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New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, In Florida Studies: On this question, the author states that:. Bauman, a , p. Friendship bonds can offer a security spot amid fluidity and ambivalence to which individuals are exposed in contemporary times. The reason for this is that in the current context, being with others does not necessarily means sharing a symbolic world, permeating common issues from the trade with different people.
We believe that Bauman characterizes friendship relations from love. This leads to a form of moral relation marked by the density of bonds and not only by the condition of being with the other, but mainly the to be-for the other.
The development of the moral being necessarily goes through this experience with the other, who cannot be considered as a generic being, but possessor of singularity. Thus, friendship comes to a real confrontation with homogeneity.
The idea of mixophilia comes from this. If mixophobia is related to the removal of the Difference, mixophilia indicates the opposite: Arruda , p. In other words, friendship involves an advance that implies the merging with the one that shows itself differently through their exterior condition. The construction of spaces to experience the difference is necessary to start this process.
The public space is a scenario of attraction and repulsion, of differences and negotiations, which allows the formation of life at every moment.
These are places where the lifestyle can achieve more satisfactory forms from ethical, political and community points of view.
Bauman b claims that this space provides the encounter of multiple perspectives that indicate different forms of understanding a given reality, i. It must be noted that this process is not definitive, but a converging point that tends to generate new disagreement, this being the motor of development and human learning. It is in this moment, which is understood by the search for meaning and interpretation - which implies a certain loss of centrality of the I as the bearer of truth - that the other becomes comprehensible.
Unlike bonding forms specific to communitarianism - based on the search for similarities and the removal of differences -, Bauman b states that the development of communitas 1 is necessary, a result of this coexistence process between the different who act from common issues. Therefore, a renewal of the political sense that comes from human relations happens. The resumption of trade in common spaces for the development of strategies to face the local problems occurs in the communitas.
The formation of a participatory policy at the expense of targeting such issues for the private field observed from modernity.
Despite being affected by the consumer society, the school can become a place of resistance to its lifestyle in a moment of frail human relations.
The school space might offer conditions for the reflection on the ethical standards imposed by the logic of the market, while reinserting feelings of solidarity and cooperation back into human relations. At this point, we enter in school education. Bauman a ; a indicates many changes observed in educational processes starting in the twentieth century.
The author claims that in other periods the school functioned as a ballistic missile directed since its launch to a specific purpose, and the task of the educator is to avoid the loss of the previously drawn direction.
However, this type of perspective does not make sense nowadays.
The training is continuous and without a place or temporality to end. This uncertainty about the path to be taken will favor the enclosing of education to the market logic, the knowledge is also transformed into a commodity to be acquired throughout life. Knowledge also has its status changed for this reason.
Having a brilliant memory or a large amount of accumulated knowledge is no longer needed. The ability to operationalize knowledge is what it is at stake, which, in a world in constant update of information, implies forgetting. This impacts the form of how individuals learn and in the position of the educator in the context of school work. Identifying such point as another link present in the consumer society, Bauman b states that:.
The necessary reduction of time is best achieved if consumers cannot pay attention or concentrate the desire for long periods on any object; i. The culture of the consumer society involves forgetfulness especially, not learning […] a, p.
The paradox of the meaning of education is found here.
On one hand, it is understood as the maintenance of a symbolic and historically built social structure; on the other hand, it has been shown as the annihilation of the perennial, of the things that last for a long time, which ends up putting in question the sense of commitment to the human world. Thus, if school education itself adopts the values of consumer society, in which it is a commodity with an expiration date, what does it have to offer to the new inhabitants of this context in which it corrodes?
It seems that very little. Thus, what comes to the foreground is the sense of a continuous crisis experience, without horizon of resolution in a short period of time. We observe that the performance of the educator in a field that requires frequent updates leaves the relation to be established with the student in the background.
The teaching performance gets stuck in an instrumental dimension, focusing on the teaching problems. Therefore, we believe it is an interstitial space. By being empty it appears as a between, i. Places without owners or hegemonic and authoritarian actions are characterized by not belonging to a few, but are likely to volunteer as a space with the mark of all.
Such places, as Foucault points out , p. Shortly, they are spaces of difference in which different possibilities of encounters could be established. Here we find a fertile field for the development of an ethic of friendship. In this space for the unforeseen - understood as the space of the other - it is not possible to anticipate what will happen.
As Bauman explains b , p. Therefore, instead of being a place of knowledge centered only on the educator, the school becomes a space of the between knowledge, a real stage for encounters in which different subjects act. In an interview to Pallares-Burke , Bauman claims that:.
At this encounter of the different, school education acquires another function beyond the transmission of historically built knowledge. The space in which these encounters happen is the space of the Other.
However, we can say that by leading the way where the written and prescribed are not found as a form of building new bonds and strengthen those who are already present, we offer enriched and unique human bonds, beyond the widespread homogenization materialized in contemporary times.
Throughout this study, we pointed to new possibilities of actions of the educator within the school context. However, this does not mean that the school is unrelated to the hegemonic assumptions of the consumer society, which has the weakening of human bonds as one of its effects. Although necessary, the coexistence with others has become increasingly difficult. The encounters start to happen far less frequently and in increasingly restricted groups.
If the knowledge of the self must go through the knowledge of the other, we reached a context in which life becomes a restricted phenomenon with impoverished experiences. Regarding the teacher-student relations, although it brings the presence of difference within, it is based on previously established patterns of trades and to the encounters, established as reference for the pedagogical practices and commonly maintained by the hierarchical distance between the holder of knowledge and the place to deposit it.
Therefore, the crystallization of the parameter - i. Thus, the experience of an ethic of the friendship is closely related to updates on the ability to engage with the other, i. The importance of the search for different perspectives that might indicate paths of resistance to the process of homogenization and elimination of difference - other - in human relations is justified. Paulus, Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar, Jorge Zahar , a.
Jorge Zahar Editor, b. Jorge Zahar , Modernidad y Holocausto. Ediciones Sequitur, Zahar, La Sociedade Sitiada.
Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Economica, a. Vida para Consumo: Jorge Zahar , b. A Sociedade Individualizada: Jorge Zahar , c. A Arte da Vida. Jorge Zahar Editor, a. Jorge Zahar Editor, d.
Zahar , a. Mundo Consumo: Paidos, c. Vida em Fragmentos. Zahar , b. Aprendendo a Pensar Sociologicamente. Diacritics, Baltimore, v. Acesso em: Imagens do Pensamento: Entrevista com Zygmunt Bauman. Tempo Social. Por uma Vida Afetada: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License.
Services on Demand Journal. Introduction Having as main reference the work of the Polish sociologist Zygmunt Bauman, the objective of this study is to investigate different places for friendship in contemporary society and the possibilities of thinking education processes from such elements.
The author explains that Modernity was born under the sign of this order: Consumer society and Binding Frailty By analyzing the loss of parameters for life, bonds that Bauman states that, as an operative form, the current society appears as a consumer society, in which different practices are geared towards the acquisition of new and different products that appear as means of solution to daily problems and additionally, as the promise of happiness b; a.
Morality and Difference Regarding the ethical problem, Bauman reflects on the forms in which the modern society has set parameters for human relations.