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Title: Exploring the hospitality industry/John R. Walker. Description: Welcome to You, the Future Hospitality Industry . Introduction to Managed Services ebook pdf at our library. get introduction to hospitality 4th edition john walker pdf file hospitality john r walker pdf - read and download pdf ebook introduction to . download book introduction to hospitality john r walker ronaldweinland.info download introduction to hospitality pdf ebook wed, 20 mar gmt introduction to.
The Code also imposed the death penalty for watering down the beer! The Romans built Inns about 25 miles apart on all the main roads throughout the country. John Adams, the 2nd President of the United States owned a tavern from to 8 The French Revolution The French Revolution changed the course of Culinary history as nearly all French chefs worked for the nobility. As the nobility lost their titles and their property, the chefs lost their jobs. There, they introduced sauces and other flavorful dishes that supplanted the primitive cooking originating with the British. This was the beginning of the a la carte menu Auguste Escoffier published the classic recipe book Le Guide Culinaire and installed the brigade system in the kitchen Thirty five restaurants in New York City have celebrated their th anniversary 10 The Twentieth Century There was a rapid development of hotels, motels, fast food, and coffee shops after World War II. What do we do with the unsold rooms?
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Readers Also Enjoyed. About John R. John R. Books by John R. Trivia About Introduction to H No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Therefore, the revenue manager must monitor daily pickup in reservations and regrets for future nights and make necessary ad- justments to enhance speed to market.
Each hotel will have different booking windows or lead times for their transient and group business. For example, the San Diego market has a majority of transient book- Youre introduced to industry practitioners careers, the issues and chal- ings that occur within days to arrival, whereas the group business is booked many months out, and in some cases several years in advance.
The primary booking window must be analyzed on a daily basis and lenges they encounter, and their achievements and contributions. These fea- adjusted accordingly. The longer booking windows can be analyzed periodically with the director of sales to equip the Sales team with rates to book group business based on the hotels revenue goals.
From 2. Mix of Business Assessment: Finding the right balance of occupancy and ADR could yield the greatest REV dreams to realityfollow the career path to success for industry leaders and PAR and is greatly influenced by the mix of business.
It is composed of two primary customer segments: Transient individual travelers for business or leisure and Groups, which are bookings with 10 more rooms learn from their experiences. Hotels can differ with mixes of business based on lo- cation, number of rooms, and event space. Convention hotels may have a desired mix of 80 percent group and 20 percent transient to achieve their optimum point of profit, whereas small to midsize hotels may have a need for greater transient business, all of which are key factors in formulating effective pricing strat- egies.
Although the majority of group business will be booked further in advance, those rates are also deter- mined by the revenue manager and director of sales based on historical trends and future business needs. Competitor Analysis: It is always valuable to know what the competition is doing.
Revenue manage- ment is part science and part craft. With the advancement in technology, companies such as Smith Travel Research and The Rubicon Group have created essential tools that allow hoteliers and revenue managers to determine their position in the marketplace.
This report allows a hotel to choose a competitive set, which then compares the hotels actualized results by segment versus the competitive set, resulting in market share indexes for occupancy, ADR, and REV PAR. Although it is every hotels goal to capture fair market share dollar for dollar , it is a greater priority to gain share by outperforming the competi- tion.
The Rubicon Group created a Market Vision tool that provides competitors rates and occupancy levels up to days into the future, which can determine peaks and valleys in market demand. Distribution Channels: It is crucial to know where the business is coming from, and how to increase pro- duction from the right channels. Most hotel brands have a central reservations system, which is powered by their Web site and land-based call centers.
In addition, there are thousands of travel agencies that. Wyndham does not operate hotels, but instead provides coordination and services that allow franchisees to retain local control of their activities. At the same time, franchisees benefit from the economies of scale of widely promoted brand names and well-established standards of service, national and regional direct marketing, co-market- ing programs, and volume downloading discounts.
All brands share extensive market research, use proprietary reservation systems and a room inventory track- ing system, which is extremely technology intensive and eliminates waste. By monitoring quality control and Learn about the practices, growth, and scope of leading corporations and orga- extensively promoting the brand names, Wyndham offers its independent franchise owners franchise fees that nizations.
For example, Marriott International did not start out as a multibillion- are relatively low compared to the increased profitability they gain. Through franchising, the company limits its own risks and is able to keep overhead costs low. Wyndham also dollar company; the company began as a nine-seat root beer stand in A further advantage of being a franchiser of such dimension is that the company is even more pro- tected from the cyclical nature of the economy than are other franchise ventures.
Focus on. Wyndham Vacation Ownership develops, markets, and sells vacation ownership interests and provides consumer financing to owners through its three primary consumer brands: Even with properties, including vacation ownership condominiums, traditional hotel rooms, villas, extraordinary advances in technology and the globalization of lodging in the twenty-first century, cottages, bungalows, campgrounds, lodging city apartments, remains second fundamentally homes, a people fractional business and itresorts, private residence is the employees clubs, condominium who are responsible for hotels, and yachts.
With a portfolio the appearance, image,ofand more than 30ofbrands, reputation Wyndham a lodging facility. The reservations department provides the needed accurate information for other departments to use to forecast for upcoming events and 1guest Chapter needs along Introducing Hospitality 43 with scheduling the proper staffing levels in the hotel.
Starting your career in the rooms division of a hotel is an exciting, demanding, and rewarding experience. You will be partone Only of a speaker team whose overall said, Youresponsibility must be nuts is the well-being if you of guests want to work in andthis ensuring indus-that their expecta- tions tryof are met and that they course, he have was ajoking! Hospitality The found Industry, following are in later some thisimportant chapter.
Atboxes industry. Possible the front offer desk unique it is important to personal be personable, confident, and patient willcases, vary init temperament, does not take longand expectations. Lets begin our journey with a Always remember a friendly, calm, and positive attitude are your best tools even in trying situations. Multitask- look atan ing becomes service spirit art form , which at the plays front desk, a crucial calling role upon all in the of your success of our communication, indus- typing, and computer skills.
Housekeeping Perception is reality and cleanliness is always at the top of a guests expectations. In house- How To. It is a demanding work area with much physical labor that is essential to guest satisfaction. Your work is done mostly behind the curtain, out of guest view, but noticed and appreciated when they enter to fresh towels, a made bed, and a flawlessly clean room. Courtesy of James McManemon, M.
You must do so as you begin the process of the SarostaManatee guest cycle. Reservations calls for total command of the keyboard, awareness of hotel revenue goals, upcoming events, room availability, but above all listen, truly listen, to the guest so you can match their requests with the Josh Medina, hotels services. It calls for an encyclopedic memory of restaurants, theater or hospitality degree is ideal as well. Joshs choice was to study hospitality management as an undergraduate, offerings, key points of interest, and current city events.
After a single year at this night job, Josh was throughout the hospitality community in your area is essential to serve your guests and see to their every wish. Upon graduation, Hyatt Regency in Sarasota, Florida, hired him as assistant restaurant man- ferent challenges, opportunities, and rewards. Though Josh had no prior experience as a restaurant manager, his experience working as a head-server and bartender, combined with his educational knowledge of management, gave him the necessary tools to get a step ahead in his career immediately after graduating.
This feature focuses on a specific issue related to a central function within various sectors of the hospitality industry and how that issue was or might be addressed and resolved. Home away from home!
This is how we would like to express what hotels mean to our guests. For this to happen, we must provide technologies that guests use at home. Of course, the main purpose of the guestroom has never changed: In , for the first time, hoteliers put ice-cube makers and small refrigerators inside the guestroom. In the beginning, not all rooms had these amenities. Usually, those rooms that had these special amenities were charged more than the other rooms.
In , the first models of telephone systems were introduced to the guestroom. In those days, there was only one telephone line for the entire hotel; therefore, guests sometimes waited long hours before they could place a call.
In , after color TV was well established in homes, hotels started to offer it. In the beginning, some hotels advertised that they had color TV to differentiate themselves from the competition and charged extra for rooms with TV. In , it became legal for hotels to profit from phone calls. This is when call accounting systems exploded in the hotel industry.
In , electronic door-keys were introduced, increasing the security and the convenience of guests. Interface between TV systems and property management systems were established in so that the guests could see their bills through the TV.
With that, in , guests were able to check out from their room by using the TV. In , high-speed Internet access was available in hotel rooms. After , hotels started to use Voice over Internet Protocol VoIP phoning systems, high-definition TV, wireless Internet access, interactive entertainment systems, smart-energy management systems, and many other systems.
Here youll learn about the wide variety of technological processes, systems, In todays modern hotel rooms, it is possible to see the following technologies that make the guest stay a more comfortable one: Lets look into the future to see what the guestroom might look like: You just booked a hotel room from your smartphone with a voice command. When you go to check in to the hotel, you see that check-in desk is replaced with a hospitality desk.
As soon as you arrive at the hotel, your phone is showing you a map of the hotel rooms, asking you to make a choice. Once you make your choice,. Timelines your phone becomes your electronic key card. When you wave your phone, the door opens and the per- cent sustainable room welcomes you with your preferred wall color thanks to nanopaint and your favorite song. When you turn on the TV with your voice command, you see your favorite and local TV channels thanks to Internet TV and your video library from your home phone.
The picture frame shows the pictures from your Facebook page. Your sheets and towels will be changed based on green preferences, such as to change the Trends bed sheets and towels every three days and bring the temperature of the room 10 degrees down or up based on the season when you are not in the room.
When you need help, you connect to a virtual concierge Chapter to get 3 Rooms Division any kind of information about the hotel and the area. The wardrobe door generates power when you open and close the door for lighting. When you use the restroom, the smart toilet checks your health and sends you a digital report to your e-mail.
Does this sound like a nice dream? Actually, this is a description of a next- Trends in Hotel and Rooms generation hotel. Division Operations Courtesy of Dr. Diversity of work force. All the pundits are projecting a substantial increase in the number of women and minorities who will not only be taking hourly paid positions, but also supervising and management positions as well. Increase in use of technology. Reservations are being made by individu- als over the Internet.
Travel agents are able to make reservations at more properties. In the guest room, increasing demand for high-speed Internet access, category 5 cables, and in some cases equipment itself is anticipated.
Continued quest for increases in productivity. As pressure mounts from owners and management companies, hotel managers are looking for innovative ways to increase productivity and to measure productivity by sales per employee. Greg Dunn has revised Increasing andmanagement. Greening of hotels and guest rooms. Recycling and the use of envi- ronmentally friendly products, amenities, and biodegradable deter- gents will increase.
Energy management technology is used for the reduction of energy costs by setting back temperature and shutting off power in vacant rooms through control sensors that regulate the HVAC system.
Chapter 3 Rooms Division WordsTheand Concepts Housekeeping Perspective application service provider ASP guaranteed reservations averageIt isdaily no secret that in all hotels the director of housekeeping rate ADR night auditormust be able to react quickly and efficiently to any unexpected circumstances that arise. These morning meetings help him and the employees to visualize their goals for the centralday. CRS This is a serious challenge property for the management hotel becausesystems PMS it is overbooked and city ledger has all its rooms to service.
What should Stephen do to maintain standards roomand occupancy percentage ensure that ROP rooms are all the guest daily report serviced?
You will be challenged to test your skills and knowledge Summary as you address and recommend appropriate actions in each situation. Briefly define the purpose of a hotel. Why 4. Why is the concierge an essential part of is 1. PMSs, centralizedofreservations, a hotel?
Listresented the main byresponsibilities of the the key executives front- of all the loss prevention. What areand food reservation thebeverage, benefits marketing, system? The communications department, room service, and guest services such as door 2. The general manager represents the hotel attendants, bellpersons, and the concierge and is responsible for its profitability and are vital parts of the personality of a hotel.
Internet Exercises performance. Because of increased job consolidation, he or she also is expected to 7. Housekeeping is the largest department of the hotel. The executive housekeeper is in attract business and to empathize with the charge of inventory, cleaning, employees, cultures of both 1. Hyatt guests andCorporation Hotels employees. The rooms Summary: What requisites must applicants meet cierge, pany. Thetoelectronic room qualify for key and Hyatts closed-circuit management train- 4.
The the front desk, company as the eight has about centerpercent of the hotel, of television cameras are basic measures ing program? Hyatt is 2. Seek accounts, which are completed daily by property. Seek is a Web site that offers the night auditor. The front desk constantly 9. Spas are now a popular feature of many ment approach, in which general managers must meet guests needs by offering ser- employment and education opportunities U. Surf the Internet to uncover answers to specific hospitality questions.
The Internet Exercises challenge you to learn more and prepare you for a career in this fascinating industry. Apply Your Knowledge 1. If you were on the executive committee of 2.
Suggested Activities Apply the knowledge and skills learned in and 1. Go to Zuji. Compare topics. Web sites in Asia that provide travel services. Endnotes Important Memory Tools 1. James E. Learning Objectives Florida students, March 26, STR Global, Products, http: Richard A. Wentzel, Leaders of the Hospitality click on Products March 3, Industry or Hospitality Management, An Introduc- 9. Personal conversation with Bruce Lockwood, tion to the Industry, 6th ed.
Dubuque, IA: Hunt, , WebMD, www. Oxford University Press, Where to Start? William F. Ashburner, Escoffier, Georges Auguste www. Donald E. Lundberg, The Hotel and Restaurant Rooms Division Business, 4th ed. New York: Van Nostrand Rein- hold, , Personal conversation with Rollie Teves, July 20, Personal correspondence with Jay R. After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: Outline the duties and responsibilities of key executives and department heads.
Draw an organizational chart of the rooms division of a hotel and identify the executive committee members. Describe the main functions of the rooms division departments. Describe property management systems and discuss yield management. Front Outline of the House the importance of the reservations and guest services functions.
Restaurant operations are generally divided between what is commonly Listfront called the of the house and complexities andback of the house challenges. Theconcierge, of the front of the house includes anyone with guest contact, from the hostess to the busser.
The restaurant is run by the general manager, or restaurant manager. Depending on the size and sales volume of the restaurant, there may be more managers with special responsibilities, such as kitchen manager, bar manager, and dining room manager. These managers are usually cross- trained to relieve each other.
In the front of the house, restaurant operation begins with creating and maintaining what is called curbside appeal, or keeping the restaurant look- ing attractive and welcoming. Ray Kroc of McDonalds once spent a couple of hours in a good suit with one of his restaurant managers cleaning up the parking lot of one of his restaurants. Word soon got around to the other stores that management begins in the parking lot and ends in the bathrooms. Most restaurant chains have checklists that each manager uses.
In the front of the house, both the parking lot and any greenery, walkways, and steps need to be maintained well. As guests approach the restaurant, hostesses may hold the door open and welcome them to the restaurant or greet them upon entry.
At the 15th Street Fisheries restaurant in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, hostesses welcome the guests by assuring them that were glad youre here! Helping students keep track of and focus on the essential information they must take away from each chapter is an essential pedagogical tool.
In this edition, a bulleted list of Objectives is featured on the opening page of each chapter, thus providing a heads up with regard to chapter coverage and organization; however, in this new edition, you also will be reminded of the relevant objective to be covered in each major section by a numbered Learning Objective to help you focus and organize your thoughts as you read through the chapter.
Ultimately this feature provides a map of what you need to know after studying the chapter and doing the exercises, case ques- tions, and Apply Your Knowledge questions. What is the role of the general manager? What topics do the members of an executive committee usually address in their weekly meetings?
The Departments Every few pages, the Check Your Knowledge section helps you review and reinforce the material that In larger hotels, the hasdivision rooms just has been covered. In midsize and smaller properties, those departments may be reduced in size and number, but they still need to serve guests. Describe the main functions It provides and a brief of the rooms division review effective leadershipof the and chapter operation and of all the reinforces rooms the main terms, con- division departments.
They include concerns such as the following: Financial responsibility for rooms division Employee satisfaction goals Key Words and Concepts Guest satisfaction goals Guest services Highlighted inGuest bold with easy-to-understand relations definitions in the Glossary, the key words and concepts help you recall the Security importance of and meaning of Gift shop these important terms.
Master the key words and concepts of the text and The rooms division consists of the following departments: Figure 32 shows the organizational chart for a plus-room ho- tel rooms division.
Review Questions The guest cycle in Figure 33 shows a simplified sequence of events that takes place from the moment a guest calls to make a reservation until he or By answering theseout. An example of how some FOMs enhance guest services is to have a guest service associate GSA greet guests as they arrive at the hotel, escort them to the front desk, and then personally allocate the room and take the guest and luggage to the room.
This innovative way of developing guest services looks at the operation from the guests perspective. There is no need to have separate departments for doorperson, bellperson, front desk, and so on. Each guest associate is cross- trained in all aspects of greeting and rooming the guest. Hospitality Industry. You Bet! Thats Half a Million Bucks! Management Restaurants and Food Service. The interrelated nature of hospitality and tourism means that we could fly here, stay in a hotel, and eat in a restaurant.
Color format with lively photographs, drawings, and tables maintain your interest and provide visual aids to learning. To the Student This interactive site fea- tures chapter-specific study modules, case studies with questions, interactive activities, and lecture note PowerPoint slides.
Message from John Walker It is our goal to help you succeed in your career. If you have any sugges- tions for improving upon the material in the book or in MyHospitalityLab, or additional information you would like to see, e-mail me at jwalker sar. A ckn o wle d gments. Thanks to the students and professors, especially those who have made valu- able contributions to this edition, and to the industry professionals who con- tributed to this text. Special thanks to Dr. Greg Dunn for adding his trends insights to this edition; James McManemon, MS, who contributed most of the How To features; Nicholas Thomas, who contributed an update to the gaming entertainment chapter and a How To feature for it.
To my Program Manager Susan Watkins, I am deeply grateful for all your hard work and dedication to this project. Thanks to all of my CHRIE colleagues, many of whom encouraged me to undertake this project and made valuable suggestions.
I would like to thank the following contributing authors, who graciously allowed their materials and expertise to be included in this edition: James McManemon, William B. I am indebted to the following reviewers, who provided constructive comments and suggestions during the development of the seventh edition: Cloud State University.
Sincere thanks to the following friends and colleagues who helped with advice and contributions: It was a pleasure working with you. Johns years of industry experience began with manage- ment training at the Savoy Hotel London.
John has taught at two- and four-year schools in Canada and the United States. He is a time recipient of the Presidents Award for teaching, scholarship, and service, and he has received the Patnubay Award for exemplary profes- sional performance through teaching and authorship of tourism and hospi- tality publications. John is an editorial advisory board member for Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research.
John is married to Josielyn T. Walker, and they have twins, Christopher and Selina. The Walkers live in Sarasota, Florida. Discuss the history of hospitality through the ages. Describe the characteristics of the hospitality industry.
Explain corporate philosophy and Total Quality Management. Discuss the many facets of service and why it has become such an important part of the hospitality industry.
Suggest ways to improve service. Discuss current trends in the hospitality industry. Prelude Interested in a six-figure income? Read on, this book and the hospitality industries can take you there. We begin with a brief overview of how we got to where we are today. Learning Objective 1 Discuss the history of hospitality through the ages. Hospitality through the Ages1 The concept of hospitality is as old as civilization itself.
Its development from the ancient custom of breaking bread with a passing stranger to the operations of todays multifaceted hospitality conglomerates makes fascinat- ing reading, and interesting comparisons can be made with todays hospital- ity management. It was founded as a charity hospital in by Nicolas Rolin, the Chancellor of Burgundy, as a refuge for the poor.
The hospital is still functioning, partly because of its role in the wine world. Throughout the centuries, several Burgundian landowners have donated vineyards to the Hospice to help pay for maintaining its costs. Every fall, the wines from these vineyardsabout a hundred acres of vinesare sold at a colorful wine auction on the third Thursday in November, which determines the prices for the next years Burgundy wines. Ancient Times The Sumerians who lived in what isnow Iraq were the first to record ele- ments of hospitality in about 4,years Before the Common Era b.
More time became available for other activities such as writing, inventing money, creating pottery, making tools, and producing beer, which was prob- ably safer to drink than water! Taverns served several beers, and as with today, provided a place for locals to relax and enjoy each others company.
Between and b. Chapter 1 Introducing Hospitality Greece and Rome Mention of hospitalityin the form of tav- ernsis found in writings dating back to ancient Greece and Rome, beginning with the Code of Hammurabi circa b. The Code required owners to report guests who planned crimes in their taverns.
The penalty for not doing so was death, making tavern- keeping a hazardous occupation. The death penalty could also be imposed for watering the beer! Increased travel and trade made some form of overnight accommodations an abso- lute necessity.
The Romans constructed elaborate and well-appointed inns on all the main roads. They were located about 25 miles apart.
To ensure that fresh horses were available for officials and couriers of the Roman government, these inns could only be used with special government documents granting per- mission.
By the time Marco Polo traveled to the Far East, there were 10, inns, the best of which were in China. These inns were run by household slaves. Nearer the cities, inns and taverns were run by freemen or by retired gladiators who would invest their savings in the restaurant business in the same way that so many of todays retired athletes open restaurants. The first business lunch is reputed to have been the idea of Seqius Locates, a Roman innkeeper; in 40 b.
Locates devised the idea for ships brokers, who were often too busy to go home for their midday meals. Medieval Times On the European continent, Charlemagne established rest houses for pil- grims in the eighth century; the sole purpose of several orders of knight- hood was to protect pilgrims and to provide hospitality for pilgrims on their routes.
One such rest house, an abbey at Roncesvalles, advertised services such as a warm welcome at the door, free bread, a barber and a cobbler, cel- lars full of fruit and almonds, two hospices with beds for the sick, and even a consecrated burial ground. In , the innkeepers of Florence, Italy, incorporated a guild, or an association, for the purpose of business.
The inns belonged to the city, which sold three-year leases at auction. They must have been profitable, because by , there were 86 innkeepers as members of the guild. In England, the stagecoach became the favored method of transporta- tion. A journey from London to the city of Bath took three days, with several stopovers at inns or taverns that were also called post houses. Today, the journey from London to Bath takes about one and a half hours by car or train. As travel and travelers increased during the Middle Ages, so did the number of wayside inns in Europe; yet, they were primitive affairs by todays standards.
Guests often slept on mattresses in what today would be the inns lobby. As the quality of the inns improved, more people began to travel. Many of the travelers were wealthy people, accustomed to the good life; their expectations demanded that inns be upgraded. In the late sixteenth century, a type of eating place for commoners called an ordinary began to appear in England. These places were taverns serving a fixed- price, fixed-menu meal at a long common table.
Ordinary diners could not be choosy, nor did they often question what they were eating. Frequently, the main dish served was a long-cooked, highly seasoned meat-and-vegetable stew. Culinary expertise was limited by the availability and cost of certain ingredients. Few diners had sound teethmany had no teeth at allso the meal had to be able to be gummed as well as being edible.
Fresh meat was not always available; spoiled meat was often the rule rather than the exception. Spices helped not only to preserve meat but also to disguise the flavor of gamey or high meat. Coffee Houses During the sixteenth century, two exotic imports began to influence the culinary habits of Western Europe: These beverages, so inte- grated into the twenty-first century way of life, were once mere curiosities.
Travelers to Constantinople now Istanbul, Turkey enjoyed coffee there and brought it back to Europe. During the seventeenth century, coffeehouses sprang up all over Europe. By , the city-state of Venice had dozens of coffee houses, including the famous Caf Florian on the Piazza San Marco, still filled to capacity today. The Caf Florian, St. Marks Square, Venice, Italy. Coffee houses, the social and literary centers of their day and the predecessor of todays cafs and coffee shops, served another, even more useful though less obvious , purpose: They helped to sober up an entire continent.
In a day when water was vile, milk dangerous, and carbonated beverages cen- turies in the future, alcoholic drinks were the rule, rather than the exception. Adults drank amounts measured in gallons. Queen Elizabeth Is ladies-in-waiting, for instance, were allowed a breakfast allow- ance of two gallons of ale. Drunkenness was rampant.
The New World There is some evidence that a tavern was built in Jamestown, Virginia, during the early days of the settlement. It was in Boston where the first ordinary was recordedColes Ordinaryin After Coles, the next recorded ordinary was Hudsons House, in Early colonial American inns and taverns are steeped as much in history as they are in hospitality. The even more famous Frauncis Tavern was the Revolutionary headquar- ters of General George Washington and was the place where he made his famous Farewell Address.
It is still operating today. As the colonies grew from scattered settlements to towns and cities, more and more travelers appeared, along with more accommodations to serve them. The inn, tavern, or ordi- nary in the colonies soon became a gathering place for residents, a place where they could catch up on the latest gossip, keep up with current events, hold meetings, and conduct business.
The innkeeper was often the most respected member of the community and was always one of its more substan- tial citizens. The innkeeper usually held some local elected office and some- times rose much higher than that. John Adams, the second president of the United States, owned and managed his own tavern between and The Revolutionary War did little to change the character of these public places.
They maintained their position as social centers, political gathering places, newsrooms, watering holes, and travelers rests; now, however, these places were going by different nameshotelsthat reflected a growing French influence in the new nation.
The French Revolution The French Revolution took place at approximately the same time as the American colonies were fighting for their independence. Among many other effects, the French Revolution helped to change the course of culinary his- tory. Boulanger, the father of the modern restaurant, sold soups at his all-night tavern on the Rue Bailleul. He called these soups restorantes restoratives , which is the origin of the word restaurant. One dish was made of sheeps feet in a white sauce, another was boulangere potatoes a dish in use todaymade of sliced potatoes cooked in stock, which was baked in the bread bakers oven after the bread was done.
Because nearly all the best chefs worked for the nobility, who were deposed or literally lost their heads, the chefs lost their employment. Others scattered throughout Europe or immigrated to Quebec, a French-speaking province of Canada. Soon the plain, hearty fare of the British and the primi- tive cooking of the Americans were laced with sauces piquantes sauces having a pleasantly sharp taste or appe- tizing flavor and pots au feu French beef stew.
In , during a five-year period as an envoy to France, Thomas Jefferson acquired a taste for French cui- sine. He later persuaded a French chef to come to the White House to lend his expertise. This act stimulated interest in French cuisine and enticed U. The Nineteenth Century Restaurants continued to flourish in Europe. In , Antoine Carme pub- lished La Cuisine Classique and other volumes detailing numerous dishes and their sauces.
The grande cuisine offered a carte or list of suggestions avail- able from the kitchen. This was the beginning of the la carte menu. In , the Savoy Hotel opened in London. The general manager was the renowned Csar Ritz today, the Ritz-Carlton hotels bear his name and the chef de cui- sine was August Escoffier. Between them, they revolutionized hotel restau- rants. Escoffier was one of the greatest chefs of all time.
He is best known for his classic book Le Guide Culinaire, which simplified the extraordinary works of Carme. He also installed the brigade de cuisine system in the kitchen.
Americans used their special brand of ingenuity to create something for everyone. By , a hierarchy of eating places existed in New York City. At the bottom was Sweeneys sixpenny eating house on Ann Street, whose proprietor, Daniel Sweeney, achieved questionable fame as the father of the greasy spoon. Sweeneys less than appetizing fare small plate sixpence, large plate shilling was literally slid down a well-greased counter to his hungry guests, who cared little for the social amenities of dining.
The famous Delmonicos was at the top of the list of American restaurants for a long time. The Delmonico family owned and operated the restaurant from until , when it closed due to Prohibition. The name Delmo- nicos was synonymous with fine food, exquisitely prepared and impeccably servedthe criteria by which all like establishments were judged.
Delmo- nicos served Swiss-French cuisine and became the focal point of American gastronomy the art of good eating. The Delmonico steak is named after the restaurant. More and more, eating places in the United States and abroad catered to residents of a town or city and less to travelers; the custom of eating out for its own sake had arrived.
Thirty-five restaurants in New York City have now celebrated their one-hundredth birthdays. One of them, P. Clarkes, established in , is a restaurant-bar that has changed little in its hundred years of opera- tion. On entering, one sees a large mahogany bar, its mirror tarnished by time, the original tin ceiling, and the tile mosaic floor.
Memorabilia ranges from celebrity pictures to Jessie, the house fox terrier that custom- ers had stuffed when she died, who now stands guard over the ladies room door. Guests still write down their own checks at lunchtime, on pads with their table numbers on them this goes back to the days when one of the servers could not read or write and struggled to remember orders. Charles, St.
As the railroads were P. Clarkes, in New York City, established able to transport passengers to exotic locations like South in and still going strong. Florida, hotels such as The Breakers in Palm Beach were built to accommodate the guests. The name White Castle was selected because white stood for purity and castle for strength. These eye-catching restaurants were nothing more than stucco building shells, a griddle, and a few chairs.
People came in droves, and within 10 years, White Castle had expanded to units. The Four Seasons was the first restau- rant to offer seasonal menus.
With its modern architecture and art as a theme, Joe Baum, the developer of this and many other successful restaurants, under- stood why people go to restaurantsto be together and to connect to one another. It is very important that the restaurant reinforce why guests chose it in the first place. Restaurants exist to create pleasure, and how well a restau- rant meets this expectation of pleasure is a measure of its success. There was a rapid development of hotels, motels, fast food, and coffee shops.
The s and s also saw an incredible growth in air transportation. Cross-conti- nental flights were not only more frequent, but took much less time. Many of the new jets introduced in this period helped develop tourism worldwide. Hotels and restaurant chains sprang up to cater to the needs of the business and leisure traveler as well as city residents. In the s, hospitality, travel, and tourism continued to increase dramatically.
The baby boomers began to exert influence through their downloading power. Distant exotic destinations and resorts became even more accessible. The s began with the recession that had started in The Gulf War continued the downturn that the industry had experienced. As hos- pitality and tourism companies strived for profitability, they down- sized and consolidated. America and abroad, particularly in Europe and China.
As we emerge from the recession, the hospitality industry continues to mature with increased market segmentation and consolidation. Companies are increasing their focus on security, health, sus- tainability, and lifestyles. More people are traveling, especially from and to China, Brazil, and India.
Technology will improve the facilitation of guests needs and Big Data will prove a challenge. The recession slowed the industry, but as we emerge from it occupancies are up along with revenue per available room.
Now companies are driving the margins to squeeze out a reasonable profit. The hospitality industry is a fascinating, fun, and stimulating one in which to enjoy a career, plus you get compensated quite well and have excellent advancement opportunities. We often hear from industry professionals that it the industry gets in your bloodmeaning we become one with the hospi- tality industry.
On countless class industry visits, the persons speaking to the class said that they wouldnt change their jobeven if they had a chance. Only one speaker said, You must be nuts if you want to work in this indus- tryof course, he was joking! But there are some realities you need to be aware of, and they are discussed in the section titled, Characteristics of the Hospitality Industry, found later in this chapter. Many examples exist of people graduating and being offered positions that enable them to gain a good foundation of knowledge and experience in the industry.
Possible career paths are illustrated in Figure In most cases, it does not take long for advancement opportunities to come along. Lets begin our journey with a look at service spirit, which plays a crucial role in the success of our indus- try, no matter what your position or title. After a single year at this night job, Josh was promoted to head-server, which allowed him to train new servers, expedite food, assist with making schedules, and manage payroll.
Upon graduation, Hyatt Regency in Sarasota, Florida, hired him as assistant restaurant man- ager. Josh remarks, It may take longer than two years since I am going to school part time, while working full time, but it will be worth it in the long run.
Ever think about why Marriott International is so successful? Marriotts Way. Collins says Marriott has timeless core values and enduring purpose, including the belief that its people are number one: Take care of Marriott people and they will take care of the guests.
Also, Marriotts commitment to continuous improvement and good old-fashioned dedication to hard work, and having fun while doing it, provide a foundation of stability and enduring character. Collins adds that Marriotts core purpose making people away from home feel that they are among friends and are really wantedserves as a fixed point of guidance and inspiration.
University Supervisor Bachelors Degree. Is Education Worth It? Yes, Thats Half a Million Bucks! So, where does hospitality spirit fit into all this? Its simpleit begins with each and every time we have a guest encounter. People with a ser- vice spirit are happy to do something extra to make a guests experience memorable. The hospitality spirit means that it is our passion to give plea- sure to others, or as one human resources director, Charlotte Jordan, calls it, creating memorable experiences for others and being an ambassador of the world, adding warmth and caring.
We want to wow guests and have them return often with their friends. Yes, we are in the people business, and its we the people who succeed in the hospitality industry when we take pride. In the words of the Ritz- Carlton hotel company: We are ladies and gentlemen taking care of ladies and gentlemen. The National Restaurant Association NRA forecasts a need for thou- sands of supervisors and managers for the hospitality and tourism industries.
Are you wondering if theres room in this dynamic industry for you? You bet! Theres room for everyone. The best advice is to consider what you love to do most and get some experience in that areato see if you really like it because our industry has some distinct characteristics. For starters, we are in the business of giving service. When Kurt Wachtveilt, year veteran former general manager of the Oriental Hotel in Bangkok, Thailandconsidered by many to be one of the best hotels in the worldwas asked, What is the secret of being the best?
To serve is to provide goods and services for and be of assistance to. With thousands of guest encounters each day, it is critical to give our guests exceptional service at each encounter. And thats the challenge! The hospitality industry can also be a good choice for entrepreneurs who prefer to do their own thing, whether it be running a bar, catering company, restaurant, or night club; being involved in event management; or being a tour guide or wedding planner or whatever.
The prospects are good for starting a successful endeavor. Think about it: You could begin with one restaurant concept, open a second, and then begin to franchise. Whatever your dreams and goals, the hospitality industry likely has an opportunity for you. Consider that a company like Marriott International started out as a small root beer place, in Washington, D. And that an immigrant, who opened up a hot dog stand outside Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles later became the multimillionaire owner of a chain restaurant Karl Kartcher, owner of Carls Jr.
And that a former dishwasher, Ralph Rubio, now owns the successful chain of Rubios Fresh Mexican Grill quick-service restaurants, which have sold more than 50 million fish tacos since the opening of the first restaurant in It was an immediate success, with a line of customers around the block.
M orton quickly realized that London needed a restaurant that not only served American food but also embodied the energy and excitement of music past and present. There are now more than 18, Starbucks locations. The Pineapple Tradition The pineapple has enjoyed a rich and romantic heritage as a symbol of wel- come, friendship, and hospitality. Pineapples were brought back from the West Indies by early European explorers during the seventeenth century.
From that time on, the pineapple was cultivated in Europe and became the favored fruit to serve to royalty and the elite. The pineapple was later intro- duced into North America and became a part of North American hospitality as well. Pineapples were displayed at doors or on gateposts, announcing to friends and acquaintances: The ship is in!
Come join us. Food and drink for all! Since its introduction, the pineapple has been internationally recognized The pineapple is the as a symbol of hospitality and a sign of friendliness, warmth, cheer, gra- symbol of hospitality.
The Interrelated Nature of Hospitality and Tourism The hospitality and tourism industry is the largest and fastest-growing industry groupings in the world. In fact, the U. Bureau of Labor Statis- tics estimates that there are approximately 14 million people working in the leisure and hospitality industry.
What picture comes to mind when you think about a career in hospitality and tourism? Do you picture a chef, a general manager, owners of their own businesses, a director of marketing, or an event manager?
The possibilities are many and varied, ranging from positions in restaurants, resorts, air and cruise lines, theme parks, attractions, and casinos, to name a few of the several sectors of the hospitality and tourism industries see Figures 12 and As diverse as the hospitality industry is, there are some powerful and common dynamics, which include the delivery of services and products and the guests impressions of them. Assembly and Event Lodging Management.
A moment of truth is an industry expression used to describe a guest and an associate meeting, as when a guest walks into a hotel or restaurant. Imagine all the reasons why people leave their homes temporarily whether alone or with others to go to other places near and far. People travel for many reasons. A trip away from home might be for vacation, for work, to attend a conference, or maybe even to visit a college campus, just to name a few. Regardless of the reason, under the umbrella of travel and tourism, many professions are necessary to meet the needs and wants of people away from home.
Think of the many people who provide services to travelers and who have the responsibility of representing their communities and creating experiences that, when delivered successfully, are pleasurable and memorable for travelers. These people welcome, inform, comfort, and care for tourists and are collectively a part of a process that can positively affect human lives and well-being.
The hotel business provides career opportunities for many associates who help make reservations and greet, assist, and serve guests in hospital- ity operations of varied sizes and in locations all over the world. This couple provides the ideal weekend retreat for avid skiers during a frosty February, making their guests want to return year after year.
Another example is the hundreds of employees necessary to keep the 5,room MGM Grand in full swing days a year! The restaurant business is also a vital component under the travel and tourism umbrella. People go to restaurants to fulfill diverse needs and wants.
Eating is a biologi- cal need that restaurants accommodate, but restaurants and the people who work in them fulfill numerous other human desires, such as the need to socialize and to be entertained. The indi- vidual guest who turned 21 may remember this fte for a lifetime because the service and food quality were excellent and added value to the experiences for all the celebrants.
For this kind of collective and powerful impression to be made, many key players are needed to operate and sup- port the service-delivery system: All these Photographer: Maura McEvoy people had to coordinate a variety of activities and responsibilities to create this dynamic, successful, and, for the restaurant ownership, profitable event. In managed services, foodservices are provided for airlines, military facil- ities, schools, colleges and universities, health care operations, and business and industry.
These foodservice operations have the dual challenge of meet- ing the needs and wants of both the guests and the client i. The employees who are part of foodservices enterprises have responsibilities very much like those of other restaurant operations. The quality of food products delivered in an airline, for example, may be the key to winning passengers back in the future and creating posi- tive word-of-mouth promotion that attracts new customers.
Since history has been recorded, beverages have provided a biological need that has expanded the beverage menu far beyond water alone! Whether it is the cool iced tea garnished with lemon and mint served poolside at a Riviera resort or the champagne toast offered at a 50th wedding anniversary party in Boston, beverages play a major role in satisfying people and adding to the many celebrations of life.
As with food products, the creation and delivery systems for beverage products are vital components of the hospitality industry. These operations involve many people who consumers rarely see: These individuals behind the scenes have diverse and cru- cial responsibilities so that guests, whether in a resort, an office, a hospital, a college, or a roadside snack bar, can have the quality of products they want.
Think about the last travel reservation that you madedid you book your travel online? Did you check consumer reviews on the hotel or restaurant? Studies show that as many as 57 percent of consumers now use the Internet to book their travel, a percentage that vastly changes the landscape of the hospitality industry. In fact, technol- ogy could be the thin line between a successful business and bankruptcy for many organizations. In , only four out of every 10 restaurants that open will still be operating in three years.
One of the main reasons for the high failure rate is the lack of control in a slim profit-margin industry. With technology, hospitality and tourism businesses can attempt to control costs and generate success. Technology used to be accepted as a cost center by hospitality and tourism organizations. However, in todays world, technology is a strategic enabler. Technology has become such a vital tool that it is hard to imagine a hotel, resort, theme park, cruise ship, restaurant, or airline company running without it.
In each chapter of this book, we will try to show technology applications and uses for each different part of the hospitality and tourism business.
Consider this: In a typical full-service hotel, there are about 65 different technology applications. This number is around 35 for a limited-service hotel. Hotels are finding new ways to use technology for a strategic advantage. Consider this example: Mandarin Oriental is keeping track of the fruits eaten by the guest. These records are kept in the guests profile. Next time the guest visits the hotel, when a fruit basket is sent, it is dominated by the fruits that guest likes.
This creates a wow factor since it is not directly solicited, but, rather, quietly observed and recorded with the help of proper training and technology. Similarly, restaurants use more than 30 different technology applications to provide faster, more cost efficient and productive business operations for guests and staff.
Airline companies use complex central reservation and yield-management tools. Travel agencies depend on global reservation system networks to operate. Cruise ships employ different technology and navigation systems to operate in an efficient and fast way.
Theme parks use different biometric technologies to keep track of their guests and staff members. The airline industry became a commodity a long time ago. In the contemporary age, travelers do not neces- sarily care about which carrier will take them from point A to point B. Price seems to be the most important factor in selecting an air carrier. The hotel industry is showing similar symptoms. In the age where hospitality and tourism products are becoming a commodity, technology is becoming a true differentiator.
Hoteliers, as in the example of Mandarin Oriental, are turning to technology to differentiate themselves so that they do not become a commodity in the eyes of guests.
Many studies already showed that high-speed Internet is one of the most important in-room amenities that enable guest satisfaction in a hotel. In this new age of technology, it is very important for hospitality and tourism students to understand all the different technology applications out there in order to compete in a tough market environment.