The Navy SEAL Physical. Fitness Guide. Edited by Patricia A. Deuster, Ph.D., M.P.H.. Department of Military and Emergency Medicine. Uniformed Services. To be a Navy SEAL you must • Run miles. • Swim 77 miles. • Paddle a boat more than 19 hours. • Run the O'course 29 times. • Spend 35 hours diving. Pass a Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL BUD/S physical Navy SEALs are members of the Naval Special Warfare (NSW) community, comprising those who.
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Naval Special Warfare. Physical Training Guide. DISCLAIMER: Preparation for this training can be equally strenuous. You should consult a physician before you . SEALs are the elite Naval Special Operations unit of the US Navy. The U.S. Navy's A unique aspect of Navy SEAL training is HELL WEEK. Originally named “. The Naval Special Warfare Physical Training Guide (PTG) is a tailored 26 to help you develop the strength and endurance to withstand the rigors of SEAL.
The mission: rescue two international aid workers being held captive by Somali pirates. The mission was time-sensitive, especially since one of the captives was incredibly sick, though they didn't know what from. Because they didn't know how ill she was, they had to prepare for all kinds of outcomes. What if she was too delicate to move? What if she wasn't on board? What if she had already died? Most of all, what if someone made a mistake under pressure?
Who must utilize all muscles in order to accomplish their task? I'm not talking about professional bodybuilders; I'm talking about our nation's elite fighting force—the U. Navy SEALs. These brave men are not worried about how they look in front of the judges, but how they are judged by their peers. Living by the mentality that they must perform to the best of their ability on every mission is why they are so successful.
But how do these men get in shape? Bodybuilding takes years to achieve the perfect physique, and even then some bodybuilders are still not happy with the results. During this program, you should notice your endurance soaring to heights never imagined. As you can see, this program builds your endurance and your strength. Also, looking at this program, rest days are few and far between.
Hence, one should take in an adequate supply of the necessary nutrients and water. This program can yield incredible results; however, it also requires commitment and determination. The exercises are simple—they involve no sophisticated movements or machines. Even after the fat has been shed and the muscle has been packed on, you'll continue to reap the rewards of your hard work! View all articles by this author. Need Help? United States. We have many senior officers in the SEALs who have never experienced combat.
Political Correctness We con- knows we. Even SOC. When tactical commanders. But the all of way along with everybody get the best possible leadership.
It is a hard program for a hard job. When Norm combat ops we both Gulf in the Carley and who under- were doing I received criticism for accom- We panying the troops on missions. We are famous for having the worst success ratio in the armed quarters. We and the high front. I will else. Leadership and NSW and we're constantly pressured to bring that ratio up.
Despite the political pressures. The reason we hear is a higher bone or muscle density. We have very few minorities extremely few blacks in particular. We've tried numerous times to find the characteristics that forces. Many black men. I they are. We need to concentrate on the quality of the guy the who makes it through. We should never dilute or shorten the program. The Army has the same problem with Special Forces. Navy or the population in general. If there significant one seems to is a way well.
While it tistically at We've been doing We found a system that turns out a we need think to keep this for fifty years. People want us to fix something that isn't broken— a notorious way of breaking something that works. And if you think the result of some hidden prejudice among the military. We can't do anything about the bone density problem but we can encourage minority kids to start thinking about us at an earlier age.
That viduals and for the organization. South Africa has been quite successful with a program of men- them up to speed. Once to slide a bit more.
During my active duty years we received direction from senior Navy staff to increase the numbers of no matter how we did it. We might be able to do something similar. It is and somewhat amazing to watch. Leadership and NSW. Women and NSW This my part. I there are already women They and respected members of their are valuable ly qualified. Without getting into the details. There performance differences between recognized and generally accepted. But that's taught. Perhaps there are women.
I know women are often terrific divers. So many men. O course. I think a lot of them would do just fine. While I think there's a role for women in our business. I teach and certify many of them in SCUBA and they are typically better than the can male students— they erate the cold.
With statistically insignificant exceptions. I have been on covert ops by non-Navy units where tion. Pat of Congress from Colorado. How on their head and hold it for a while do we know?
Because we have tested women and done studies. While we don't have any operational or. And we have taken a careful look at our our standards special little The made tests. And can tell NSW. The physical trials women. You decorations or rank. Later I saw whole platoons sent out on ops where five men would normally be used. They as a component of a in "ticket see NSW. These officers. At where people who might not get a really lot of Then we in the to be warriors signed up.
NSW got lots Navy and the civilian we government. During World War II. In fact some Army personnel attempted to decline or outright refused awards of combat decorations because they felt they hadn't been legitimately earned by traditional standards. Leadership and "ticket-punch" syndrome. Both were wearing "tiger-stripe" pattern uniforms and walked into our little team bar.
They can be quite compelling and difficult to detect sometimes. The first was rent commander ond class. The uniform didn't compute for Bill and he the time looking them over. I've encountered the problem directly on several occa- Vietnam when a couple of guys strolled into the hooch claiming to be SEALs. But a Bronze Star or higher is a great ticket punch when it comes time for the promotion board. Fakes and Phonies Another sad. Lots of guys claim to be Green Berets.
Bill Cheatham. I think it is disgusting. Leadership and ed to know. I too! He'd been a SEAL. That's probably why you don't remember me. Do you know where you are right now? There are a pair of phonies. I was. More recently I was up at a Navy installation at Adak. A little stocky petty officer. You guys you both about ten sec- They put their drinks down and evaporated. We chatted for a few minutes and compared notes. But he introduced me to his boss.
In one case. He knew the names of many of us from being in driver but like the boats and was able Just in the last to fabricate a couple of years claiming to be or to having been right. Gallagher started to politely We himself.
I I convincing have encountered people SEALs who just have called the teams with names and numbers and in story. But that wasn't the the chief's records were investigated. Then I got a message: NBC was sending its military affairs core- spondent.
We have to do it. Our tanker escort mission during the Iran-Iraq a good story. In fact some journalists and reporters encountered so seem clearly sympathetic and our missions. That attitude is usually attributed. Just be real careful about what you say and what you let them film.
We also had no private facilities for a of payback for the secretary of defense for But our were super secret. Fred Francis. Lots of us much dishonesty. As soon as they got off the helicopters and unloaded their crew and gear I knew this wasn't going to be fun.
No media was allowed anywhere near. I got on the phone to my boss. Actually it wasn't that the coverage of the war was just hostile to the American armed forces because there were lots of legitimate things a reporter could criticize.
The Navy had to negoti- NBC to censor that material. We had to keep an "escort" on these people every minute. I Comm Round One. But he did get didn't eras. I General Crist was our Marine Corps boss. But these were minor problems compared to dealing with Fred. Central ME. Francis rial watch the helos launch me that he had night vision lenses for the video would reveal a it to and his crew continually attempted they were told they couldn't get-the to collect mate- name of the barge.
An example is the big debate about the proper pistol cartridge for SEALs and others in the special ops professions to use. We always need weapons that shoot accurately. My reaction to this the issue cial is irrelevant!
This issue is being driven by a group of folks in the acquisition and procurement program who think about how things aren't operators work on CAR. The idea was to do research and development. The pistol is a police weapon.
A great debate developed over the best pistol round: The temperature hut the plant is about the same. A prototype which was being tested for approval for service use in Rach Soi. Target practice across the expansive north of the infamous the way to Cai Lon River coming out of the Delta just U Minh forest. Nice surroundings. Photo Gallery The old. The rig. This how long a bottle new of oxygen. In this instance. Part of the long.
Note the trian- gular shaped security firebase near of the photo and beside a small tributary canal. Photo Gallery Reconnaissance of a target "hooch" Lon to determine the and where to insert by along the Cai patrol route boat. Note the four B bomber in this photo. Locating a small tributary canal that feeds off the can use to target by Bend in Cai Lon. Waterways in Vietnam's Delta are like side streets in our cities. Creating fishing holes in the farmer's fields with b bombs was a favorite pastime of the crews.
A footbridge over the canal near the riverine support base at Rach Soi that was used. Photo Gallery This helicopter ly. Another view of extraction from a ship takedown. Vietnamese background support base PBRs in the. It entertained us by swallowing ducks whole until some Vietnamese decided our pet was A big enough to eat for dinner. The barge Wimbrown VII with our tow tug and a alongside. Photo Gallery The big barge Hercules to come in for in the northern Persian Gulf in as we were about a planning meeting and dinner.
In effect. SEALs were. It will de-rig was an it upon reaching The it CRRC in the is being chased by the water and begin their oper- operation similar to this during which four killed during the invasion 80 to end.
A rubber-duck operation about SEALs who ation. Korean-built patrol boats in the harbor at Chinhae in the southern coast of the South Korea. Photo Gallery A flock of US-designed. Photo Gallery Larger ship cles trajjic could transit through the Cheju had been removed from Do the passageway. A former World War 11 small.
Wimbrown Vll-a Iran-Iraq war. Note the barge Hercules in the background. Below The author bald head and his units fist-roping from a UH with a mini-gun sticking out of the gun port onto a simulated target vessel during daytime practice for ship takedowns. The task becomes exponentially more difficult at night.
Thejamiues was 86 his oj cat soldiers lived in the the officer in charge small outposts along the canals. Gary Stubblefield Cdr.
Playing in the mud at the mudflats on the third day of Hell Week for Class Photo Gallery One of the mini-guns on our MSSC that we carried to help suppress fire when we encountered an ambush persistent enemy along the canals. A beautiful pagoda located along a canal outside by the war being waged around Rach Gia.
On Rach Gia. These every occasion to fly. Can a prisoner of war we get peaceful through osmosis? This detainee was being held at the Kilo platoon quarters awaiting transfer to the local holding facility for questioning. Photo Gallery Ready to to go! We would hear concussion grenades going off at any given time to try to discourage the swimmers.
Inside the A US Navy SEALs watch tower at our riverine sup- port base to try to spot VC setting up mortars or swimming down the river carry to out a swimmer attack against the patrol boats. Photo Gallery Two of our Kit Carson scouts with tured during one of the raids on a two of the rockets and a shaped charge cap- VC logistics storage facility. The origin of the current attitude. But nearly as much. It was then common to give each guy 2.
The team training cadre would tell us. Ever been an object of cult worship for some NSW. Thomas had no other weapon at the moment though perhaps he should have been carrying a primary weapon than a. Then the VC started closing in. He used that since. One of our weapons specialists.
I leave the pistol at we I though that's One what we love it. One of the pilots was killed. We put a lot more time. RJ Thomas now a retired commander. My point is that. The best weapon are proficient with. The CAR. The most imporplacing rounds where you want them! That doesn't else's weapon and use personal bias between the ammunition. Those are basic weapons considerations. I don't even believe in using the three-round-burst option.
In rare situations. Weapons and Technology when we were fun. Automatic weapons provide cover for us. I had originally been on the side of the boat facing the enemy and I returned fire along with everybody else.
But the shooter needs a certain amount of calmness and alertness to evaluate his shooting— conditions not always pre- sent in combat. We brought the boat around to exit their "killing zone" and made a break for the exit. I don't endorse this idea— if you hit where you aimed the first time.
The whole boat opened up on the banks while we drifted for a few moments as often the coxswain back-flushed the propulsion system.
When we shoot in combat we need to engage our targets until shot at a target. Just before ashore. But when It We Fve never "double-tapped" a deer on a hunt- Here's an example from real life: Double-Tapping You hear a lot among combat shooters about "douThe idea is to fire one carefully aimed of talk ble-tapping" a target.
I teach people to watch what happens with the first shot. Only then did he notice that he had been on a kind of mental "full- We all need to be calm enough under fire to evaluate our auto. Weapons and Technology we turned around and were facing the opposite bank see no enemy engage in our My fire coming at us.
Why aren't you shooting? SEALs sneak in. He noticed me. I will have always pilots or felt amount of control over our deep in the Its is battle. We should not give them an even break. This gunfighters or trail like We is the fastest or way to lose the safer than that of have a phenomenal by planning and executing engineman in the engine room destiny hard for the bowels of a surface combatant himself from an incoming missile.
I There were no I could targets to stopped shooting. But to effectively we can defend plan our routes. It didn't take long for these swimmers to get another job. Fifty years and more ago. While there were plenty of lessons learned from Tarawa. There was no place to hide. As a result the Navy quickly threw together a little unit of combat swimmers dedicated to mapping possible invasion beaches. Ocean over of our real first fifty years ago during amphibious operations.
Sand bars and reefs prevented the landing craft from going closer. The heavily-laden infantry tried to slog yards through the surf just to get to the beach. The people who had planned Tarawa assumed a normal beach gradient all the way to the high water mark. Terrible It has been. By the end of World War II there were many underwater demolition teams— and they were mostly discarded. Korea Just five years later. SEALs from the protection of the sneak ashore to chart to watch the do much the same thing with the same still slates.
They learned to and grease-pencils today. This time the same beach survey and beach clearance missions were assigned.
Although these men could hide themselves in the jungle or local terrain. But with graphic recon provided by the UDTs. During the Cold War. One Naval combat veteran studied the threats to the United States and came to a different set of conclusions. Instead of nuclear exchanges by bombers.
They crawled up on enemy beach- sites. UDTs were back up to speed and mission effective. This past the high-water mark was the beginning of the kind of US Navy mission that we call today "special operations. Kennedy foresaw a kind of shadow warfare. The Inchon harbor's tides. That veteran was John F. Douglas MacArthur's brilliant end-run amphibious assault. But that was the time and they were the men who started pulling together all the elements of the Almost SEAL mission as soon as the of today.
For the Navy. The Navy and Air Force. Latin America. Kennedy knew gency the British in the jungles of unconventional military Army was defeating an insur- Malaya through a combination of and political tactics. For these conflicts. Kennedy knew the Army leadership loathed this little congregation of outlaws.
Aaron Bank at Ft. North Carolina. He found some of that capability already in place in the ly US Army— the little Special Forces outfit assembled by Col. Kennedy looked at these guys and said. They represented everything the modern Army of was not— they fought with small arms and tiny units. The campaign was imaginative. Such and SEALs conflicts were already in progress during the late s and early s. It was love at first sight.
Some of these guys were trained in new skills guages. When Kennedy came power in February of SEALs did some direct action missions. Until the role of these deployments was limited and involved a lot of training of Republic of Vietnam RVN naval units. The commanding officer CO of each was just a lieutenant.
The structure of the team. It was a process worked then. Deployments to Vietnam began in Each new SEAL team had ten officers and fifty enlisted sailors. SEALs worked with another program. They weren't interested in operating. Since these guys thieves. A lot of these guys turned out to be very effective. While some of these guys were good. The PRU became quite adept at collecting enemy tax collectors. We some good people. I had three of these guys assigned to me. The priority for many seemed pay every two weeks.
While the riverine forces had developed these boat searches to a fine art. We knew a lot of enemy weapons were being moved around the area in the canals in small boats at night. But couldn't resist the bait. The patrol boats operated inland.
He decided out to attempt an intercept— the first to go in a series of regrettable. We got reports that weapons were being brought in from Camboine patrol boat base called dia. One of those first real-world lessons for me came when my commander took my learned by our predecessors. In fact a regu- boats seemed to be operating without The boats were about 20ft long. Why make a actually not take the you're used to?
The interpreter stood happened: None fortable with this operation. Instead of stopping. The and two interpreter was The five of them headed out inconspicuous vessel ation just a few we weeks acquired from the earlier. They found a suspect VC boat with a potential cargo of weapons around midnight. They approached the other boat both the vision and bow-on. Barnes in who was classmate of mine from Class This was the very new firearms. Barnes survived the next few seconds Vietnamese weapon readied.
Carson to said. We had a litde submachine gun called a "hush-puppy. He lit a flare. So here I am. That left the other wounded Kit Carson scout and young Barnes. With his field of fire finally clear. I VC looked dead or wound- on all the bodies as our boat slowly settled in the water. As he and bent down aside grab another to weapon he took a round through the leg. Even though we were miles offshore.
The inflated the lifejackets amazing what you can accomplish when you're moti- and Barnes was MSSC full of motivation just then. Barnes stood up and fired. They asked me to light off a flare.
That happened pretty early. We got to be very SEALs successful with the idea of force had been very the indigenous people. Our guys effectively. It was not uncommon patrolled for each Barnes came back from his first mission with more combat experience than most SEALs accumulate in a career.
Navy-Style and the Even so.
That was the end of good at And successful at working with together with the Vietnamese. We started sending whole platoons of SEALs over er and using them for unilateral operations with perhaps a support from a few Vietnamese scouts or interpreters.
Inventing Unconventional Warfare. And while that platoon leader is still a good friend make of matters worse.
By the platoon drawdown was pretty much complete although some advisors remained. The Army. That is a true evolution of the old Kennedy had in mind. Once Now a again. That began about Then we commitments out of started to pull the platoon Vietnam. We had gone from a mostly advisory role to a mostly and back direct action role good at both.
Kennedy had although we I that in mind. For proper been name Green Berets started out that way. That required bending some Navy SOPs. We knew how even before we arrived. SEALs something and we found them. After Action Review Unlike the Army. A Short History of Frogmen and We went out hunting the enemy in twos and threes. Most of them were The terrific. But these guys get us in SEALs themselves.
They shared most of our hardships and endured a lot of danger. For a guy coming out of the conventional surface Navy. While we are trained and accus- tomed to considerable austerity.
Here's what happened: We Minh put together a real unusual operation. Now we could with an see. Boats and Boaters. MSSC carrying over five go home. So the night we towed the Boston Whaler was the third big operation. And was a tremendous it mile or river. Just as we safe. We moved saddled up around midnight. John squad got hit by a B40 rocket into the side of the his slightly wounding the coxswain and disabling the boat's The second operation out the LSSC I was riding in got hit by automatic weapons fire.
Rocket-propelled grenades Water spouts all around the boat from mortars. The this point. Way out in the As we moved upstream and tive area. Tracers everywhere. By to them "Okay with me. Any major damage we took inventory. But we were only a mile or so from hit. I had scrambled the Seawolf them? Safely upstream. In we fact. Seems Anybody to Nope. NVA to the didn't need We roared through The engagement seemed disrupted crossing. We kept moving up stream.
Ron this for to base. I "The down by. They're all on foot— they aren't going to bother us! We had to wonder. We opened up on them with everything we had— our 40mm's. I can't that. There was no return fire. They deliver us and get us out. You guys open up on anything that shoots fi: The incident. Over the radio hysterically.
This combat-refusal I was deeply disappointed. Then and "We know where we through start this place this is. I danger area can spot I will it on radar. I I could hear the gunship pilot laughing "What's the problem? The "riverine" craft were nothing more than plain old landing Landing Craft. Utili- support ops with the addition of stand-off chain-link fencing to defeat RPG rounds.
LCM-6s Landing Craft. The first objection to the MSSC is true. While those craft provided support for SEALs. Light — a riverine patrol and assault boat and a newer version of the old Boston Whaler.
But the fears about fire and explosion from hits on a gasoline-powered boat are just unfounded. Attitudes like that are quite com- these days. The operators lose the MSSC.
Then and own them. We learned how to ease with new designs.
The It is a "captain-major-command-billet. We learned how to get in and out of places and what happens when you neglect to pay attention to the tide and get stuck in the mud. We inherited the PBRs. We unheard. Boat speed is important to the life-expectancy of a SEAL. We dumped the MSSCs. ATC the for what seems like an enemy can ping away at eternity. If you can accel- good chance you can escape unharmed.
Now and a we worked with those. Tom and I it were took place My friend. The test and evaluation of the prototype in the vicinity of Little Creek. Both ships. Seafox The Seafox was inventory from to Tom Coul- of the operational test and eval- discussed the boat shortfalls during after the tests extensively. It has its The now been lesson learned here is replaced by the RIB. It really gain any- cost except a logistical nightmare.
We to listen and simply cannot have dangerous or incapable expensive pieces of afford to equipment produced that have been noted to be flawed. In the years following. After Lyons told recommendation his him to that down and keep sit we let his opinion be not accept the quiet— that the craft.
Then and wake and smashing out crossing a the coxswain's stand. Tom the flat Now windshield ahead of he was not told the audience impressed with the overall capability the boat displayed and being not a shy individual.
As its primary mission. It is a fast. Otherwise it seems more today. While tures have been added observability. It is air-transportable within reason and therefore can be quickly moved to will handle up to sixteen the area of concern. That isn't part of the MK V. Without getting into the area of classified information. Boats of the Future One of the big challenges for SEALs problem of infiltrating a group of people from to the target area undetected.
Combat Rubber Raiding These of the the mainstay They are owned and operated by They can be rolled up and launched detachments. They carry a fire team. And due to their low silhouette they are more difficult to detect by radar and the naked eye when coming over the horizon.
SEAL is they lose in familiar with little craft. They lack adequate guns for any heavy engagement. But every the operation of this respected flexibility. What they gain in and speed. These detection systems. Every is the launch site in the future little their backwater Third World nation today has some kind of surface-search radar. Both the 24ft The inventory. The main advantage of a RIB is its enhanced performance with the rigid hull characteristic.
This type hull provides better speed and sea-keeping ability yet retains the safety of the inflat- able craft bladders. Such is to get the leadership I who have community say infiltration that through the gener- simply not the case nowadays. This tionally expected Then cheap today— and highly capable.
All of these systems are for sale at bargain prices from commercial manufacturers and from the old Soviet have lots of Cold War surplus and a need for ready cash. It on the horizon. On this particular operation. Our to primary response nology to is is to apply the same reliance on high tech- to defeating these detection systems.
Operation It was off the San Clemente Island coastline. And the most exotic of these technological marvels are our sub-surface sys- tems. Lessons learned When towed behind a support and permits the SDV to be towed the sled comes up on step quickly from one location it rather sled SDV sled.
In fact be a passenger and view such it sealife see out of was not uncomas a shark swim by as we motored to an objective.
The seas were calm. We swam to placed the simulated explosives. Outside schools of fish we could see the kelp forest and the swimming as we passed through it with the moonlight backlighting. Dan of amphibious coming into Camp Pendleton to land a flock of Marines. The idea was to transit to the area offshore from the landing.
The thought of what could happen if we got under one of these ships ft ships coming at lOkt to the shore was in our minds. Once at the pier. Lay on the surface until the ships came in and then come near to one and light a flare simulating that we had launched explosives against the major vessels bearing down on us.
We guards on the pier. This required having a critical coast. The losses total over a million dollars. We set. It depth control. The landing had been canceled due to the fog.
Seal Delivery Vehicles SDV off about 2hr before the scheduled landing and approximate beach landing moved to the using dead reckoning. We then began wondering how to re-link with our mother support vessel. We was almost no swell or wave After two more in disguise hours. For anyone who has the coastline of Southern California even during the swum off summer.
The only differ- summer and winter temperatures is it goes from colder. No we were Little suit. After another hour. Cold was hardly the describe the condition themselves worthy. The total time in the water for Mac and I that ence between cold to operation was just under 6hr. We could have had systems on the surface that could penetrate nearly any defenses of any place we want to go.
That Navy politics. Further- available to go around can and should be addressed today by other options. This will necessarily keep makes them feel needed. We in our operational capability more. While we've been putting time. We could be using those boats currently. The chances of submarine and an ASDS at the right place for there will be scant few of having the right a quick-response mission.
This is because they have ter. I don't think it happen. There are would rather have and egress than being limited to one those that do not share this perception. ASDS when it at If comes on penetrate a well protected coastline. This future system was selected in place of excellent which could be in use and This surface system would have It we one time instead of the numerous missions we could execute with specially configured surface natives on be wet and cold because.
I don't think this reliance on planned. But if we don't As a result these people make unrealistic decisions and set forth doctrine that is doomed to fail.
I will bet that we'll still ASDS will ever develop as conduct the vast majority of our insertions and extractions on the surface. And if the folks who are making the decisions about these things can't equate that cheap little device to the compromise The problem is that of an insertion.
We have senior captains who've never personally participated in combat missions in any capacity— never fired a shot or been fired upon. Very few in our community to today have had any significant combat experience at all. They are impossible to see at night. Until all one six-month period.
The current boats need to be redesigned with modern technologies in mind. The primary mission of the Underwater Demolition Teams UDTs was to provide hydrographic reconnaissance and beach clear- ance for the amphibious forces of the United got rid of ly UDT The SEAL teams. SEAL Team Two in time in history— from about until — involved in what we now call special operations That our eggs in a single basket" that we is proverbially "putting all don't even hold yet.
They can With them we can insert many teams at many locations. We but a split developed between the ations. The Big Drawdown The big drawdown started about this time, around Until then we had about people in the SEAL teams, and we had to have that many folks because of all the deployments we were making.
Then, one day, twenty four guys were called into personnel and told, with no rhyme or reason we could discern, "You guys are going some place else; you can get out of the Navy, or to a diving.
They, and the rest of the twenty four, were literally tossed out of the SEAL teams— disposal billet, but. We had officers going for second or third started to get. That position lasted about a year, and then the Admiral Henry Morgan, a real competent gentleman and the senior Navy officer in Korea, got me involved in coordinating our Navy folks and their Navy folks when we worked together—US Navy SEAL platoons deploying for joint training three or four times each year, joint mine warfare exercises, joint salvage dive training, joint anti-submarine.
As the grade of the leadership. Pirates US Navy Then. President Gerald Ford turned the US military loose on the pirates. CO's and XO's senior pilots. Senior officers in the I operate— or want to In other communities. We weren't involved in the actual attempt at rescue of the hostages— the Marines got tapped for that— the SEALs got tapped to bring out the bodies of the dead Marines. When we go to the Middle East for something like Desert Storm.