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ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES PDF FILE

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Environmental studies refer to an extensive and systematic study of nature/ environment, Environmental studies help us understand the importance of our . ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES. UNIT I: ENVIRONMENT & It is the complex of physical, chemical and biotic factors (climate, soil & living things etc.) that act upon. Textbook for Environmental Studies For Undergraduate Courses of all Branches of . Role of individual in prevention and control of environmental pollution.


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The importance of environmental science and environmental studies cannot be disputed. The need for sustainable development is a key to the future of mankind . Technical Report (PDF Available) · October with 1, Reads Study of earth and its environment is a fascinating area of science. of Environmental Science or Environmental Studies/Environmental. Science in B. Ed. Course. The present book has been written by including some content of.

Vision The importance of Environmental Studies cannot be disputed. The need for sustainable development is a key to the future of mankind. The degradation of our environment is linked to continuing problems of pollution, loss of forest, solid waste disposal, issues related to economic productivity and national as well as ecological security. The increasing levels of global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and a serious loss of biodiversity have also made everyone aware of growing environmental concerns. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio De Janero in , and the World Summit on Sustainable Development at Zoharbex in have drawn the attention of people around the globe to the developing condition of our environment.

From the following B. We provide B. The importance of environmental science and environmental studies cannot be undisputed. The need for sustainable development is a key to the future of mankind. The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janerio in and World Summit on Sustainable Development at Johannesburg in has drawn the attention of people around the globe to the deteriorating condition of our environment.

It is clear that no citizen of the earth can afford to be ignorant of environmental issues. Environmental management has captured the attention of healthcare managers. Managing environmental hazards has become very important. Natural resources Renewable and nonrenewable resources Natural resources and associated problems. Forest Resources: Use and over Exploitation, Deforestation, case studies.

Timber extraction, Mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people. Water Resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and groundwater, Floods, Drought, Conflicts over water, dams-benefits, and problems. Mineral Resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of using and extracting minerals resources, case studies. Food Resources: World food problems, Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, Water logging, Salinity, case studies.

Energy Resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, use of alternative energy sources, case studies. Land Resources: Once we begin to ask these questions of ourselves. Is there an unequal distribution of this resource so that you are more fortunate than many others who have less access to it?

We cannot expect Governments alone to manage the safeguarding of the environment. The earth cannot be expected to sustain this expanding level of utilization of resources.

It is a responsibility that each of us must take on as ones own. We need to do it ourselves. Air pollution leads to respiratory diseases. Increasing amounts of waste cannot be managed by natural processes. Thus the scope of environmental studies is extremely wide and covers some aspects of nearly every major discipline. These accumulate in our environment. We live in a world in which natural resources are limited.

Without them. It is an integration of several subjects that include both Science and Social Studies. Manufacturing processes create solid waste byproducts that are discarded. Make a list of the plastic articles you usually use. List these activities and identify the main resources used during these activities. Once all the fossil fuels are burnt off.

Think of the various energy sources you use everyday. What can you do to prevent waste. Use the following examples for the above exercise: When we leave a motorbike or car running during a traffic stop. How can you reduce the amount of plastic you use? What effects does plastic have on our environment?

Do you feel you should change the way you use water? How can you change this so that it is more sustainable? Example — Food: Where has it come from? How is it grown? What chemicals are used in its production? How does it reach you? Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 6 Chapter1. Example — Water: How much do you really need to use. How could you reduce their use? Example — Fossil fuels: How much do you use?

Can you reduce your consumption? What effect does it have on the air we breathe? Exercises in self learning about the environment Attempt to assess the level of damage to the environment due to your actions that have occurred during your last working day. Then estimate the damage you are likely to do in your lifetime if you continue in your present ways.

Only if each of us contributes our part in conserving fossil based energy can we make it last longer on earth.

Activity 3: Where did the water come from? What is its actual source? How has it reached you? Where will the waste water go? Example — Plastic: Plastic bags. Plastic plays an important part in our modern lives.

These are the raw materials that are used for developing new medicines and industrial products and are a storehouse from which to develop thousands of new products in the future. It brings about an understanding of the oneness of nature and the fact that we are entirely dependent upon the intricate functioning of ecosystems.

One can appreciate the magnificence of a mountain. How is it cooked? How much is wasted? How is the waste disposed off? It is these natural vistas and their incredible diversity of plant and animal life that has led to the development of several philosophies of life. Once they are lost.

While individually. Thus the urgent need to protect all living species is a concept that we need to understand and act upon. It has also inspired artists to develop visual arts and writers and poets to create their works that vitalize our lives. The aesthetic and recreational values that nature possesses enlivens our existence on earth. This is created by developing National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries in relatively undisturbed areas.

There is a close link between agriculture and the forest. If we degrade their habitat these species will become extinct. Their life cycles however frequently require intact forests.

A true wilderness experience has not only recreational value but is an incredible learning experience. If one sees being sold or used. Example — Paper: What is it made from? Where does it come from and what happens during manufacture? How much do you use and how much do you waste? How can you prevent it from being wasted? Example — Electrical Energy: How much do you use everyday? Where does it come from? How do you waste it?

How can you conserve energy? Productive value of nature: The flowering plants and insects that form the most speciesrich groups of living organisms are thus vital for the future development of man. The beauty of nature encompasses every aspect of the living and non-living part of our earth. For crops to be successful. In the absence of access to a Protected Area. We can use up goods and services greedily and destroy its integrity and long term values.

It provides not only an aesthetic and visual appeal but the ability to ensure that each individual is able to access a certain amount of peace and tranquility.

Thus if we use up all our resources. The option value allows us to use its resources sustainably and preserve its goods and services for the future.

Many young people who frequented zoos as young children grow up to love wildlife and become conservationists. These have got great value in sensitizing school students to wildlife. Another important conservation education facility in urban settings includes the need to set up well designed and properly managed zoological parks and aquariums.

These areas can be developed to mimic natural ecosystems even though they could be relatively small in size. This has been described as nature tourism. They can be developed in a small woodlot. But if we go on endangering our environment. We often feel that managing all this is something that the Government should do. A wilderness experience has exceptional recreational value. This is its option value. These recreational facilities not only provide a pleasurable experience but are intended to create a deep respect and love for nature.

This would bring home to the visitor the importance of protecting our dwindling wilderness areas. Our present generation has developed its economies and lifestyles on unsustainable patterns of life. They are also key tools in educating people about the fragility of the environment and the need for sustainable lifestyles.

Thus urban environmental planners must ensure that these facilities are created in growing urban complexes. The option values of nature: While we utilise several goods and services of nature and enjoy its benefits. Such nature trails are invaluable assets for creating conservation education and awareness.

In an urban setting. Thus if you join an NGO that supports conservation. WWF-I newsletter. Take part in events organised on World Environment Day. Politicians in a democracy always respond positively to a strong publicly supported movement.

This can only be made possible through mass public awareness.

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Public awareness is thus a critical need to further environmental protection. Mass media such as newspapers. BNHS Hornbill. Each of us is responsible for spreading this message to as many people as possible. Suggested further activities for concerned students: Visit a National Park or Sanctuary. If each of us feels strongly about the environment. To prevent ill-effects on our environment by our actions.

We can reduce wasting natural resources and we can act as watchdogs that inform the Government about sources that lead to pollution and degradation of our environment. Practice and promote good civic sense such as no spitting or tobacco chewing.

Practice and promote issues such as saving paper. Wildlife Week. There are also several environmental websites. Just as for any disease. Lobby for conserving resources by taking up the cause of environmental issues during discussions with friends and relatives. Individually we can play a major role in environment management. It is the prevention of environment degradation in which we must all take part that must become a part of all our lives. We are living on spaceship earth with a limited supply of resources.

They have led to a growing interest in environmental protection and conservation of nature and natural resources. Sanctuary magazine. Among the large number of institutions that deal with environmental protection and conservation. The Institute has a PhD. It develops low cost Interpretation Centres for Natural and Architectural sites that are highly locale specific as well as a large amount of innovative environment educational Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Chapter1.

The influence on wildlife policy building. Undoubtedly its major contribution has been in the field of wildlife research. Salim Ali whose ornithological work on the birds of the Indian subcontinent is world famous. This is part of the Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University. It also offers an innovative Diploma in Environment Education for in-service teachers. Ahmedabad was initiated in Its programs include components on wildlife and biodiversity issues.

New Delhi: The WWF-I was initiated in in Mumbai after which the headquarters were shifted to Delhi with several branch offices all over India. It is involved in the publication of material in the form of books.

Activities of this Center include organising campaigns. It focussed attention on NGOs.

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The early years focused attention on wildlife education and awareness. Its other publications include the Salim Ali Handbook on birds.

It implements a large outreach programme that has covered over schools in which it trains teachers and conducts fortnightly Environment Education Programs. It runs several programs including the Nature Clubs of India program for school children and works as a think tank and lobby force for environment and development issues. One of its greatest scientists was Dr.

The Centre for Environment Education. It conducts a variety of programs to spread environmental awareness and creates an interest in conservation among the general public. It has a wide range of programs on the environment and produces a variety of educational material.

Biodiversity Conservation is a major focus of its research initiatives. The CSE also publishes a popular magazine. Pune and Dehra Dun. Program has trained excellent wildlife scientists. It is involved with the preparation of site-specific.

Its activities include talks and audio-visuals in schools and colleges. Between and This Institution was established in Its unique feature is that it conducts environment education from primary school level to the postgraduate level.

In plans were made to reorganise the BSI and formulate its objectives.

Kalpavriksh works on a variety of fronts: This institution was Dr. The main targets are linked with sustainable resource use at the village level through training school children. Port Blair. It trains personnel in ecodevelopment. However it closed down for several years after and was reopened in This NGO.

It carries out surveys of plant resources in different regions. Itanagar and Gangtok. He wished to support a group of committed conservation scientists on a permanent basis. Its M. Its major program is organising and training school teachers to use its locale specific Environment Education Workbook Program.

Its environment education program covers about schools. The BSI currently has nine regional centres. Among those who have made landmarks. The Wildlife Protection Act was formulated during the period when she was PM and the Indian Board for Wildlife was extremely active as she personally chaired all its meetings.

Ralph Emerson spoke of the dangers of commerce to our environment way back in the s. It currently operates from 16 regional centers. Older collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. It was during her period as PM. Aldo Leopald was a forest official 12 Chapter1. The ZSI was established in There have been a number of individuals who have been instrumental in shaping the environmental history in our country. BNHS frequently used her good will to get conservation action initiated by the Government.

His writings brought home to the world the risks to mankind due to man made disturbances in natural ecosystems that are leading to the rapid extinction of species at the global level. Ralph Emerson.

Its origins were collections based at the Indian Museum at Calcutta. In the s he formed the Sierra club. EO Wilson is an entomologist who envisioned that biological diversity was a key to human survival on earth. He designed the early policies on wilderness conservation and wildlife management. Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 1.

Rachel Carson and EO Wilson. In the s Rachel Carson published several articles that caused immediate worldwide concern on the effects of pesticides on nature and mankind. Henry Thoreau. Alfred Wallace came to the same conclusions during his work. Its mandate was to do a systematic survey of fauna in India. Some of the wellknown names in the last century include environmentalists. Henry Thoreau in the s wrote that the wilderness should be preserved after he lived in the wild for a year.

Each of these thinkers looked at the environment from a completely different perspective. It has done an enormous amount of work on taxonomy and ecology. Aldo Leopald. He felt that most people did not care for nature and would sell it off for a small sum of money.

Today it has over a million specimens! This makes it one of the largest collections in Asia. John Muir. His autobiography. His friendship with people in power combined with his deep commitment for conservation led to his playing a major advocacy role for wildlife in India. His fight to prevent the construction of the Tehri Dam in a fragile earthquake prone setting is a battle that he continues to wage.

He has written several articles. His interests range from broad ecological issues such as developing Community Biodiversity Registers and conserving sacred groves to studies on the behaviour of mammals. He was awarded the Padma Bhushan in His most famous and long drawn battles supported by the Supreme Court include protecting the Taj Mahal.

The Garhwal Hills will always remember his dedication to the cause for which he has walked over 20 thousand kilometers.

Since SP Godrej received 10 awards for his conservation activities. Madhav Gadgil is a wellknown ecologist in India. UNIT 2: Natural Resources 2. Plants and animals can only survive as communities of different organisms. As our ability to grow food and use domestic animals grew. Recently we began to use fertilizers and pesticides to further boost the production of food from the same amount of land. They create great quantities of solid waste.

Large stretches of land such as forests. Industrial growth. These natural resources include. Mankind has been overusing and depleting natural resources. Most traditional agriculturists depended extensively on rain. Pollution of air. The over-intensive use of land has been found to exhaust the capability of the ecosystem to support the growing demands of more and more people.

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Later they began to use wells to tap underground water sources and to impound water and created irrigated land by building dams. This phenomenal rise in human numbers has. Others are linked to our food less directly. Many of these living organisms are used as our food resources.

However we now realize that all this has led to several undesirable changes in our environment. Interactions between the abiotic aspects of nature and specific living organisms together form ecosystems of various types.

History of our global environment: About ten thousand years ago. Changes in land and resource use: During the last years. If its nature is disrupted it affects all mankind. The lowest layer. The atmosphere forms a protective shell over the earth. It is a complex dynamic system. The atmosphere is not uniformly warmed by the sun. The stratosphere is 50 kilometers thick and contains a layer of sulphates which is important for the formation of rain. Rural agricultural systems are dependent on forests.

Urban centers cannot exist without resources such as water from rivers and lakes. The result is a serious inequality in the distribution of resources among human beings. This leads to air flows and variations in climate. Living creatures cannot survive without air even for a span of a few minutes. In many cases. Air is also polluted by burning fossil fuels. Oxygen for wild fauna in natural ecosystems and domestic animals used by man as food.

Oxygen as a part of carbon dioxide. This has increased the disparity between what the surrounding land can produce and what the large number of increasingly consumer-oriented people in these areas of high population density consume.

The need for more water. The growing number of scooters. The growth of industrial complexes has led to a shift of people from their traditional. It also contains a layer of ozone. The result is a movement of natural resources from the wilderness ecosystems and agricultural sector to the urban user. Industrial development is aimed at meeting growing demands for all consumer items.

To continue to support life. The magnitude of the shift of resources has been increasing in parallel with the growth of industry and urbanisation. Most air pollutants have both global and regional effects.

These changes have brought about dramatic alterations in land-use patterns and rapid disappearance of valuable natural ecosystems. Major pollutants of air are created by industrial units that release various gases such as carbon dioxide. During the last few decades. Chemicals from industry and sewage find their way into rivers and into the sea.

Micronutrients in soil. Food from fresh water sources. This once plentiful resource is now becoming rare and expensive due to pollution.

Water used in agriculture and industry. A large number of minerals on which our industries are based. About 3. Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses 18 Chapter2. The crust of the earth is 6 or 7 kilometers thick and lies under the continents.

Air pollution leads to acute and chronic respiratory diseases such as various lung infections. Some of this fresh water lies in underground aquifers. Water flowing down from mountain ranges harnessed to generate electricity in hydroelectric projects. It provides power for vehicles. Fresh water in rivers. A major part of the hydrosphere is the marine ecosystem in the ocean.

Human activities such as deforestation create serious changes in the hydrosphere. Food resources from the sea. Of these constituents. Once land is denuded of vegetation.

Water pollution thus threatens the health of communities as all our lives depend on the availability of clean water. Water for washing and cooking. Of the 92 elements in the lithosphere only eight are common constituents of crustal rocks. Their minerals are also the raw material used in various industries. Microscopic flora. All living organisms which exist on earth live only in the relatively thin layer of the lithosphere and hydrosphere that is present on the surface of land and in the water.

It is therefore essential to understand the interrelationships of the separate entities soil. Within it the air. Timber and other construction materials.

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The simplest of these ecosystems to understand is a pond. The linkages between them are mainly in the form of cycles. This becomes rain.

Their easily visible and identifiable characteristics can be described at different scales such as those of a country. Water evaporated from the hydrosphere the seas and freshwater ecosystems.

Energy needs: Biomass fuel wood collected from forests and plantations.

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Natural cycles between the spheres: All four spheres are closely inter-linked systems and are dependent on the integrity of each other. Within these. The periphery. For instance. These occur on different continents. It can be used as a model to understand the nature of any other ecosystem and to appreciate the changes over time that are seen in any ecosystem.

The structural features of a pond include its size. Within this framework. Disturbing one of these spheres in our environment affects all the others. The rain also acts on rocks as an agent of erosion and over millions of years has created soil. The most sensitive and complex linkages are those between the atmosphere. Atmospheric movements in the form of wind. Traditional agricultural ecosystems that depended on rainfall have been modified in recent times to produce more and more food by the addition of extra chemicals and 20 2.

Moreover modern agriculture creates a variety of environmental problems. Solar energy is the main driving force of ecological systems. During the manufacturing process. To manufacture consumer products. Our food comes from both natural and agricultural ecosystems. The sun also drives the water cycle. Grasslands recycle material much faster than forests as the grass dries up after the rains are over every year.

These include irrigation. All the aquatic ecosystems are also solar energy dependent and have cycles of growth when plant life spreads and aquatic animals breed. One can also observe changes in a river or the seasonal changes in a forest or grassland. Their per capita consumption of food too is much greater as well as their waste of enormous quantities of food and other products.

Activity 2: Take a simple object in daily use and track its components back to each of its spheres. Energy from fossil fuels is consumed in relatively much greater quantities in developed countries. A forest recycles its plant material slowly by continuously returning its dead material. Activity 1: Observe a nearby pond in different seasons and document the seasonal changes in it. Natural Resources 21 Chapter2.

Planning Landuse: Land itself is a major resource. Thus countries that are highly dependent on non-vegetarian diets need much larger areas for pastureland than those where the people are mainly vegetarian. Thus it is essential to evolve a rational land-use policy that examines how much land must be made available for different purposes and where it must be situated.

They are increasingly being diverted for short-term economic gains to agriculture and industry. These include processes such as maintaining oxygen levels in the atmosphere. The most damaging change in landuse is demonstrated by the rapidity with which forests have vanished during recent times. Natural wetlands of great value are being drained for agriculture and other purposes. Scientists today believe that at least 10 percent of land and water bodies of each ecosystem must be kept as wilderness for the longterm needs of protecting nature and natural resources.

Producing animal food for human consumption requires more land than growing crops. Land and water resources are polluted by industrial waste and rural and urban sewage. Forests provide us with a variety of services. Semi-arid land is being irrigated and overused. In the long term. It is also affected by degradation due to misuse. Forests thus can be said to behave like non-renewable resources if overused. They are linked to natural cycles such as the water cycle.

These non-renewable resources. The need for sustainable lifestyles: The quality of human life and the quality of ecosystems on earth are indicators of the sustainable use of resources.

When the population of a species of plant or animal is reduced by human activities. Non-renewable resources include fossil fuels such as oil and coal. Fish are today being over-harvested until the catch has become a fraction of the original resource and the fish are incapable of breeding successfully to replenish the population. Many species are probably becoming extinct without us even knowing.

The output of agricultural land if mismanaged drops drastically. There are clear indicators of sustainable lifestyles in human life. The long term conservation of biodiversity. Water sources can be so heavily polluted by sewage and toxic substances that it becomes impossible to use the water.

The careful long-term use of natural resources. The quality of the ecosystems have indicators that are more difficult to assess. The end products of fossil fuels are in the form of heat and mechanical energy and chemical compounds.

They are in fact renewable only within certain limits. An increase in knowledge An enhancement of income. Each step in resource use can affect the environment for better or worse.

People have used forests in our country for thousands of years.

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And we depend on the oxygen that plants give out and the removal of carbon dioxide we breathe out from the air. At each step note: What waste products are generated at that step? How are they likely to be disposed off? What pollutants are generated in the process? What is however not generally recognized is that thousands of extinctions of small plants and animals are occurring every year due to loss of their habitat. People who live in or near forests know the value of forest resources first hand because their lives and livelihoods depend directly on these resources.

The following Activity 3: Utilisation of resources The use of a resource begins with its collection. Today we have only about 12 percent.

We use many medicines that are based on forest produce. Scientists estimate that India should ideally have 33 percent of its land under forests.

As agriculture spread the forests were left in patches which were controlled mostly by tribal people. Our homes. It also involves disposal of the waste products produced at each step. Thus we need not only to protect existing forests but also to increase our forest cover. This led the British to develop scientific forestry in India. The control of these steps is known as environmental management. Deforestation became a major concern in British times when a large amount of timber was extracted for building their ships.

The water we use depends on the existence of forests on the watersheds around river valleys. They hunted animals and gathered plants and lived entirely on forest resources. Over harvesting and poaching threaten the existence of many others. The cotton in the clothes you are wearing. This led to a loss of stake in the conservation of the forests which led to a gradual degradation and fragmentation of forests across the length and breadth of the country. They however alienated local people by creating Reserved and Protected Forests which curtailed access to the resources.

Another period of overutilisation and forest degradation occurred in the early period following independence as people felt that now that the British had gone they had a right to using our forests in any way we pleased.

Think of a resource you use and track it through these steps. The Dodo of Madagascar and the Cheetah in India are well known examples of extinct species. Forests once extended over large tracts of our country. Land bank: Timber extraction is done in India by the Forest Department. Market use. Now that populations of most wildlife species have diminished. In the past when wildlife was plentiful. Erosion control: Local use.

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Atmospheric regulation: Based on these experiences. The States have tried a variety of approaches to JFM. A large number of poor rural people are still highly dependent on wood to cook their meals and heat their homes. If timber is overharvested the ecological functions of the forest are lost. Thus there is a constant conflict of interests be25 Chapter2. They participate in restoring green cover and protect the area from being over exploited. Orissa and Tripura.

This stipulates that at least 25 per cent of the income from the area must go to the community. Dams built for hydroelectric power or irrigation have submerged forests and have displaced tribal people whose lives are closely knit to the forest. Another resolution in provided a formal structure for community participation though the formation of Village Forest Committees.

Under JFM schemes. Unfortunately forests are located in areas where there are rich mineral resources. Today logging and mining are serious causes of loss of forests in our country and all over the world. From the initiation of the program. The fact that forest degradation and deforestation was creating a serious loss of the important functions of the forest began to override its utilisation as a source of revenue from timber. Forest Protection Committees from local community members are formed.

This has become a serious cause of concern in India. In many States 25 per cent of the revenue is used for village development. Forests also cover the steep embankments of river valleys. The share for village forest committees Natural Resources ranges from 25 per cent in Kerala to per cent in Andhra Pradesh. Some States have stopped grazing completely. An informal arrangement between local communities and the Forest Department began in Local people will only support greening an area if they can see some economic benefit from conservation.

We have not been able to plant enough trees to support the need for timber and fuelwood. Where civilizations have looked after forests by using forest resources cautiously. This leads to high levels of suffering for which there is rarely a satisfactory answer.

Local conflicts are already spreading to states. The total annual freshwater withdrawals today are estimated at cubic kilometers. There are countries that share the waters of 13 large rivers and lakes.

Overutilization of water occurs at various levels. The world population has passed the 6 billion mark. The upstream countries could starve the downstream nations leading to political unstable areas across the world. Based on the proportion of young people in developing countries. These forests where development projects are planned. Most people use more water than they really need. Wetlands are intermediate forms between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and contain species of plants and animals that are highly moisture dependent.

The world depends on a limited quantity of fresh water. However this varies in different countries and industrialized countries use a greater percentage for industry. Only a fraction of this can be actually used. India is expected to face critical levels of water stress by What needs to be understood is that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to deforestation. India and Bangladesh already have a negotiated agreement on the water use of the Ganges.

One of the greatest challenges facing the world in this century is the need to rethink the overall management of water resources. More than one billion people worldwide have no access to clean water. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu over the waters of the Krishna. Studies indicate that a person needs a minimum of 20 to 40 liters of water per day for drinking and sanitation.

Today in many areas this requirement cannot be met. At the global level 31 countries are already short of water and by there will be 48 countries facing serious water shortages. Of this. All aquatic ecosystems are used by a large number of people for their daily needs such as drinking water. This 26 Overutilization and pollution of surface and groundwater: With the growth of human population there is an increasing need for larger amounts of water to fulfill a variety of basic needs.

International accords that will look at a fair distribution of water in such areas will become critical to world peace. The UN has estimated that by the year Examples are Ethopia. Around 20 major cities in India face chronic or interrupted water shortages. This will lead to multiple conflicts between countries over the sharing of water. The polluting industry that does not care for the environment and pays off bribes to get away from the cost needed to use effluent treatment plants may eventually be caught.

Nepal The Narayani River of Nepal has been polluted by factories located on its bank. This leads to periods when there is a serious scarcity of water to drink. Public awareness may increasingly put pressures on industry to produce only eco-friendly products which are already gaining in popularity.

Floods have been a serious environmental hazard for centuries. There are many ways in which farmers can use less water without reducing yields such as the use of drip irrigation systems.

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In other areas. This has seriously affected regional hydrological conditions. Agriculture also pollutes surface water and underground water stores by the excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. In most arid regions of the world the rains are unpredictable. Rivers change their course during floods and tons of valuable soil is lost to the sea. Industry tends to maximise short-term economic gains by not bothering about its liquid waste and releasing it into streams.

This has endangered fish. Drought prone areas are thus faced with 27 Chapter2. Deforestation in the Himalayas causes floods that year after year kill people. As the forests are degraded.

As people begin to learn about the serious health hazards caused by pesticides in their food. Natural Resources Global climate change: Changes in climate at a global level caused by increasing air pollution have now begun to affect our climate.

In some regions global warming and the El Nino winds have created unprecedented storms. Methods such as the use of biomass as fertilizer and non toxic pesticides such as neem products and using integrated pest management systems reduces the agricultural pollution of surface and ground water.

This blocks rivers temporarily but gives way as the pressure mounts allowing enormous quantities of water to wash suddenly down into the plains below. Many agriculturists use more water than necessary to grow crops.

In the longer term. Water for Agriculture and Power Generation: This soil and water management and afforestation are long-term measures that reduce the impact of droughts. These include measures such as: Irrigation to support cash crops like sugarcane produces an unequal distribution of water. One of the factors that worsens the effect of drought is deforestation.

In years when the monsoon is adequate. Sustainable water management: Forest cover permits water to be held in the area permitting it to seep into the ground.

If water from the underground stores is overused. Irrigated areas increased from 40 million ha.