identity of the cantata. Vocal music can be divided, from the very beginning of the Western art music tradition up to the present day, between music using poetic texts originally conceived quite independently of music for silent reading or recitation and music based on texts designed from the outset for a musical setting and therefore unsatisfactory without musical presentation.

Where the poetry exists independently, composers have no automatic way of setting it. They will generally respect its division into stanzas and internal patterns such as the use of a refrain , but most decisions relating to musical structure have to be made autonomously, a situation that produces a great diversity of possible results.

Schmitz, Geschichte der weltlichen Solokantate, pp.

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In the case of the chamber cantata, the variables are more numerous for example, the number of movements is free, provided that the alternation of recitative and aria is observed, and recitative verse can be set in special ways — as accompagnato, arioso, or cavata — in special circumstances , but the general principle holds.

The inevitable outcome of a music-dependent poetry is a poetry-dependent music. Neither can evolve autonomously: What is remarkable, indeed unique, about the period — in Italy is that virtually all its secular vocal music, across the whole spectrum from an aria to an opera, is set to purpose-written texts. If cantatas are easily distinguishable from arias by virtue of their complex multi-sectional or multi-movement form, they diverge equally strongly from madrigals, even in the early period —40 when both genres existed side by side, simply by using these special texts in preference to the sonnets, octaves, canzoni, and the rest that make up the promiscuous diet of the latter.

Whether the cantata, as a musical genre, gained or lost on balance from this dependence is a moot point. Certainly, the literary and aesthetic quality of the poetry to which it was yoked was often no better than mediocre and frequently worse. One would not expect poets normally to include cantata texts, given their expressly musical destination, in their published rime, but the infrequency of poetic attributions in the musical sources tells its own story.

Many of the poets were doubtless inexperienced poetasters writing for personal satisfaction rather than public recognition; in those instances probably more frequent than one imagines where the poets were recognized names, the perceived ephemerality and marginality of their contribution generally prevented them both from giving of their best and from seeking credit by claiming authorship.

It is true that the standardization of their texts results in a corresponding standardization of the music for cantatas. But even in these cases, the retention of the principle of alternating aria and recitative reduces the room for manoeuvre: Undeniably, the Baroque cantata possessed the virtue of its defects in being such an easy type of composition to mass-produce.

This mattered in an age when topicality was so desirable a quality and when the occasions at which cantatas were performed, such as the weekly accademie of a patron, succeeded one another so closely. A kind of composition that required more prior reflection on the part of either poet or composer would have served its social purpose less well. The secular context of chamber cantatas — evident even when their theme is spiritual or moral — needs emphasis because of the contrary example of J.

However, in one respect affecting poetry and music alike the cantata underwent a steady, unidirectional development over this period: The regular alternation between recitative and aria was deeply ingrained: Where recitatives and arias coexist, the former is always preparatory to the latter — never the reverse. This is demonstrated in musical terms by the fact that it is normal for the opening chord of a recitative following an aria to establish its tonal and emotional distance from the latter by moving to a new scale-degree, and very likely a new key.

Ending with an unadorned setting of recitative was normally avoided, since the result would have been too perfunctory, but the option of setting the last line or pair of lines as an arioso or a cavata — both types of treatment introducing a more patterned, melodious style — provided a simple means of achieving a climax comparable with that afforded by an aria.

It was the vehicle for description and narration, and employed metres — seven-syllable settenario and eleven-syllable endecasillabo lines — widely 10 11 Quoted in Donald Jay Grout, A Short History of Opera, 2nd edn, New York: Columbia University Press, , p. However, audiences, singers, and composers alike regarded the aria as more important, exerting a persistent pressure to reduce the number and length of recitatives. Francesco Saverio Quadrio, whose massive history of Italian poetry is a valuable source of information on contemporary perceptions of the cantata, observed that recitatives risked boring audiences for which reason he recommended that they should not exceed six lines in length and tended to be skated over by singers, impatient to begin their next aria.

For some listeners, of course, even a single recitative was excessive. In a letter of 15 December to C. Graun, Telemann blamed the presence of recitative for the unfashionability of cantatas and their replacement by arias. The steadily growing rejection of recitative in the domain of chamber music can be gauged by comparing the incidence of cantatas and separate arias in manuscript collections containing both.

In seventeenth-century collections cantatas tend to outnumber arias, but in those of the following century the balance inexorably shifts in favour of the latter. Favoured though they were, arias in cantatas tended to become fewer as time went on. This was partly in compensation for their increased length, the product of a more complex form and a more ornate style. This was good advice for its time but would not have carried weight seventy years earlier.

This revolt against fussiness in favour of clear outlines is a feature that marks off the Settecento as a whole from the Seicento. First concertos and then sonatas follow the same path as the cantata.

In fact, if one equates cantata recitatives with sonata slow movements S , and cantata arias in any tempo with sonata fast movements F , one can draw an exact parallel between the replacement of the SFSF by the FSF scheme in sonatas and the replacement albeit less fully realized of the RARA by the ARA scheme in cantatas.

Antonio Ottoboni — and Pietro Metastasio — Slightly more texts open with a recitative than with an aria as against 91 , while distinctly more close with a recitative than with an aria as against His texts are noteworthy for their variety: Special circumstances apply here: Metastasio wrote several celebratory works for birthdays or name-days of members of the imperial family, the singers for which were sometimes the archdukes or archduchesses themselves — hence the desirability of brevity.

Considerably more of his texts open with a recitative than with an aria 26 as against 10 , but — a sign of the times — not a single one closes with a recitative. Atti del convegno internazionale di studi Roma, 12—14 giugno , Florence: Quadrio observed that recitative had a special usefulness at the start of a cantata, where it could explain the situation and establish the dominant mood.

Where tonal closure was desired for the composition as a whole — and very few composers Handel and Alessandro Marcello are the best-known were prepared to sacrifice it — adopting the ARA plan condemned composers willy-nilly to place both arias in the same key, thereby renouncing an important means of contrast.

The fact that they were so often willing to do so only underlines the irresistibility of the trend just described. Small wonder that Vivaldi and the poets who served him remained so firmly wedded to these two plans, which had by then become as standard for the cantata as the familiar three-movement and four-movement schemes were in instrumental music. Its Literary Nature The basic unit of the poetry making up a cantata text is the stanza strophe.

A recitative stanza may contain any number of lines greater than one. For arias, the number of lines is more circumscribed.

Four lines is the lower limit, while twelve lines represents the practical upper limit. Recitative verse is formed from freely mixed endecasillabi hendecasyllables, or eleven-syllable lines and settenari heptasyllables, or seven-syllable lines. These are the two metres canonized in the poetry of Petrarch —74 and ever since dominant in Italian poetry. According to Boyd ibid. The great attraction of hendecasyllables and heptasyllables for Italian poetry — especially when used repetitively — is the great variety of stress pattern they permit.

As a Romance language, Italian has a prosody governed by syllable count rather than, as in Germanic languages, by stress count. So the metrical flexibility that English iambic pentameter achieves through varying the nature of the foot as iamb, trochee, etc. Lines with three ternario , four quaternario , five quinario , six senario , eight ottonario , nine novenario , ten decasillabo , and even twelve dodecasillabo syllables may be employed.

Even-numbered metres, especially the ever-popular quaternario and ottonario, enjoy special favour, since their relative regularity of stress more comparable with the metres of Germanic poetry contrasts with recitative verse and also conforms well to the regular musical accents that characterize arias, but not recitatives. Aria stanzas may be either monometric employing a single metre throughout or polymetric employing more than one metre in either symmetrical or asymmetrical fashion.

A fundamental characteristic of aria stanzas during the entire life of the cantata is their division into two semistrophes. Typically, the first semistrophe expresses a thought that the second semistrophe illustrates, extends, modifies, or contradicts.

Irrespective of what musical form is chosen for the stanza, its division into two sections has always forced composers into making difficult decisions. Should the musical treatment of the stanza be uniform, making little of the textual difference between the two semistrophes, or should this difference be accentuated through musical contrasts?

There is no universal recommendation to follow: In the quotation, and in later quotations of aria verse, the opening lines of the two semistrophes are left unindented, while the remainder are indented. Vengo a voi, luci adorate, per dar tregua a tante pene, e ritorno ad adorarvi. Although you are so ungrateful, Some writers regard the semistrophe as a self-contained stanza, making the full aria text bi-stanzaic.

That this is really inaccurate is shown, however, by the frequent practice, observable during most of the seventeenth century, of repeating the music of an aria to new words.

It is obviously far less cumbersome to speak of an aria employing successive stanzas than of one employing successive stanza-pairs. It is left to the second semistrophe, however, to explain that ingratitude normally to be equated with the non-reciprocation of amorous feelings or even with infidelity was the cause of that estrangement.

How the syllables of Italian verse are to be counted — this knowledge is vital for the reconstruction of the poem, if it exists only in the form of an underlaid text — is not an easy matter for the uninitiated, especially if they are not native speakers. All the lines of the aria quoted above conform to the piano model.

Recitative verse hardly ever employs any other type. The two opening lines of the second aria of Era la notte, quando i suoi splendori, RV , follow this model: It is important to remember that when a line is tronco, its metre is described as if the missing final unstressed syllable were actually present. So the quoted lines are settenari, not senari.

This supernumerary syllable is similarly ignored when classifying the metre. Sdrucciolo lines, the least common of the three types, are encountered most often in aria verse in short metres, particularly where a comic effect is desired as with buffo characters in opera.

Here, the effect is deliberately playful the highly appropriate word scherzino appears at the end of the first line of the second semistrophe. The identification of the metre is complicated further by the operation of poetic devices that effectively knock two or more syllables into one or, conversely, resist doing this in contexts where coalescence would be expected. The most important of these are synaeresis sineresi and synaloepha sinalefe. In sineresi, adjacent vowels in the same word are treated as one syllable; in sinalefe, adjacent vowels belonging to two or more adjacent words are treated similarly.

But sineresi operates in two instances, causing sia and Dio to be treated as monosyllables. So the final result is a metrically orthodox line of eleven syllables.


Some difficulty may be experienced, however, in recognizing the effects of diaeresis dieresi and dialoepha dialefe , which can be described as the intentional non-application of sineresi and sinalefe, respectively. There is usually a good poetic reason for eschewing the normal coalescence-producing devices: Just occasionally, one suspects the poet of using dieresi or dialefe merely to get himself out of a metrical fix.

But this was a permitted licence: The use of end-rhyme in recitative and in aria stanzas is different. Most recitative is cast in the form of versi sciolti unrhymed lines. A few poets — Antonio Ottoboni, discussed earlier, is among them — resisted the facility of blank verse, but these were in a tiny minority.

Hosted by paolo montagnana e luca montagnana! Hosted by Una cena con i primi ospiti di Casa Rosetta! This acts as a signal of closure and can give the final line an attractively epigrammic quality. In arias, most lines are rhymed, using patterns such as the following: It is not obligatory to match every line with a rhyming line. There are four principal parameters that may be treated in either a tightly patterned or a loosely patterned way: The metre of the two semistrophes may be identical or divergent.

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The stanza may be monometric or polymetric. End-rhyme may be pervasive or incomplete. As a rule of thumb, loose patterning in one or two of these parameters can be compensated for by tight patterning in the others.

Consider the following three examples: O di tua man mi svena o con un guardo il mio morir consola. In this aria, taken from the cantata Ingrata Lidia, RV attributed to Vivaldi but no longer considered authentic , the metrical structure of each semistrophe is 7— This irregularity must, however, be set against the total symmetry between the semistrophes.

The rhyme occurs in this instance between, rather than within, the semistrophes AB AB — less unusual when these consist only of a couplet or tercet. A compensatory regularity is provided by the uniformity of its senari 6—6—6t 6—6—6—6t , the line bearing the key rhyme being tronco. So che tra lor diranno: Burney defines it tout court as a concert.

Even more specifically, academies could be societies at which any combination of music, poetry, and drama could be cultivated but whose main business was scholarly investigation in the manner of a learned society , open discussion in the manner of a debating club , or simple ceremony.

Such were the celebrated conversazioni held in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in the palazzi of Benedetto Pamphilij, Pietro Ottoboni, and Francesco Maria Ruspoli in Rome.

The extract quoted below follows the description of a conversazione with pertinent comments on its most characteristic musical genre, the cantata: The simple vocal [chamber music] without instruments [other than those of the basso continuo] is only used in Italy, and very seldom in other countries, and it is used in some particular assemblies of lords and ladies, who pass the long winter evenings in singing some cantatas or duettos, only with the harpsichord and violoncello, when the rest of the assembly pass the time in playing at cards or otherwise.

These cantatas are performed only by the ladies of quality, and sometimes by some young lords, in which assembly are not admitted the professors of music, but only some stranger[s] of the best sort, and that but very 20 21 22 23 Charles Burney, The Present State of Music in France and Italy, London: Ward and Wicksteed, , 2, n.

This simple music is of the best sort, composed by the best poets, and masters of music; and sometimes by the same lords the poetry and music, or also the music by the ladies, among whom are not only many excellent singers, but also composers.

These sort of compositions being deprived of the help of the instrumental [sic], and of all action, consequently there must be used all the most expressive combinations, and properest progressions, in composing not only the recitative part, but also the airs; the melody of which must be extremely proper to the words. The bass for the violoncello, when it is separated from that for the harpsichord, must be composed in the best and most melodious manner, by imitation or some different melody, proper to help the expression of the vocal part: The harmony of the harpsichord, particularly in pathetic airs and recitatives, must be in as full combination as possible, with its accicaturas [sic], more proper for the strongest expression.

These cantatas are very studious, and give the greatest pleasure with their moving affections: But in some ordinary cantatas, a voice [sic] sola, composed by [sic] an indifferent poetic style, the music cannot be of the moving sort, but only proper to the insignificant sense of the poetry; and these sort of cantatas are those which commonly run in every country, but the best sort very seldom, because the persons keep them zealously close for their own use.

Next to the academy Della Crusca, that of the Arcadia Romana rose in repute. The business of this Arcadia was to correct, encrease and beautify our poetry, as that of the Crusca to purify, illustrate, and fix our language. That woman is the one That burns us.

When Alessandro Parisotti included this work in his collection of Arie Antiche , he created a solo version by including only the first 28 measures of the duet. He also changed the key to F major and added ornaments without preserving the original melody.

It is in this form that the duet has become familiar to modern audiences. In concert, it is typically repeated with the repeat being more heavily ornamented. Music The duet is written in the key of G major with a 6 time signature. With opus number Six duos for two violins, Op.

She started guitar lessons at the age of eight and then, by chance, met the classical guitarist George C. Lindsay and played for him when she was still just nine.

This was the start of a lifelong friendship in which Lindsay first tutored her and then introduced her to the famous guitarist, Manuel Y. Ferrer invited her to stay with his family in Berkeley where he gave her daily lessons for a year until he died suddenly in Giovanni Bottesini Giovanni Bottesini 22 December — 7 July , was an Italian Romantic composer, conductor, and a double bass virtuoso. Biography Born in Crema, Lombardy, he was taught the rudiments of music by his father, an accomplished clarinetist and composer, at a young age and had played timpani in Crema with the Teatro Sociale before the age of eleven.

He studied violin with Carlo Cogliati, and probably would have continued on this instrument except for a unique turn of events. His father sought a place for him in the Milan Conservatory, but due to the Bottesini family's lack of money, Bottesini needed a scholarship.

Paisiello in Vienna Only two positions were available: He prepared a successful audition for the double bass scholarship in a matter of weeks. At the conservatory, he studied with Luigi Rossi, to whom he would later dedicate his Tre grandi duetti per contrabasso. Only four years later, a surprisingly short time by the standards of the day, he left with a prize of franc Portrait by Joseph Karl Stieler, The musical works of Ludwig van Beethoven — are classified by both genre and various numbering systems.

The most common methods of numbering Beethoven's works are by opus number, assigned by Beethoven's publishers during his lifetime, and by number within genre. For example, the 14th string quartet, published as Opus , may be referenced either as "String Quartet No.

Many works that were unpublished or else published without opus numbers have been assigned either "WoO" works without opus number or "Anh" appendix numbers. Some works are also commonly referred to by their nicknames, such as the 'Kreutzer' Violin Sonata, or the Eroica Symphony. While other catalogues of Beethoven's works exist, the numbers here represent the most commonly used. He was the most celebrated violin virtuoso of his time, and left his mark as one of the pillars of modern violin technique.

His 24 Caprices for Solo Violin Op.

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Paganini's father was an unsuccessful trader, but he managed to supplement his income through playing music on the mandolin. At the age of five, Paganini started learning the mandolin from his father, and moved to the violin by the age of seven. His musical talents were quickly recognized, earning him numerous scholarships for violin lessons.

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