McQuail's Mass Communication Theory Dedicated to the future media audiences , especially: Laurence, Alexander, William, Noah, Chaia, Alice, Miranda. The Handbook of Media and Mass Communication Theory presents a comprehensive collection of original essays that focus on all aspects of. "e;Denis McQuail's Mass Communication Theory is not just a seminal text in the study of media and society - it is a benchmark for understanding and.
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The book entitled “McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory” is an apt account of media, society and culture. McQuail provides an introduction of the evolution of media and society to date. Comprising of 20 chapters, the book has been categorized into eight parts i.e. This chapter examines three distinct aspects of the agenda-setting influence of the news media on the public as well as the psychological principles that explain when this influence is strong and when it is weak. Two aspects of the influence of the media on the public sphere date. ronaldweinland.info Medical McQuail's Mass. Communication. Theory. 6th edition. Denis McQuail Despite the .
Log in Definition Mass Communication Theories. Mass Communication Theories are a set of theories about communication processes generated from a sender and delivered simultaneously to a mass of receivers through transmitting devices media. Mass Communication Theories have taken a large portion of media studies since the birth of mass media. Denis McQuail attempted to classify mass communication and media effects theories, distinguishing 4 main phases. History The first phase starts with origin of mass media, and continue during all s. This period is characterized by passive audiences and powerful media, with strong and direct effects on individuals.
Chapter 8 begins where Chapter 7 ends: expectations we have of the media; in this chapter it is explained how these expectations can be enforced in practise. Chapter 9 discusses the complex character of media: they are businesses as well as institutions with a specific task in society. In Chapter 10 the growing international character of the media and its consequences are discussed.
Chapter 8: Media structure and performance: principles and accountability The ideas from Chapter 7 normative theory are discussed in more practical terms: how do media perform and how can they be held accountable? Introduction Freedom Equality Diversity Explain the dierences between the two variants of diversity-as-equaltreatment.
How can equality be realized in structure and in performance? Explain the dierence between structure and performance with the concepts used in Figure 8. What six basic values for media content can be distinguished? What is meant by the distinction between structure, conduct and performance? Truth and information quality Explain the dierent elements of the concept of objectivity. Westertahl developed a model whereby objectivity could be measured.
Explain this model and try to come up with practical examples for each element. Objectivity also has its limits; explain the four limits mentioned p. Social and cultural order The support of social order is perhaps the most problematic of the normative 12 A classroom companion criteria mentioned. Why is that? What kinds of cultural quality can be distinguished?
Accountability What is accountability and why can it also be explained as naming, blaming and claiming? Explain the distinction between accountability and responsibility in practical terms. What are the two models of accountability? Give an example of each of these models. Four dierent frames of accountability are given.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of these dierent frames? Chapter 9: Media economics and governance Media are institutions with a responsibility to society as well as businesses that want to make profits.
Consequences of this hybrid character are discussed in this chapter. Not just any other business Explain the four dierent perspectives from which the media can be studied. Give practical examples of the three main forces Figure.
McQuail mentions three economic trends that aect media. Explain why concentration, internationalization and technology are so important, and give recent examples of these trends. Basics of media structure What is the media system in your country? McQuail mentions media sectors and media firms. Explain the dierence between the two with examples from your own country. Economic principles Why is it important to distinguish between the advertising and the consumer market?
What are the possible relations between the importance of the consumer market for media and diversity? What is meant by the first copy cost? Explain why this concept is important for dierent media. Ownership and control Explain Altschulls second law of journalism. Competition and concentration Explain horizontal and vertical concentration, cross media ownership and 13 A classroom companion synergy with examples from your own country.
Media governance and regulation What is governance and why is it dierent from just media law? Explain the dierences between the three models of regulation.
Why and how is the Internet dierent when it comes to regulation? Media policy paradigms What is meant by the three phases of communication policy Figure 9.
Chapter Global mass communication Globalization is one of the most important trends in mass communication.
The meaning of globalization and the consequences of this development are discussed in this chapter. Origins Why are the mass media object and agent of the globalising process? Technology and money Explain the role of dierent technologies in the globalisation of media content.
The brakes in the globalization process have been cultural according to McQuail. Explain the economic drives behind globalisation. Multinational ownership Why are one-o media more often subject to international ownership than cash-flow media? Are there also exceptions to that rule?
Varieties of global mass media What sorts of global mass communication can be distinguished? Give examples of these forms. International media dependency Has the expansion of old and the rise of new media helped to reduce media dependency? Cultural imperialism After the Second World War there was a very ethnocentric way of looking at international communication according to McQuail.
What does he mean by that? What is the dierence between the old international propaganda and the new media imperialism? And what are the alternative views on cultural imperialism? What is the dierence between the dependency and the free-flow paradigms? Transnationalization Give examples of national, bilateral and multilateral flows of television content and possible eects. International news What is meant by the bias in international news, why is it there, and is the critique on this bias justified?
Global trade in media culture Although nationally produced TV-content is the most popular in almost every country, foreign mostly American material is the most visible. Explain why MTV Europe is mentioned as an example of the limitations of globalization. National and cultural identity According to McQuail national identity is more questionable than cultural identity and the notion of European identity is even more suspect.
Chapter 11 focuses on the organization and the relations with other organizations as well as internal relations. Chapter 12 is devoted to the content production of the media. Chapter The media organization: pressures and demands The influences on the media and the demands from society, pressure and interest groups, and the audience, as well as internal pressures, are discussed in this chapter. Research methods and perspectives Define the key terms structure, conduct and performance. What is participant observation?
The main issues Explain the two main issues McQuail mentions with empirical examples. There are five hypotheses about factors influencing content Box What hypotheses will be covered in this chapter and why? The media organization in a eld of social forces Explain the dierences between Figures Dierent work cultures in a media organization may lead to tensions according to McQuail. Explain this in practical terms. Relations with society What is meant by the ambiguity of goals of media organizations?
Relations with owners and clients Why is there only a limited autonomy when it comes to the role of the proprietor?
When the influence of advertisers is concerned, McQuail mentions that there is apart from incidental eorts to influence media content also a normal 16 A classroom companion influence. Relations with the audience Explain the problematic relation between journalists and their audience and try to come up with practical examples of this problematic relation.
Aspects of internal structure and dynamics Internal tensions may arise from the fact that media are hybrid organizations. Explain this with examples from dierent sorts of media. The inuence of personal characteristics of mass communicators That personal characteristics are important in the production of media content is part of what McQuail calls the mythology of the media themselves.
Explain this. Chapter The production of media culture What is happening in a media-organization and how is cultural content produced? Gatekeeping and selection Explain gatekeeping and the weaknesses of the concept in practical terms. What is the dierence between the classic gatekeeping concept and the organizational and ideological approaches?
Inuences on news selection Explain the dierence between the idea of news as a naturally occurring product and the creation of news approach. Why are people, location and time important in the news selection process? Explain the importance of routine news Molotch and Lester. The struggle over access between media and society McQuail writes that access is bound to be a site of struggle; what does that mean? Why is reality television a misleading title? The inuence of sources on news How important are sources in the process of news selection and processing?
How and why is news planned? What is a pseudo event and can you find examples of such events? Explain what is meant by assimilation in the relation between journalists and sources. What is bias and how can it be the result of internal processing? Also the main sorts of content are discussed. Chapter 13 focuses on the question of how content is studied in communication science. In Chapter 14 media genres and media texts categories of content are discussed. Chapter Media content: issues, concepts and methods of analysis What are the main reasons for studying media content and what are the most important traditions in content analysis?
Why study media content? Why is it important to distinguish message from meaning? McQuail lists nine dierent motives that have guided the study of content.
Give practical examples of these dierent motives and of the sort of content that would be studied in each case.
Critical perspectives on content Explain the dierent schools of criticism when media content is concerned. Structuralism and semiology What is meant by the concepts sign, signifier and signified and how do these relate to meaning? Explain the dierence between connotation and denotation with a practical example.
Visual images are, according to McQuail, polysemic but have sometimes greater denotative power than spoken words. Media content as information Why is this approach linked to the transmission model according to McQuail?
How can information be measured in practical terms? Media performance discourse Explain why this approach is linked to normative theory and what kinds of norms are studied in this respect.
Why can the realityreflection norm be criticized? Questions of research method Explain why meaning can be found in three dierent locations. Traditional content analysis Explain what is meant by the two main assumptions of traditional content analysis and why these assumptions are often criticized. Quantitative and qualitative analysis compared What are the main dierences between quantitative and qualitative methods? Chapter Media genres and texts The concept genre is used to distinguish between dierent sorts of media texts.
The news-genre, violence and the relation between text and meaning are discussed in detail.
Questions of genre Explain the characteristics of genres with practical examples. What is meant by media logic and media format? The news genre What does Lippmann mean by the statement news is not a mirror?
Try to give some examples of the stretching of a genre. The structure of news: bias and framing What is meant by framing? News as narrative What is meant by news as narrative; how does the concept of storytelling fit in this concept and why is it dierent from factual reporting?
Television violence Explain how the dierent contextual factors of violence in the media can contribute to the alleged harmful eects.
Explain this and explain also why this approach text and meaning is dierent from the approach in the part on television violence. Give some examples of closed and open texts.
What is a gendered text? Chapter 15 focuses on the question What is the audience? In Chapter 16 the formation and the behaviour of the public is discussed. The Content of mass communication Chapters In Chapter 20 Epilogue an agenda for future research is presented. Tibor van Bekkum.
Susanne Broekhuizen. The Organizations that produce and distribute communication Chapters They worked as teachers at the department of mass communication at the University of Amsterdam. Chapter 1: Introduction to the book How is the book organized? Why are media so important? What kinds of theories are used to describe and explain mass communication? How can we define mass communication? What can be said about the economic significance of the media? Explain what is meant by leftist and conservative media theory?
Explain the four perspectives Figure. A classroom companion Part 1: Preliminaries In the first two chapters the structure of the book is made clear.
Why are there four perspectives and not just one? What perspective do you find the most plausible? The structure of the book is also explained. Also it contains a short media history.
In what way is control of new media internet. What kind of theories will be dominant in this book and why?
Chapter 2: Why did the newspaper press flourish in the second half of the 19th century? Chapter 3: Concepts and models for mass communication What early perspectives on the relation between media and society can be distinguished.
What are the main characteristics of mass communication? Why and how is mass culture explained in terms of what it is not? What is the relation between taste mass culture and class according to Bourdieu? How do we see mass communication and what consequences does this viewpoint have for the way we study mass communication paradigms?
What models can we use to study mass communication? Explain why mass can have positive and negative connotations. A classroom companion Part 2: Theories These five chapters have Theories as a common theme: Why are there four models and not just one? What is the relation between the models and the paradigms? Chapter 4: Theory of media and society Theories on the relation between media and society.
Two models of thinking about media power are distinguished — explain those models. Why is a political standpoint or worldview so important in these paradigms? Explain the main characteristics of the four models in terms of senders and receivers. Try to group these theories in one of the two paradigms of Chapter 3 and also in Figure 4. Rosengren developed a model Figure.
Give an example of a research question that could be answered with this approach. What is meant by culture and what are the most important theoretical approaches? Why are concepts like technology. Culture is hard to define but what elements are probably important? What are the most important themes in media-cultural theory? When and how does cultural theory begin? Do you think this critique is to the point?
What is meant by tabloidization? A classroom companion Chapter 5: Mass communication and culture The focus here is on texts and meanings: What is post-modern culture?
Why is there a focus on the Internet and not on other new technologies? Explain the 5 points mentioned in Box 6. A classroom companion Chapter 6: If not. How can interactivity be interpreted and measured? What patterns of information traffic can be distinguished? What is the main trend in the development of these patterns of information traffic when media are concerned?
Dahlberg describes three basic models in this respect. What sorts of new media can be distinguished? Give an example of each of these sorts.
How plausible are these models according to you? Apply the key characteristics of the new media to the sorts mentioned above and your examples. Are all the principles realized in your country? Professionalism What principles can be found in almost every European journalism code? Four Theories of the Press The four press theories have received considerable criticism.
Explain the critique and the additions. McQuail mentions at the end of the chapter four alternative models. The social responsibility theory has. A classroom companion Chapter 7: How do these models safeguard the public sphere? Explain this model and try to come up with practical examples for each element.
Objectivity also has its limits. How can equality be realized in structure and in performance? Westertahl developed a model whereby objectivity could be measured. Chapter 8: A classroom companion Part 3: Structures These three chapters have Structures as a common theme. This example shows how the Adaptive Structuration Theory AST can help to understand advanced technology in group interactions.
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