IndianEconomicDevelopment. NCERT/CBSE class 11 Economics book IndianEconomicDevelopment. Chapter 1. NCERT/CBSE class 11 Economics book. NCERT ronaldweinland.info Class.. Class I, Class II, Class III, Class IV Class XI & XII ronaldweinland.info SubjectSelect Book Title Indian Economic Development. Indian Economic Development Textbook for Class - 11 - [by NCERT Browse our editors' picks for the best books of the month in fiction, nonfiction.
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Indian Economic Development Textbook for Class - 11 - ronaldweinland.info: NCERT: Books. (Download) NCERT Book For Class XI: Economics (Indian Economic Development). Table of Contents. UNIT I: DEVELOPMENT POLICIES AND EXPERIENCE. Free PDF download of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development solved by Expert Teachers as per NCERT (CBSE) Book guidelines.
What was the condition of agriculture sector at the time of Independence? Ans : 1 Low level of agricultural productivity : Agricultural productivity became very low and this stagnation in agriculture sector was mainly due to systems of land settlement that were introduced by the British Government. The Zamindari system, the profit accuring out of the agriculture sector went to Zamindaris instead of the cultivators. This lead to discouragement amongst the cultivators to produce less. High dependence on Monsoon :-Agriculture sector was mainly dependent on monsoon.
Where did they implement them and to what effect? How far do you think those settlements have a bearing on the current agricultural scenario in India? For better comprehension of the subject, you can also try and develop an illustrated agrarian map of British India either by hand or with the help of your school computer. Remember, nothing helps better than an illustrated map to understand the subject at hand.
Can you also find out what the basic requirements are for setting up any modern industry? What, for example, might have been the reasons for the setting up of the Tata Iron and Steel Company at Jamshedpur, which is now in the state of Jharkhand? Are these iron and steel factories among the best in the world or do you think that these factories need restructuring and upgradation?
If yes, how can this be done? There is an argument that industries which are not strategic in nature should not continue to be in the public sector. What is your view? Compare these with imports and exports from the pre-independence era. This perception needs an informed debate. How would you look at this perception?
What were the impacts Of these policies? Ans : The economic policies pursued by the colonial government in India were concerned more with the protection of the economic interests of their home country than with the development of the Indian economy. Such policies brought about a fundamental change in the structure of the Indian economy i. Ans : Dadabhai Naoroji. William Digby. Findlay Shirras.
Desai estimated the National Income and per capita income during the colonial period. Ans : The main causes of India's agricultural stagnation during the colonial period were: Land Settlement Policies: Colonial government introduced various land settlement policies such as Zamindari system in which maximum profit coming from agriculture sector went into the hands of Zamindars instead of cultivators. Neither Colonial government nor Zamindars did anything to improve the condition of agriculture.
This caused immense misery and social tension among cultivators. Therefore, the zamindars adopt a stubborn attitude. Drought and famine make the situation more critical. This commercialisation of Indian agriculture not only increased the burden of high revenues on the poor farmers but also led India to face shortage of food grains, resources, technology and investment.
Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer. Ans : Yes, I do agree with the view that the traditional handicrafts industries were ruined under British rule.
Ans : Under the colonial regime, basic infrastructure such as railways, ports, water transport, posts and telegraphs did develop.
However, the real motive behind this infrastructure development was not to provide basic amenities to the people but to subserve various colonial interests. Like the roads that were built primarily served the purposes of mobilizing the army within India and drawing out raw materials from the countryside to the nearest railway station or the port to send these to far away from England or other lucrative foreign destinations. The introduction of the expensive system of electric telegraph in India, similarly, served the purpose of maintaining law and order.
Ans : The industrial policy followed by the British colonial administration was solely to facilitate the upcoming modern industries in Britain.
The primary motive of this de-industrialisation was to reduce Indian into a mere supplier of Britain's own flourishing industrial base and turn India into a market of Britain's machine made items. Though during the second half of the nineteenth century, modern industry began to take root in India but its progress remained very slow.
Initially, this development was confined to the setting up of cotton and jute textile mills.
Subsequently, the iron and steel industries began coming up in the beginning of the twentieth century. A few other industries in the fields of sugar, cement, paper etc.
But, there was hardly any capital goods industry to help promote further industrialisation in India. Furthermore, the growth rate of the new industrial sector and its contribution to the Gross Domestic Product GDP remained very small. The government decides how goods are to be produced and how they should be distributed. In principle, distribution under socialism is supposed to be based on what people need and not on what they can afford to download.
Unlike under capitalism, for example, a socialist nation provides free health care to the citizens who need it. Strictly, a socialist society has no private property since everything is owned by the state.
With the collapse of the Soviet system in the last decades of the twentieth century, socialist economies in the former Soviet Union and the socialist states in Eastern Europe ceased to exist.
Most economies are mixed economies, i.
In a mixed economy, the market will provide whatever goods and services it can produce well, and the government will provide essential goods and services which the market fails to do. A plan spells out how the resources of a nation should be put to use.
It should have some general goals as well as specific objectives which are to be achieved within a specified period of time; in India plans are of five years duration and are called five year plans we borrowed this from the former Soviet Union, the pioneer in national planning.
Our plan documents not only specify the objectives to be attained in the five years of a plan but also what is to be achieved over a period of twenty years. The five year plans are supposed to provide the basis for the perspective plan. It will be unrealistic to expect all the goals of a plan to be given equal importance in all the plans.
In fact the goals may actually be in conflict.
For example, the goal of introducing modern technology may be in conflict with the goal of increasing employment if the technology reduces the need for labour. The planners have to balance the goals, a very difficult job indeed. We find different goals being emphasised in different plans in India.
Our five year plans do not spell out how much of each and every good and service is to be produced. This is neither possible nor necessary the former Soviet Union tried to do this and failed. It is enough if the plan is specific about the sectors where it plays a commanding role, for instance, power generation and irrigation, while leaving the rest to the market. Let us now this outlook. In , the Planning learn about the goals of planning in Commission was set up with the some detail.
Prime Minister as its Chairperson. The era of five year plans had begun. It implies either a specified goals. The goals of the five larger stock of productive capital, year plans are: growth, modernisation, or a larger size of supporting self-reliance and equity. This does not services like transport and mean that all the plans have given b a n k i n g , or an increase in the equal importance to all these goals.
Among them, the name of the statistician, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, stands out. Planning, in the real sense of the term, began with the Second Five Year Plan. The Second Plan, a landmark contribution to development planning in general, laid down the basic ideas regarding goals of Indian planning; this plan was based on the ideas of Mahalanobis. In that sense, he can be regarded as the architect of Indian planning. Mahalanobis was born in in Calcutta.
His contributions to the subject of statistics brought him international fame. Statistical Institute ISI in Calcutta and started a journal, Sankhya, which still serves as a respected forum for statisticians to discuss their ideas.
Both, the ISI and Sankhya, are highly regarded by statisticians and economists all over the world to this day. Some of these economists became Nobel Prize winners later, which shows that he could identify individuals with talent. Among the economists invited by Mahalanobis were those who were very critical of the socialist principles of the second plan. In other words, he was willing to listen to what his critics had to say, the mark of a great scholar.
Many economists today reject the approach to planning formulated by Mahalanobis but he will always be remembered for playing a vital role in putting India on the road to economic progress, and statisticians continue to profit from his contribution to statistical theory.
Norton, New York and London. In the case of India, the structural change is peculiar. Usually, with development, the share of agriculture declines and the share of industry becomes dominant. At higher levels of development, the service sector contributes more to the GDP than the other two sectors. In India, the share of agriculture in the GDP was more than 50 per cent—as we would expect for a poor country. But by the share of the service sector was This phenomenon of growing share of the service sector was accelerated in the post period this marked the onset of globalisation in the country which will be discussed in a subsequent chapter.
The technology. For example, a farmer can GDP is the market value of all the increase the output on the farm by goods and services produced in the using new seed varieties instead of country during a year.
You can think using the old ones. Similarly, a factory of the GDP as a cake: growth is can increase output by using a new increase in the size of the cake. If the type of machine. Adoption of new cake is larger, more people can enjoy technology is called modernisation. It is necessary to produce more However, modernisation does not goods and services if the people of refer only to the use of new technology India are to enjoy in the words of the but also to changes in social outlook First Five Year Plan a more rich and such as the recognition that women varied life.
A modern society makes sector, the industrial sector and the use of the talents of women in the service sector. The contribution work place — in banks, factories, made by each of these sectors makes schools etc. In some countries, growth in agriculture contributes Self-reliance: A nation can promote more to the GDP growth, while in economic growth and modernisation some countries the growth in the by using its own resources or by service sector contributes more to using resources imported from other GDP growth see Box 2.