ronaldweinland.info Magazines INVESTIGATORY PROJECT IN BIOLOGY FOR CLASS 12 CBSE PDF

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT IN BIOLOGY FOR CLASS 12 CBSE PDF

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Huge List of Biology Class 12 Projects| Investigatory Biology Projects, and High School,CBSE, ISC Class 12 and MSC and College Students. AIM MTP By Abhijeet Gaur Certificate of Authenticity This is to certify that Abhijeet Gaur a student of class 12th has successfully completed the. Biology Projects| Project Report Biology|Biology Project Topics CBSE Biology Class 12 Projects| Investigatory Biology Projects,Pinterest Or u may type your.


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Investigatory Projects Physics Class 12 Cbse [Download pdf] [Read More] Cbse FREE Download - Ebookread Projects For Class 12 Biology Cbse PDF epub. ronaldweinland.info_biology-class-xii-cbse-investigatory-project-on-antibiotics. pdf - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Class 12 CBSE Biology Investigatory project on the topic "Drug 2 Certificate This is to certify that this “Biology Investigatory Project” on the.

The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. Antibiotics are often used in rearing animals for food and this use among others leads to the creation of resistant strains of bacteria. In some countries antibiotics are sold over the counter without a prescription which also leads to the creation of resistant strains. In supposedly well- regulated human medicine the major problem of the emergence of resistant bacteria is due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics by doctors as well as patients. Other practices contributing towards resistance include the addition of antibiotics to the feed of livestock.

Role of other animals Drugs are used in animals that are used as human food. The World Health Organization concluded that antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds should be prohibited in the absence of risk assessments. The final decision to ban fluoroquinolones from use in poultry production was not made until five years later because of challenges from the food animal and pharmaceutical industries. European Union health ministers voted to ban four antibiotics widely used to promote animal growth despite their scientific panel's recommendations.

The resistant bacteria in animals due to antibiotic exposure can be transmitted to humans via three pathways. Growing U. In Scandinavia. In the US Food and Drug Administration FDA announced their intention to revoke approval of fluoroquinolone use in poultry production because of substantial evidence linking it to the emergence of fluoroquinolone resistant campylobacter infections in humans.

In the USA federal agencies do not collect data on antibiotic use in animals but animal to human spread of drug resistant organisms has been demonstrated in research studies.

The top section represents a popul ation of bacte ria before ex posure to an antibiotic. The legend ind icates the resistance levels of i ndividuals. They w ill then pas s this trait to their offspring. The an tibiotic action against the pathoge n can be se en as an en vironment al pressure. Mechanis ms Schematic representation of how antibiotic r esistance evolves via natural selection.

The middle se ction shows the population directly a fter exposure. Antibiotic resistanc e can be a result of ho rizontal gene transfer. The fou r main mechanisms by which mic roorganism s exhibit resistance to antimicro bials are: The last section shows the distribu tion of resista nce in a new generation of bacteria. Found on the mucous membranes and the human skin of around a third of the population.

Alteration of target site: It was one of the earlier bacteria in which penicillin resistance was found—in In gram-negative bacteria. Some types of efflux pumps can act to decrease intracellular quinolone concentration. Alteration of metabolic pathway: Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus colloquially known as "Staph aureus" or a Staph infection is one of the major resistant pathogens.

Research has shown that the bacterial protein LexA may play a key role in the acquisition of bacterial mutations giving resistance to quinolones and rifampicin. Methicillin was then the antibiotic of choice. MRSA methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus was first detected in Britain in and is now "quite common" in hospitals.

There are three known mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance. Antibiotic resistance can also be introduced artificially into a microorganism through laboratory protocols. Reduced drug accumulation: Half of all S. Resistant pathogens 1. Drug inactivation or modification: GAS infections can usually be treated with many different antibiotics. For persons with necrotizing fasciitis. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA is the most frequently identified antimicrobial drug-resistant pathogen in US hospitals.

ST1 lineage and USA France and the US. For those with very severe illness. Selective pressure is thought to play an important role.

Early treatment may reduce the risk of death from invasive group A streptococcal disease. This left vancomycin as the only effective agent available at the time. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta-lactams is increasing worldwide. A new class of antibiotics. Linezolid-resistance in Staphylococcus aureus was reported in Strains of S. USA MW2 strain. The major mechanism of resistance involves the introduction of mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins.

The epidemiology of infections caused by MRSA is rapidly changing. Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for pneumonia. The first identified case was in Japan in In the past 10 years. One of the most worrisome characteristics of P. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is commonly resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and sometimes universally resistant to the common treatments. Some recent studies have shown that phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony-variants may be important in the response of P.

Penicillin-resistant pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly known as pneumococcus. Florida and Massachusetts between and Penicillin-Resistant Enterococcus was seen in Enterococcus faecium is another superbug found in hospitals. Resistance to penicillin substitutes is also known as beyond S. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly prevalent opportunistic pathogen.

Development of multidrug resistance by P. Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in hospitals world wide. Besides intrinsic resistance. Hypermutation favours the selection of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance in P. Other pathogens showing some resistance include Salmonella.

By Escherichia coli was resistant to five fluoroquinolone variants. This low susceptibility is attributable to a concerted action of multidrug efflux pumps with chromosomally-encoded antibiotic resistance genes e.

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Geographically dispersed outbreaks of C. Clindamycin-resistant C. In one study the use of fluoroquinolones are clearly associated with Clostridium difficile infection. Salmonella and E. Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses. Of the meat that is contaminated with E. When both bacterium are spread.

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Most of these showed multidrug resistance MRAB. Alternatives Prevention Rational use of antibiotics may reduce the chances of development of opportunistic infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to dysbacteriosis. Acinetobacter baumannii On November 5. There is clinical evidence that topical dermatological preparations containing tea tree oil and thyme oil may be effective in preventing transmittal of CA-MRSA.

While theoretically promising. Many people are hospitalized each year after becoming infected. US studies dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Cytokines have the potential to achieve the animal growth rates traditionally sought by the use of antibiotics without the contribution of antibiotic resistance associated with the widespread non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics currently utilized in the food animal production industries. A review of studies that dealt with the therapeutic use of phages from — and few latest ongoing phage therapy projects via internet showed: Phage therapy was widely used in the United States until the discovery of antibiotics.

Bacteriophages or "phages" are viruses that invade bacterial cells and. Acinetobacter spp. One alternative is to prevent diseases by adding cytokines instead of antibiotics to animal feed. These proteins are made in the animal body "naturally" after a disease and are not antibiotics so they do not contribute to the antibiotic resistance problem. Phage therapy is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Pseudomonas spp and Staphylococcus aureus. Phage therapy Phage therapy.

CSIRO is working on vaccines for diseases. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. Phage therapy may prove as an important alternative to antibiotics for treating multidrug resistant pathogens.

British studies also demonstrated significant efficacy of phages against Escherichia coli. Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens. Archaeocins is the name given to a new class of potentially useful antibiotics that are derived from the Archaea group of organisms. Major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in the antibiotics market because these drugs may not be as profitable as drugs that treat chronic long-term conditions and lifestyle issues.

That is no longer the case. RNA polymerase. Infectious disease physicians are alarmed by the prospect that effective antibiotics may not be available to treat seriously ill patients in the near future. One of the possible strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of bioactive phytochemicals. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria.

The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibiotics. Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances. The Wilson Hot Springs. The myxopyronin binds to and inhibits the crucial bacterial enzyme. By Escherichia coli was resistant to five fluoroquinolone variants.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is commonly resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and sometimes universally resistant to the common treatments. Other pathogens showing some resistance include Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Streptococci. Enterococcus faecium is another superbug found in hospitals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly prevalent opportunistic pathogen. One of the most worrisome characteristics of P. This low susceptibility is attributable to a concerted action of multidrug efflux pumps with chromosomally-encoded antibiotic resistance genes e.

Besides intrinsic resistance, P. Development of multidrug resistance by P. Hypermutation favours the selection of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance in P. Some recent studies have shown that phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony-variants may be important in the response of P. Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in hospitals world wide.

Clindamycin-resistant C. Geographically dispersed outbreaks of C.

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Salmonella and E. Of the meat that is contaminated with E. Salmonella was first found in humans in the s and in some cases is resistant to as many as nine different antibiotics HSUS Fact Sheet. When both bacterium are spread, serious health conditions arise. Many people are hospitalized each year after becoming infected, and some die as a result. Most of these showed multidrug resistance MRAB , with a few isolates resistant to all drugs tested.

Alternatives Rational use of antibiotics may reduce the chances of development of opportunistic infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to dysbacteriosis. In one study the use of fluoroquinolones are clearly associated with Clostridium difficile infection, which is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States, and a major cause of death, worldwide. There is clinical evidence that topical dermatological preparations containing tea tree oil and thyme oil may be effective in preventing transmittal of CA-MRSA.

Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses, while an antibiotic operates separately from the body's normal defenses. Nevertheless, new strains may evolve that escape immunity induced by vaccines; for example an update Influenza vaccine is needed each year.

While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited 15 duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced. Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. One alternative is to prevent diseases by adding cytokines instead of antibiotics to animal feed. These proteins are made in the animal body "naturally" after a disease and are not antibiotics so they do not contribute to the antibiotic resistance problem.

Furthermore, studies on using cytokines have shown that they also enhance the growth of animals like the antibiotics now used, but without the drawbacks of non- therapeutic antibiotic use. Cytokines have the potential to achieve the animal growth rates traditionally sought by the use of antibiotics without the contribution of antibiotic resistance associated with the widespread non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics currently utilized in the food animal production industries.

Phage therapy, an approach that has been extensively researched and utilized as a therapeutic agent for over 60 years, especially in the Soviet Union, is an alternative that might help with the problem of resistance. Phage therapy was widely used in the United States until the discovery of antibiotics, in the early s.

Bacteriophages or "phages" are viruses that invade bacterial cells and, in the case of lytic phages, disrupt bacterial metabolism and cause the bacterium to lyse.

Phage therapy is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens. A review of studies that dealt with the therapeutic use of phages from and few latest ongoing phage therapy projects via internet showed: phages were used topically, orally or systemically in Polish and Soviet studies.

However, even the best medical care does not prevent death in every case. For those with very severe illness, supportive care in an intensive care unit may be needed.

For persons with necrotizing fasciitis, surgery often is needed to remove damaged tissue. Strains of S. Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin and other beta-lactams is increasing worldwide.

The major mechanism of resistance involves the introduction of mutations in genes encoding penicillin-binding proteins. Selective pressure is thought to play an important role, and use of beta-lactam antibiotics has been implicated as a risk factor for infection and colonization.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for pneumonia, bacteremia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, peritonitis and arthritis. Resistance to penicillin substitutes is also known as beyond S. By Escherichia coli was resistant to five fluoroquinolone variants. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is commonly resistant to isoniazid and rifampin and sometimes universally resistant to the common treatments. Other pathogens showing some resistance include Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Streptococci.

Enterococcus faecium is another superbug found in hospitals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly prevalent opportunistic pathogen. One of the most worrisome characteristics of P.

Biology Projects for Class 12 CBSE @ BYJU'S

This low susceptibility is attributable to a concerted action of multidrug efflux pumps with chromosomally-encoded antibiotic resistance genes e. Besides intrinsic resistance, P. Development of multidrug resistance by P. Hypermutation favours the selection of mutation-driven antibiotic resistance in P. Some recent studies have shown that phenotypic resistance associated to biofilm formation or to the emergence of small-colony-variants may be important in the response of P. Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile is a nosocomial pathogen that causes diarrheal disease in hospitals world wide.

Clindamycin-resistant C. Geographically dispersed outbreaks of C. Salmonella and E. Of the meat that is contaminated with E. When both bacterium are spread, serious health conditions arise.

Many people are hospitalized each year after becoming infected, and some die as a result. Most of these showed multidrug resistance MRAB , with a few isolates resistant to all drugs tested. Alternatives Prevention Rational use of antibiotics may reduce the chances of development of opportunistic infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to dysbacteriosis.

In one study the use of fluoroquinolones are clearly associated with Clostridium difficile infection, which is a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in the United States, and a major cause of death, worldwide. There is clinical evidence that topical dermatological preparations containing tea tree oil and thyme oil may be effective in preventing transmittal of CA-MRSA. Vaccines do not suffer the problem of resistance because a vaccine enhances the body's natural defenses, while an antibiotic operates separately from the body's normal defenses.

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Nevertheless, new strains may evolve that escape immunity induced by vaccines; for example an update Influenza vaccine is needed each year. While theoretically promising, anti-staphylococcal vaccines have shown limited efficacy, because of immunological variation between Staphylococcus species, and the limited 15 duration of effectiveness of the antibodies produced.

Development and testing of more effective vaccines is under way. One alternative is to prevent diseases by adding cytokines instead of antibiotics to animal feed.

12 pdf biology project investigatory in class for cbse

These proteins are made in the animal body "naturally" after a disease and are not antibiotics so they do not contribute to the antibiotic resistance problem. Furthermore, studies on using cytokines have shown that they also enhance the growth of animals like the antibiotics now used, but without the drawbacks of nontherapeutic antibiotic use. Cytokines have the potential to achieve the animal growth rates traditionally sought by the use of antibiotics without the contribution of antibiotic resistance associated with the widespread non-therapeutic uses of antibiotics currently utilized in the food animal production industries.

Phage therapy Phage therapy, an approach that has been extensively researched and utilized as a therapeutic agent for over 60 years, especially in the Soviet Union, is an alternative that might help with the problem of resistance. Phage therapy was widely used in the United States until the discovery of antibiotics, in the early s. Bacteriophages or "phages" are viruses that invade bacterial cells and, in the case of lytic phages, disrupt bacterial metabolism and cause the bacterium to lyse. Phage therapy is the therapeutic use of lytic bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections.

Bacteriophage therapy is an important alternative to antibiotics in the current era of multidrug resistant pathogens. A review of studies that dealt with the therapeutic use of phages from — and few latest ongoing phage therapy projects via internet showed: phages were used topically, orally or systemically in Polish and Soviet studies.

Biology Projects for Class 12

British studies also demonstrated significant efficacy of phages against Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. US studies dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage therapy may prove as an important alternative to antibiotics for treating multidrug resistant pathogens. That is no longer the case. Infectious disease physicians are alarmed by the prospect that effective antibiotics may not be available to treat seriously ill patients in the near future. The pipeline of new antibiotics is drying up.

Major pharmaceutical companies are losing interest in the antibiotics market because these drugs may not be as profitable as drugs that treat chronic long-term conditions and lifestyle issues. The resistance problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibiotics. One of the possible strategies towards this objective is the rational localization of bioactive phytochemicals.

Plants have an almost limitless ability to synthesize aromatic substances, most of which are phenols or their oxygen-substituted derivatives such as tannins. In many cases, these substances serve as plant defense mechanisms against predation by microorganisms, insects, and herbivores.

Many of the herbs and spices used by humans to season food yield useful medicinal compounds including those having antibacterial activity. Traditional healers have long used plants to prevent or cure infectious conditions. Many of these plants have been investigated scientifically for antimicrobial activity and a large number of plant products have been shown to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria.

A number of these agents appear to have structures and modes of action that are distinct from those of the antibiotics in current use, suggesting that cross-resistance with agents already in use may be minimal.

For example the combination of 5'-methoxyhydnocarpine and berberine in herbs like Hydrastis canadensis and Berberis vulgaris can block the MDR-pumps that cause multidrug resistance. This has been shown for Staphylococcus aureus. Archaeocins is the name given to a new class of potentially useful antibiotics that are derived from the Archaea group of organisms. Eight archaeocins have been partially or fully characterized, but hundreds of archaeocins are believed to exist, especially within the haloarchaea.

The prevalence of archaeocins is unknown simply because no one has looked for them. The discovery of new archaeocins hinges on recovery and cultivation of archaeal organisms from the environment. For example, samples from a novel hypersaline field site, Wilson Hot Springs, recovered halophilic organisms; preliminary analysis of 75 isolates showed that 48 were archaeal and 27 were bacterial. In research published on October 17, in Cell, a team of scientists pinpointed the place on bacteria where the antibiotic myxopyronin launches its attack, and why that attack is successful.

The myxopyronin binds to and inhibits the crucial bacterial enzyme, RNA polymerase. The 17 myxopyronin changes the structure of the switch-2 segment of the enzyme, inhibiting its function of reading and transmitting DNA code. This prevents RNA polymerase from delivering genetic information to the ribosomes, causing the bacteria to die.

One of the major causes of antibiotic resistance is the decrease of effective drug concentrations at their target place, due to the increased action of ABC transporters.

Since ABC transporter blockers can be used in combination with current drugs to increase their effective intracellular concentration, the possible impact of ABC transporter inhibitors is of great clinical interest. ABC transporter blockers that may be useful to increase the efficacy of current drugs have entered clinical trials and are available to be used in therapeutic regimes.

Applications Antibiotic resistance is an important tool for genetic engineering. By constructing a plasmid which contains an antibiotic resistance gene as well as the gene being engineered or expressed, a researcher can ensure that when bacteria replicate, only the copies which carry along the plasmid survive. This ensures that the gene being manipulated passes along when the bacteria replicates.

The most commonly used antibiotics in genetic engineering are generally "older" antibiotics which have largely fallen out of use in clinical practice. Instead, the use of auxotrophic bacterial strains and function-replacement plasmids is preferred. These are normal bacteria which have crossed the limits of treatment by antibiotics. These cause pneumonia, Urinary infections and infections in other parts of the body.

According to an international team of scientists People who traveled to India and Pakistan to get medical treatment risk picking up and spreading a new Superbug Bacteria.