Globally threatened species and populations within the Arctic Region. The Xs Enhydra lutris, Sea otter. Lutra lutra The data can be downloaded freely. Best Sea Otter Free Video Clip Downloads from the Videezy community. Free Sea Otter Stock Video Footage licensed under creative commons, open. The first page is a short article about sea otters with comprehension that you have an application to open this file type before downloading and/or purchasing.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Japanese|
|ePub File Size:||22.83 MB|
|PDF File Size:||12.25 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
THE IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES™. Sea Otters. The Sea Otter ( Enhydra lutris) is the smallest marine mammal, and quite arguably the cutest. CONSERVATION. The Sea Otter was hunted to near extinction in the 19th century. Today the species is protected under the Endangered Species Act & Marine. Sea Otter. Enhydra lutris. Citation. Doroff, A. & Burdin, A. Enhydra lutris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e. Download. iTranslate page .
The Pacific regional headquarters can be found in Vancouver, British Columbia. Numerous offices as well as 5 research centres are located throughout British Columbia and the Yukon. The purpose of Canada's Species at Risk Act SARA is to conserve, protect and recover endangered or threatened species, and to encourage the management of species of special concern to prevent them from becoming further at risk. The Act aims to prevent indigenous species from extirpation or extinction and preserve biodiversity within Canada. Key Activities The Species at Risk Management Division provides advice and assistance to other DFO programs including Fisheries and Aquaculture Management, Fisheries Protection Program, Oceans, Policy, and Science that implement the regional species at risk program, which includes assessment, consultations, listing, recovery planning and implementation, permitting, and compliance monitoring.
The latest census and stranding information is available at www. Southern sea otters are among the smallest of marine mammals, with adult females and males averaging 46 and 64 pounds, respectively. Unlike most other marine mammals, they have little subcutaneous fat, relying instead on their clean, dense, water resistant fur for insulation against the cold.
Contamination of their fur by oily substances can destroy its insulating properties and lead to hypothermia and death. Sea otters also maintain a high level of internal heat production to compensate for their lack of blubber.
As a result, their energetic requirements are high, and they consume an amount of food equivalent to about 25 percent of their body mass per day. Depending on factors such as habitat, sex, reproductive status, and per-capita prey availability, obtaining this quantity of food requires that sea otters spend percent of the day foraging. Mating and pupping occur throughout the year, but on average across the range, a peak period of pupping occurs from October to January, with a secondary peak in March and April.
Pup rearing and provisioning impose high energetic costs on females, requiring them to increase foraging effort during this period and leaving them highly susceptible to stressors they may encounter when they come into estrous after weaning, such as infections and aggression by males.
Because of their consumption of large quantities of marine invertebrates, sea otters play a significant role in nearshore marine ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, enhancing not only kelp forests but also seagrass beds.
Sea otters are generally considered to be a keystone species in these communities. Keystone species are organisms that have large-scale community effects disproportionate to their abundance.
Kelp forests provide numerous direct and indirect benefits, including habitat for hundreds of invertebrate and fish species, reductions in coastal erosion, and carbon storage that can moderate climate change.
Seagrasses also provide important benefits, such as nursery habitat for many other species, shoreline protection, and carbon sequestration. The primary factors limiting population growth and range expansion of southern sea otters in recent years have been density-dependent resource limitation where the number of sea otters is in equilibrium with available prey in much of the central portion of the mainland range and white shark attacks in the northern and southern portions of the mainland range.
It is not to be confused with the marine otter , a rare otter species native to the southern west coast of South America. A number of other otter species, while predominantly living in fresh water, are commonly found in marine coastal habitats. The extinct sea mink of northeast North America is another mustelid that had adapted to a marine environment. Subspecies Three subspecies of the sea otter are recognized with distinct geographical distributions.
In the eastern Pacific Ocean, E. Northern sea otters possess longer mandibles lower jaws while southern sea otters have longer rostrums and smaller teeth. Skull of a sea otter The sea otter is one of the smallest marine mammal species, but it is the heaviest mustelid.
Cold water is kept completely away from the skin and heat loss is limited. The nostrils and small ears can close. The front paws are short with retractable claws, with tough pads on the palms that enable gripping slippery prey. The sea otter walks with a clumsy, rolling gait on land, and can run in a bounding motion.
Its relatively large kidneys enable it to derive fresh water from sea water and excrete concentrated urine. The sea otter is diurnal.
It has a period of foraging and eating in the morning, starting about an hour before sunrise, then rests or sleeps in mid-day. To casual observers, it appears as if the animals are scratching, but they are not known to have lice or other parasites in the fur. Although it can hold its breath for up to five minutes,  its dives typically last about one minute and not more than four. In this pouch preferentially the left one , the animal stores collected food to bring to the surface.
This pouch also holds a rock, unique to the otter, that is used to break open shellfish and clams. It can chew and swallow small mussels with their shells, whereas large mussel shells may be twisted apart.
To pry an abalone off its rock, it hammers the abalone shell using a large stone, with observed rates of 45 blows in 15 seconds. Although each adult and independent juvenile forages alone, sea otters tend to rest together in single-sex groups called rafts. A raft typically contains 10 to animals, with male rafts being larger than female ones. To keep from drifting out to sea when resting and eating, sea otters may wrap themselves in kelp.
The cry of a pup is often compared to that of a seagull. Sea otters are polygynous : males have multiple female partners. However, temporary pair-bonding occurs for a few days between a female in estrus and her mate. Georg Steller wrote, "They embrace their young with an affection that is scarcely credible.
Initially, the objects it retrieves are of little food value, such as brightly colored starfish and pebbles. The fur trade that began in the s reduced the sea otter's numbers to an estimated 1, to 2, members in 13 colonies. Hunting records researched by historian Adele Ogden place the westernmost limit of the hunting grounds off the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido and the easternmost limit off Punta Morro Hermosa about Sea otters currently have stable populations in parts of the Russian east coast, Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and California, with reports of recolonizations in Mexico and Japan.
Russia Currently, the most stable and secure part of the sea otter's range is Russia. After the years of the Great Hunt, the population in these areas, currently part of Russia, was only Of these, about 19, are at the Kurils, 2, to 3, at Kamchatka and another 5, to 5, at the Commander Islands.
In , the population in Alaska was estimated at between , and , animals. A remnant population survived off Vancouver Island into the 20th century, but it died out despite the international protection treaty, with the last sea otter taken near Kyuquot in From to , 89 sea otters were flown or shipped from Alaska to the west coast of Vancouver Island.
This population increased to over 5, in with an estimated annual growth rate of 7. It is not known if this colony, which numbered about animals in , was founded by transplanted otters or was a remnant population that had gone undetected.
The translocated population is estimated to have declined to between 10 and 43 individuals before increasing, reaching individuals in