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The landscape first and foremost. A fragmentary Territory, imbued with great symbolic value but nevertheless residual, undecided, suspended. True friche that clearly highlights the flaws in the logic of the appropriation, inclusion, specialisation and exploitation of space. These are the 12 sections into which the Manifesto proper is organised, like the argumentation that precedes it. Within an assertive language reminiscent of another famous Manifesto, collettaneo, from a few years ago Mouvance. Cinquante mots pour le paysage , Paris, , the Third Landscape is change, vitalism, constant shifting for subsequent adaptations, which alternate shock Darwinian moments and slow Lamarck moments. Mouvance is the affirmation of a biological order.
To these unattended areas can be added space set aside , reserves in themselves: inaccessible places, mountain summits, non-cultivatable areas, deserts; institutional reserves: national parks, regional parks, nature reserves. Compared to the territories submitted to the control and exploitation by man, the Third Landscape forms a privileged area of receptivity to biological diversity. Cities, farms and forestry holdings, sites devoted to industry, tourism, human activity, areas of control and decision permit diversity and, at times, totally exclude it.
It is the natural space of our cities which has not yet been encoded.
It is not found in the flowerbeds and hedges which our city administrations define through borders and limits: please keep off the grass, this is a bureaucratically instituted flowerbed. From an ecological point of view, the larger part of the biodiversity in our cities is found in the Third Landscape . From this point of view, the Third Landscape can be considered as the genetic reservoir of the planet, the space of the future…..
Planetary Garden is to economic and urban globalization what urban gardens were to the cities of the 19th Century: the latter represented the closed or tightly schemed design of urban architecture and layout, while the former represents the connective, fluid, mutating texture of the globally interconnected city.
The Planetary Garden is the garden of the global city. The third landscape is a connective fabric composed of residual spaces that tend to take a liquid state, never preserving shape, resisting governance. An idea of space that goes beyond the ideas of landscape as a place for identity, being used as an asset for local societies, and as a strategic tool for memory. An idea of space that exemplifies the possibilities of the contemporary world: a multiplication of narratives; the holistic perception of ecosystems; the possibilities and richness offered by disseminated, interstitial, emergent, mutating, temporary, polyphonic environments; the end of dualistic approaches.
It is based on a planetary remix brassage which is at the origin of the current richness of ecosystems. This requires a new possibility for vision and knowledge dissemination in urban natural environments, a renewed sense of aesthetics, and a morphed sensibility for the possibilities for interaction and communication offered by our surroundings.
This is a potentially revolutionary point of view, as it alludes to the possibility to achieve the perception of these emergences, and the possibility to transform them into a form of shared knowledge. A similar discourse could be imagined for the Third Space: what if the emergent history of tactics could become a source of shared knowledge?
What if the progressive sedimentation of this knowledge, its continuous formation of everchanging and evolving ruins, layer after layer, could become accessible and readable, through sensibility and senseability, and through a novel form of aesthetics to stimulate both perception attention and awareness, to describe the progressive history of daily life: a stratified, accessible, perceivable, usable, continuously evolving micro-history?
As buildings grow older, the action of natural agents, of human beings and of the Third Landscape mutate them, bringing them into a different form: more organic, and systematically integrated into the natural environment. In a way, nature and human beings ruin buildings, transforming them into ruins.
From this point of view, ruins expose the history of the natural and human, as integrated in nature environment and of its daily life. Ruins are, to all effect, a history and a source of knowledge and of information, enacted through the layering processes of the results of the actions of human beings and of natural agents.
Third Generation City is true when the city recognizes its local knowledge and allows itself to be part of nature.
And : The Third Generation City is the industrial city ruined by the people — human nature as part of nature. Like a weed creeping into an air-conditioning machine the industrial city will be ruined by rumors and by stories.
The common subconscious will surface to the street level and architecture will start constructing for the stories — for the urban narrative. This will be soft, organic and as an open source based media, the copyrights will be violated. The author will no longer be an architect or an urban planner, but somehow a bigger mind of people.
In this sense the architects will be like design shamans merely interpreting what the bigger nature of the shared mind is transmitting. This last definition is specifically interesting for all our discussion: the image of the layering of the subconscious, of the stories and narratives produced by people emerges as a novel un building material which is capable of preserving history and knowledge, by transforming spaces, whose authors will no longer be architects or planners, but people themselves.
And, as in the Third Landscape, the need to educate our gaze to recognize this kind of stratification as a new kind of aesthetics, as a new form of perception for possibility and opportunity: an open space for the future. Thus it is imaginable to acknowledge this process and, thus, to imagine the city as a whole, as a body, which includes both architecures and their emergent layering with the history and knowledge of the daily lives of human beings and nature.
This body would not be static, with continuous, emergent flows of knowledge and information taking place throughout it. According to Urban Acupuncture, small scale interventions can be used to transform larger urban contexts.
From this point of view, the sites of the interventions can be selected much in the same ways in which traditional Chinese Acupuncture selects the points in which to insert the needles: locations which are fundamental for the flows of information, communication and knowledge in the city. City is viewed as multi-dimensional sensitive energy-organism, a living environment. Urban acupuncture aims into a touch with this nature and Sensitivity to understand the energy flows of the collective chi beneath the visual city and reacting on the hot-spots of this chi.
Urban acupuncture bears some similarities to the new urbanist concept of Tactical Urbanism. The idea focuses on local resources rather than capital-intensive municipal programs and promotes the idea of citizens installing and caring for interventions.
These small changes, proponents claim, will boost community morale and catalyze revitalization. These stories form the Tactics, described by De Certeau, which, together with the strategies, encompass the dialectic confrontation between the top-down and bottom-up encodings of cities.
The first ones are static and prescriptive, establishing strict codes and boundaries. The second ones are dynamic and emergent, and describe the performative practices of city dwellers, in their reinterpretation and reappropriation of the spaces of the city.
This is the Third Space, as described by Soja. With the Third Generation City, we have seen how to integrate all these levels using the idea of the ruins, in which Tactics stratify on top of Strategies, transforming them. This layering represents the effects of nature and of human daily lives on the spaces described by the strategies, their histories and narratives. This, in turn, describes the city as a body, in perpetual dynamic evolution, in which this emergent process describes the flows of expression, emotions, information and knowledge: the energies of the city.
On these flows, in ways which are similar to the ones we find in acupuncture, we can imagine to apply Urban Acupuncture, acting on the nodes of the meridians of these flows to liberate and enhance them and, thus, producing larger effects through small interventions.
All of this process we have just described relies, as we said, on the energies of the city which are represented by expression, emotion, information and knowledge, and on their possibility to flow freely, and to leave evidence of their micro history to be transformed into accessible forms of awareness, wisdom, insights, enlightenment and performance. In current times, much of these energies assume digital forms. We have learned to use mobile devices, ubiquitous technologies, social networks and other ubiquitous forms of communication to work, collaborate, make decisions, express our feelings, learn, communicate, establish relationships, and consume.
Within an assertive language reminiscent of another famous Manifesto, collettaneo, from a few years ago Mouvance. Cinquante mots pour le paysage , Paris, , the Third Landscape is change, vitalism, constant shifting for subsequent adaptations, which alternate shock Darwinian moments and slow Lamarck moments.
Mouvance is the affirmation of a biological order. Acting on the Third Landscape is going with, not against nature, complying, observing and intervening as little as possible. Avoiding the regulations and remaining indifferent. Avoiding the assumption of wanting to create models. The game of leaving things as they are and as they evolve does not, of course, avoid a decision.
The action is there and it is traditional, wise, calling the skills of observation, classification and deduction into play.
It is that of the scientist, not of the DIY enthusiast, although in this case you start from what is already there and try to turn circumstances into opportunities. The gardener, however, observes and gathers experience.
The garden is a laboratory in the sense of the strictest disciplines, a closed space. As noted by Maria Valeria Mininni, the expanded microcosm of the garden is where a different concept of nature planted solidly in contemporary times takes firm root. It is no longer autistic heterotopia, that other place in the weave of the modern city.
Nor is it the prerepresentation of a possible city, a utopia and the symbolic form of a balance, the place in which to develop ideas on the urban. These two forms, heterotopia and utopia, have constructed a major bond between garden and city, on which some urbanists e.