Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download. Manufacturing Technology II- ronaldweinland.info - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online. Anna University - Mechanical Engineering - Abstract notes. Manufacturing Technology 1 full unit notes. 1. MT-I/SPS /MECH/NPR Page 1 ISO N.P.R. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.
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[PDF] ME Manufacturing Technology – I Books, Lecture Notes, 2marks with answers, Important Part B 16marks Questions, Question Bank & Syllabus. By. introduce the concepts of basic manufacturing processes and fabrication metal casting, metal joining, metal forming and manufacture of plastic components. Download link for MECH 3rd SEM ME MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY – I Lecture Notes are listed down for students to make perfect.
Light duty machine. It is Removing surface fragmentation Reducing surface stresses and burns and thus restoring surface Correcting inequalities in geometry 13 in i Lapping is generally the final finishing operation done with loose abrasive grains. The workpiece is oscillated across the face of the abrasive belt to obtain a uniform belt wear and surface finish. Polishing and Buffing Polishing is done with a very fine abrasive in loose form smeared on the polishing wheel with the work rubbing against the flexible wheel. In this process a continuous moving belt with an abrasive is used for grinding the being driven while the other remains idle. Negligible amount of material is removed in buffing while a very m In buffing the abrasive grains in a suitable carrying medium such as grease are applied at suitable intervals to the high luster is generated on the buffed surface.
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Sharing is Caring. About Welcome to EasyEngineering, One of the trusted educational blog. Get New Updates Email Alerts Enter your email address to subscribe to this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Search Your Files. Join with us. Content is protected!! March 8. In this way multiple castings can be produced in a single pouring. Casting with expendable mould: Investment Casting Advantages — Parts of great complexity and intricacy can be cast — Close dimensional control and good surface finish — Wax can usually be recovered for reuse — Additional machining is not normally required - this is a net shape process Disadvantages — Many processing steps are required — Relatively expensive process 9.
Mold must be baked to remove moisture Mold strength is lost when is over-baked, yet moisture content can cause defects in product Plaster molds cannot stand high temperatures Permanent Mold Casting Basic Permanent Mold Process — Uses a metal mold constructed of two sections designed for easy, precise opening and closing — Molds for lower melting point alloys: The cavity, including the runners and gating system are machined into the mold halves.
For hollow parts, either permanent cores made of metal or sand-bonded ones may be used, depending on whether the core can be extracted from the part without damage after casting. The surface of the mold is coated with clay or other hard refractory material — this improves the life of the mold. Before molding, the surface is covered with a spray of graphite or silica, which acts as a lubricant.
This has two purposes — it improves the flow of the liquid metal, and it allows the cast part to be withdrawn from the mold more easily. The process can be automated, and therefore yields high throughput rates. It produces very good tolerance and surface finish. It is commonly used for producing pistons used in car engines; gear blanks, cylinder heads, and other parts made of low melting point metals, e.
Advantage - Good surface finish and dimensional control and Fine grain due to rapid solidification. Disadvantage - Simple geometric part, expensive mold. Example It is commonly used for producing pistons used in car engines; gear blanks, cylinder heads, and other parts made of low melting point metals, e.
Pressure maintained during solidification. The basic cycle of operation is as follows: As plunger uncovers inlet hole, molten metal refills gooseneck cylinder. The hot chamber process is used for metals that a have low melting points and b do not alloy with the die material, steel; common examples are tin, zinc, and lead.
Cold Chamber Die Casting In a cold chamber process, the molten metal is poured into the cold chamber in each cycle. The operating cycle is i Die is closed and molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber cylinder; ii plunger pushes molten metal into die cavity; the metal is held under high pressure until it solidifies; iii die opens and plunger follows to push the solidified slug from the cylinder, if there are cores, they are retracted away; iv ejector pins push casting off ejector die and plunger returns to original position Advantages — Economical for large production quantities — Good dimensional accuracy and surface finish — Thin sections are possible — Rapid cooling provides small grain size and good strength to casting Disadvantages — Generally limited to metals with low metal points — Part geometry must allow removal from die cavity Centrifugal casting Centrifugal casting uses a permanent mold that is rotated about its axis at a speed between to rpm as the molten metal is poured.
Centrifugal forces cause the metal to be pushed out towards the mold walls, where it solidifies after cooling. Centrifugal casting has greater reliability than static castings. They are relatively free from gas and shrinkage porosity. Surface treatments such as case carburizing, flame hardening and have to be used when a wear resistant surface must be combined with a hard tough exterior surface.
Additives such as coal powder, wood flour sea coal, dextrine may be added to improve its properties. Disadvantages Difficult in reusing the moulding sand. At the metal melts it is refined to some extent, which removes contaminants. This makes this process more suitable than electric furnaces for dirty charges. Casting defects Defects may occur due to one or more of the following reasons: Poring procedures and gating system designs that avoid splattering can prevent these defects.
How special forming process is defined? What is metal spinning process? Define casting? When do you make core or what is function of core in moulding sand? Explain the core making process? Mention the specific advantages of carbon di oxide process? Write the composition of good moulding sand? What are chaplets? List the factors to be considered in the choice of metal melting furnace?
What are the reasons for the casting defects of cold shuts and misrun? Name four different casting defects. How casting defects are identified? Part-B 16 Marks 1. What are the pattern allowances? Explain briefly each. Discuss the properties of moulding sand. Explain the CO2 process of core making state its advantages and applications.
State the different type of mould. Write a neat sketch of a cupola, Explain its operate. Explain with a simple sketch how metal is melted in a Electric arc furnace.
What are the different types of furnace used in foundry? Describe in detail with neat sketches any one of them. Explain briefly the various moulding method used in foundries. Enumerate the continuous casting defects and suggest suitable remedies. Explain the various non —destructive inspection methods of cast products. Welding is used for making permanent joints.
It is used in the manufacture of automobile bodies, aircraft frames, railway wagons, machine frames, structural works, tanks, furniture, boilers, general repair work and ship building.
Lithium and borax. Pressure Gauges 4. Hoses 5. Welding torch 6. Check valve 7. Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process. Schematic illustration of the shielded metal-arc welding process also known as stick welding, because the electrode is in the shape of a stick. Schematic illustration of the submerged-arc welding process and equipment. The unfused flux is recovered and reused. Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc-welding process.
This operation is similar to gas metal-arc welding. Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding process Brazing It is low temperature in that it is done below the melting point of the base metal. Resistance welding, showing the components in spot welding, the main process in the RW group. LBW vs. Thermit welding: Friction welding FRW: Has the same effect as a crack. Can be prevented by proper heat treatment and cooling.
Prevented by keeping a protective shield over the molten weld puddle. Define welding process. Define fusion welding. What are different method of welding you know? Define arc crater. Mention any two advantages of D. C and A. C welding. What do you under stand by straight polarity? When is the straight polarity used for arc welding? What is the purpose of coating on an arc — welding electrode? What are the two main different of consumable electrode and non —consumable electrode?
What is the main different between upset butt welding and flash butt welding? What are the various types of flame? Define plasma arc welding? Explain the method of laser beam welding and give their applications 16 2. Explain the method of electron beam welding and given their applications 16 3. Describe plasma Arc welding and given their applications. Describe and explain Ultrasonic welding and give their applications. Explain Thermit welding and given their applications.
What is frication welding? Distinguish between brazing, soldering and welding. Write briefly on testing and inspection of welding. Describe brazing process and its types. What are the advantages and disadvantages and limitations of adhesive bonding. Deforming lead at room temperature is a hot working process because the recrystallization temperature of lead is about room temperature.
Scaling and oxidation produce undesirable surface finish. Most ferrous metals needs to be cold worked after hot working in order to improve the surface finish. Therefore, it is possible to hot work the metal without causing any fracture. Quenching is the sudden immersion of a heated metal into cold water or oil. It is used to make the metal very hard. To reverse the effects of quenching, tempering is used reheated of the metal for a period of time To reverse the process of quenching, tempering is used, which is the reheat of the metal.
Thickness is reduced. The amount of strain deformation introduced determines the hardness, strength and other material properties of the finished product. Extrusion Process which is commonly used to make collapsible tubes such as toothpaste tubes, cans usually using soft materials such as aluminum, lead, tin.
Usually a small shot of solid material is placed in the die and is impacted by a ram, which causes cold flow in the material. This is often used to make plastic extrusion dies in an economical manner It is one of the oldest metalworking operations. Most forgings require a set of dies and a press or a forging hammer. A Forged metal can result in the following: Hydraulic presses, hammers.
Carbon and alloy steels, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, titanium alloys, all forgeable materials. Slab forging, shaft forging, mandrel forging, ring forging, upsetting between flat or curved dies, drawing out. Forging ingots, large and bulky forgings, preforms for finished forgings.
Closed Die Forging In this process, a billet is formed hot in dies usually with two halves such that the flow of metal from the die cavity is restricted. The excess material is extruded through a restrictive narrow gap and appears as flash around the forging at the die parting line. Anvil and counterblow hammers, hydraulic, mechanical, and screw presses. Carbon and alloy steels, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, beryllium, stainless steels, nickel alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, iron and nickel and cobalt super alloys.
Process Variations. Closed-die forging with lateral flash, closed-die forging with longitudinal flash, closed-die forging without flash. Production of forgings for automobiles, trucks, tractors, off-highway equipment, aircraft, railroad and mining equipment, general mechanical industry, and energy-related engineering production.
Forward extrusion Forward extrusion reduces slug diameter and increases its length to produce parts such as stepped shafts and cylinders.
Upsetting, or heading Upsetting, or heading, a common technique for making fasteners, gathers steel in the head and other sections along the length of the part.
A, anvil electrode; B, gripping electrode; C, workpiece; D, upset end of workpiece Equipment. Electric upsetters. Carbon and alloy steels, titanium. Preforms for finished forgings. Hobbing Hobbing is the process of indenting or coining an impression into a cold orhot die block by pressing with a punch. Carbon and alloy steels.
Die hobbing, die typing. Manufacture of dies and molds with relatively shallow impressions. Nosing Nosing is a hot or cold forging process in which the open end of a shell or tubular component is closed by axial pressing with a shaped die. Mechanical and hydraulic presses, hammers. Carbon and alloy steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys. Tube sinking, tube expanding.
Forging of open ends of ammunition shells; forging of gas pressure containers. During the process, metal is intentionally thinned or thickened to achieve the required indentations or raised sections.
It is widely used for lettering on sheet metal or components such as coins. Bottoming is a type of coining process where bottoming pressure causes reduction in thickness at the bending area. Ironing Ironing is the process of smoothing and thinning the wall of a shell or cup cold or hot by forcing the shell through a die with a punch. Mechanical presses and hydraulic presses.
Carbon and alloy steels, aluminum and aluminum alloys, titanium alloys. Shells and cups for various Cross-sections that can be produced vary from solid round, rectangular, to L shapes, T Shapes, tubes and many other different types Done by squeezing metal in a closed cavity through a die using either a mechanical or hydraulic press.
Extrusion produces compressive and shear forces in the stock. No tension is produced, which makes high deformation possible without tearing the metal. Can be done Hot or cold Drawing Section of material reduced by pulling through die. Define cold working of metals 2. Define re crystallization temperature 3.
Give some examples for mechanical working of metals 4. Define forging 5. Give some basic forging operations 6. Define extrusion ratio 7. Define tube drawing 8.