Basic principles of photography. David Capel. B IST Fast-forward years: the digital single lens reflex camera (DSLR). Digital SLR Cameras & Photography For Dummies®, 3rd Edition. Published by. Wiley Publishing, Inc. River Street. Hoboken, NJ ronaldweinland.info photography exposure allows you to give correct instructions to your camera about: Photography is the Art of Recording Light. Light Metering. Shutter Speed.
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In this guide we share tips on how to use a DSLR. in this instance, you as the photographer set the shutter speed and the camera will take care of the aperture. Cameras are complicated. I was frustrated with my first DSLR. I just couldn't capture what I saw through my viewfinder. It took a ton of trial and error. When I. Canon DSLR: the ultimate photographer's guide. – (Digital gov/iad// docs/Public%20SP%%20November%pdf. I wrote earlier that.
New to Photography? Check out our free Ultimate Guide to Photography for Beginners. Whilst that is fine for some, it may not be long until you crave the creative control that inspired you to download a DSLR in the first place, but where do you begin? If you consider yourself a beginner who is unsure of how to make the most of your camera, this post is designed for you. Note to Mirrorless Camera Owners: almost everything in this article is relevant not only to DSLR owners but also mirrorless camera owners too! Master Shooting modes The best place to start is with shooting modes. Below, I have given each abbreviation for the given mode.
Press the display button to see all the required Camera settings on the LCD screen. The image on the left shows the Aperture value f5.
The Image on the right shows the ISO value which is circled in red. To set a lens to its maximum aperture just follow this. Which should select F-number as shown below. Then use the primary dial which usually behind the Shutter Button on the top and turn it in the anti-clockwise direction.
You should see F-number decreasing as you do it. You are turning the main dial in the wrong direction. You are turning the wrong dial. Just work around these four steps until you see F-number changing. Once it starts to change, make sure to turn the dial until you see F-number cannot go any lower. Press on Quick mode button and use the right arrow to move to Aperture setting the F-number. Choose the minimum Aperture value for your lens.
I know it all sounds confusing. But, just take it one step at a time. Choose the minimum ISO settings possible. Again, turn the main dial in the anti-clockwise direction just as you did while setting Aperture until you get the ISO to show Whatever it is right now, just leave it at that as of now. Step 6: Press the Shutter button Press the shutter button. I mean it. This is an important aspect of learning.
Just make them. Make as many as you can. Take action, make mistakes, learn from mistakes. If you learn only the right way of doing things, as time passes, you will be scared to test anything else. Just play with it. Now let us talk about the picture you took. You are probably not impressed with what you got.
Maybe it is not what you expected. Let us analyze it then. Which means the picture looks dark. Which means the picture looks bright. Whatever the case, all that you need to now make sure is to get the right amount of light to hit the sensor. You might already have solved the problem in your head now. Have you? Note: The below process works only if you made sure the scene, camera position, focus, all the settings, and the composition is intact.
In Case the Photo is Underexposed The image on the left shows that there is very less light because the marker is at -3, which means the resulting photograph will be underexposed.
If the picture was underexposed or dark, then the marker or the blinking indicator would be pointing towards the -ve direction, as shown in the picture above. For instance, if the background needs to be blurred or if everything should be in focus then aperture priority should be used. On the other hand, if the speed at which the image is captured is more important then shutter priority mode should be used.
Anyone who's an expert in these particular modes will have a much easier time with the manual mode feature on the camera. Shooting in manual mode is possible by turning the dial on the top part of the camera to M. You can check the manual with your camera for information on what shutter speed and aperture to use while you are on manual mode.
Being familiar with what aperture priority and shutter priority to use can help you to quickly set your preferences in terms of shutter speeds and apertures. Care should be taken on exposure while the shutter speed and aperture are reconfigured. An ideal setting for an exposure would be zero. For brighter pictures though, an exposure setting anywhere between 0 and 1 would be ideal. Inbuilt Flash Every camera has an inbuilt flash. The computer of the camera ascertains whether or not flash is required in relation to exposure, focus and zoom level.
The activation of the inbuilt flash in compact cameras is synchronized with the shutter speed. The difficult part though is controlling how intense the flash would be and at what exact time the flash would trigger.
As a result, pictures could appear washed-out. Pop-up flashes are also available on DSLRs and the pop-up flash and the shutter speed used at a given time can be synchronized. How intense the flash would be would depend on the general light of the shot and may be tweaked accordingly.
The flash on DSLR cameras can be used in a manner that is artistic and soothing to the eye. Chapter 3 Getting a Photo Ready Now we can start talking about getting a photo ready the right way.
Here are a few points to figure out. Fast and Slow Speeds The name itself is suggestive of the speed at which the curtain of the shutter in front of the sensor opens and closes. In other words, it is how fast or slow the curtain of the shutter opens and closes, thereby enabling an exposure as light passes through to the sensor. How much light would enter the camera depends on the apertures size which translates to a hole in the lens. Shutter speed commands the duration of the sensor s exposure to light.
The shutter speed is visible at the bottom of the viewfinder and on the LCD screen as well. Fast shutter speeds typically have high numbers. Low numbers are indicative of slow shutter speeds: A certain level of exposure can be maintained consistently when the shutter speed and aperture are in sync. Shutter speed and aperture have an inverse relationship. With an increase in the shutter speed, there would be a decrease in aperture and vice versa.
Apertures that are relatively smaller restrict light from entering the camera, necessitating the shutter speed to be slow. The purpose of a slow shutter speed is to ensure that the sensor is exposed for a little longer than with a fast shutter speed.
If the aperture is wide it means there is plenty of light coming into the image. With this, shutter speed needs to be fast and therefore there would be less time for the snapshot. In automatic and semi-automatic modes, the camera will automatically adjust to a proper speed. However, on manual mode the adjustment has to be done on your own. How fast or slow the shutter speed would be is limited by the aperture of the lens set to maximum.
How to Focus An image will be formed when light passes through a convex lens. What the image will look like depends on the path that light travels on to enter the lens. Which path light will take depends on two vital factors; one is the angle at which the beam of light enters the lens and the other being what the lens is made of.
The angle at which light enters the lens can vary with the proximity of the object in relation to the lens. The light beam regardless of how it enters is bent by the lens to a certain degree. Hence, light beams with a sharp angle of entry would have a blunt angle of exit and vice versa. The bending angle on the lens remains constant at any specific point. Light beams within proximity of the lens can converge at a distance while light beams from a point that is far away from the lens converge at a nearer spot.
The crux of the matter is that the actual image of an object that is closer is formed at a distance whereas the actual image from a distant object is formed nearer.
This phenomenon could be observed by lighting a candle in the dark with a magnifying glass held between the candle and the wall. The image of the candle can be seen upside down on the wall. If the candles image cannot be seen on the wall then it would appear a little blurred. Thats because the light beams emanating from a certain point are yet to converge.
To bring the image of the candle in focus, the magnifying glass should be moved nearer or kept at a distance from the candle. This is exactly what is done by turning the camera lens to focus it essentially what is done is the lens is nearer or at a distance from the surface of the film.
As the lens moves, the actual focused image is aligned so that it rests on the surface of the film. Choosing AF Points Focusing has never been as simple and easy as it is to do these days.
All one has to do is use any of the basic zone shooting modes Full Auto, Portrait or Landscape and the DSLR camera is fully automated and programmed to work in the background. Its that simple and easy. The shutter button needs to be feather-touched and more often than not the camera would be in focus within a fraction of a second as the snapshot is ready to be taken.
Every now and then though, there might be photographs that just arent sharp enough. The solution lies in the autofocus system and how it actually works. If free rein were to be given, a typical DSLR would use its entire gamut of nine autofocus sensors that are strewn in and around the frame of the image.
The AF points are scattered and spread out at different sections of the frame. Sophisticated cameras can have six AF Assist points in addition to the first nine but unlike the first nine, no one can actually select them on a manual basis.
Info from all AF points is used in the focusing process. The distance between each object from the camera is calculated and the nearest object is selected and in sync with an AF point and the AF is configured.
This is how focusing on the nearest object is achieved but that isnt the case every time. This would force the photographer to be as accurate as possible with no real room for error in the process of taking an image.
Chapter 4 Getting Objects Sharp You can get different objects to look clear with ease with such a fine camera. There are many things that you can do to make your photos look more attractive.
Getting Things Sharp Tack sharp is a part of photography jargon which means that an images clarity is as great as it can be. Focus and contrast are two elements that impact the sharpness of an image. An image is tack sharp when the focus of the image is crisp, has a suitable contrast and is from a pixel level where there isnt any noticeable blur.
The notion that image clarity can be enhanced by a photo editing software program is ill conceived. If the image itself is not tack sharp while the photograph is being taken, editing an image with software isnt going to rectify and enhance the quality of the image in terms of contrast.
Also, software may not work all that well with regards to fine detailing or with trying to remove blur from the image to make it sharp. Hence it is absolutely vital to master the art of capturing tack sharp images directly from the source the camera. Shutter Speed Shutter speed is a big point to see when you are trying to focus on sharpness. The reasons behind blurred images that aren't sharp come firstly from how the camera may shake as it may be held in hand. The shutter speed may either be slow or not as fast as it should be to capture a subject that is moving.
Knowing how to rectify the issues is crucial to capturing images that are tack sharp. What shutter speed should be used would depend on the subject that is being shot, whether the subject is in motion or is still and the effect that the person taking the photograph intends to attain. A salient point to be noted is that the proximity of an object in motion in relation to the person taking the photograph would determine the shutter speed.
In other words, if the person is near an object in motion then a fast shutter speed would cause the action to stop. A rule of thumb in photography is the reciprocal rule which is widely used. What this rule aims at achieving is to find the slowest shutter speed that can be used while the camera is hand held and to also keep the camera from shaking. The rule mentions that while the camera is held by hand, the shutter speed should be faster than the lenss reciprocal focal length.
The rule is controversial and at the same time can be relied upon. It is only meant to be used as a. This is a big point for photos that need to be as sharp as possible. Effective Focal Length A good indicator of a lenss focal length would be the size of a 35mm film roll. If the camera has a full frame digital sensor which is similar in size as a 35mm frame then the effective focal length would be the lens markings.
A basic DSLR would have a relatively smaller sensor and the effective focal length has to be calculated manually.
If there is a crop factor then the focal lengths reciprocal has to be multiplied to ascertain a minimum shutter speed. Multiple Bursts Your chances of capturing tack sharp images while the camera is hand held would increase exponentially if the camera is on a continuous shooting mode where multiple shots are taken back to back. It can be expected that at least one shot out of so many would be tack sharp.
Image Stabilization Shutter speed can be slow with an image stabilizer on the camera. You can try and shoot at speeds of stops if the lens permits. All lenses have their own factors for how they can take stable images so be certain that you will be using the right ideas when getting those images taken correctly. Tripod A tripod is an essential accessory to keep with a camera still so you can actually get sharp pictures. However, care needs to be taken while downloading one as there are many different tripods out there to choose from.
If a camera with the largest lens attached can rest on a tripod then it will certainly be to your advantage. Also, different weather conditions are a good indicator of whether or not a tripod can support the weight of the camera and not cause the camera to shake or fall with the camera mounted on the tripod.
Hence the necessity of a good quality tripod cannot be emphasized enough. There are limitations in terms of the weights of tripods and these weights can be compared with the weight of the camera with the largest lens attached to the camera. If the cameras weight with the heaviest lens attached is almost equal to the maximum permissible weight limit on that tripod then it is almost certain that the camera would shake regardless of the weather conditions.
It is recommended for lenses with image stabilizer and vibration reduction features that the image stabilizer be turned off while the camera is mounted on a tripod. The logic behind this recommendation is that lenses with IS and VR look for movement or motion and when there is none. The fact is there are a handful of tripods that can actually keep the camera with the heaviest lens mounted in a stable pattern. Also, the camera might still shake a little bit due to the split second movement caused by pressing the shutter release.
This is all it takes to not have a tack sharp image at slow shutter speeds. A remote shutter release or a self-timer is the solution as that does not require a need for touching the camera. Hence if for example the day is bright and sunny and outdoor shots are being taken, an ideal ISO would be The higher the ISO, the more light the camera would need. For indoor shots without a flash when its not well lit up, the ISO ought to be set typically to or higher so that the shutter speed is sufficiently high to allow you to hold your camera with your hand.
With a high ISO, pictures may appear grainy which does not look good if the color of the picture is either red or orange. Therefore, using the lowest ISO possible is advisable. The shutter speed should have a denominator which is faster than the focal length.
A slow shutter speed with the camera mounted on a tripod and a remote release or a self-timer would be an even better option to eliminate the possibility of the camera shaking. If a tripod isnt an option then the ISO could be raised or an external flash could be used. For subjects that are moving or are in motion, doing away with blur isnt as easy.
An action mode could be set on the camera or the shutter speed could be manually increased. Another way of reducing blur is to keep shutter lag to a minimum by keeping the trigger pressed halfway until the photographer is prepared to take the snapshot. Mundane Photos Uniqueness in photography is what matters. A photograph ought to be attractive and a cut above the rest.
A reasonably good photograph is expected of anyone but surely there is a difference between a lackluster photograph and one that is exceptional. A photograph is exceptional when its taken skillfully. Every photography enthusiast should explore, discover and pursue their unique own styles. A photographer should not shun challenges so as to remain in one's comfort zone. Instead, one should rise up to the occasion and meet the challenge head on. Travel photography goes a long way in creating interesting and unique shots.
Inspiration in photography can be found everywhere, near and far and even in ones backyard. One has to have an eye for detail. Post Processing With post processing, complacency sets in as the inclination to be perfect would be to be less than inspired while taking a shot and to rely more on post processing to set things right. Prior to taking a shot, appropriate and recommended camera settings should be adhered to.
A test photo could be taken to make sure that lighting, composition, white balance and exposure are all perfect for the shot. Lighting in particular needs to be proper as insufficient lighting cannot be fixed by post processing. To save time on post processing, photos need to be analyzed to rectify issues. Correcting mistakes that arent critical proactively is a far better option than relying on post processing.
By doing so, the composition of photographs would be better and stronger which in turn would improve the skills of a photographer. Poor Lighting Decent lighting is vital to photography. With proper lighting, a reasonably good photograph can become extraordinary. Outdoor photography turns out to be the best in the early morning or late evening as there is light for shots of scenes and portraits alike.
Portraits under an overcast sky make for a perfect shot as the light from an overcast sky would create subjects that are lit evenly, thereby having shadows that are negligible. Indoor shots should not be taken using flash. Reliance on natural light is advisable.
Contrast A photograph with a lot of contrast would have two extremes of light: Photographs that are taken on a bright and sunny day are the ones where the contrast is quite apparent.
The dark areas of the image could be filled in by using flash and the image could be underexposed as well to observe whether it makes any difference whatsoever. Red Eye Even though an image editing software would rectify red eye effects, prevention is better than cure. Light-eyed people are generally prone to red eye due to the reflection of the flash on the retinas of their eyes. Red eye could be prevented by not using the inbuilt flash of the camera as much as you might normally do.
Some cameras do have an option of reducing red eye automatically; this is known as the automatic red-eye reduction mode. The alternative to avoiding red-eye is to have the subject not look into the camera so as that there isnt any reflection whatsoever.
Finally, if the room is bright then that would let light into the pupil of the subjects eye which would cause them to shrink. However, this may not be a practical solution as it is easier said than done. Off Colors Off-colors, or color casts as they are also known, are a common issue related to digital photography.
The settings with regard to white balance could be used to fix the issue. Depending on the scenario, the white balance setting should be chosen. An indoor picture may look orange due to the emission of orange light from the lamp caused by the lamps incandescence. By adding blue, which is the recommended tungsten setting for such a scenario; it would essentially be in balance. Less Is Actually More While the photograph is being framed and composed, the objective and the focus should indeed be on aesthetics and relevance.
Usually just a single point of focus is sufficient. An image editing software program can do this type of editing work as well. The goal and objective of this exercise is to ensure that the human eye gravitates to the attractiveness of the image. What If the Subject is Far Off?
The purpose of every photograph that is shot is to ensure that the frame has something engaging within in. If for example the subject is at a distance then the desired impact may not be there at all.
A telephoto zoom lens would accomplish the task of moving closer to the subject or the image could be cropped later with an image editing software. The image ought to be shot at the highest possible resolution as cropping the image would adversely affect its quality. Low Resolution One advantage of low resolution images is that more images can be stored on a memory card although its neither advisable nor recommended.
The quality of the image would deteriorate if the image is shot in low resolution. Moreover, large photographs would have noticeable pixels and hence cannot be printed. In addition, every time a jpeg file is saved, the quality of the file will suffer.
If the file isnt big to begin with then there wont be too many options for editing. Taking high resolution photographs with memory cards that have huge storage capacities may be better to consider than taking photographs on low resolution to save on memory storage.
Excess Noise Noise in digital photography and grain on a film are similar to one another. An image could have these specks of what may appear as dust particles to an untrained eye. If the ISO is high there will be more noise. As the image is enlarged, more noise will appear. Images at night are susceptible to noise as its a struggle for the camera to capture detail.
Noise can be reduced by selecting the highest setting for image quality. By using the lowest ISO setting, the image would not be blurred as the camera would be mounted on a tripod. Underexposed Photographs An image that is extremely dark is underexposed as the sensor did not receive sufficient light while the shot was taken. If the LCD display shows the image as being dark, which means the. Overexposed Photographs If the photograph happens to be extremely bright and lacks detail then the photograph is overexposed.
What this essentially means is that the sensor is exposed to light more than is required. When the day is bright, overexposure could be detrimental. Overexposure could also be detrimental when the subject is light colored. Spot metering works best to ensure that the results are accurate.
An area which has plenty of gray mid-tones needs to be picked on the image as a guideline. Owners Manual Granted, reading the owner s manual is not like reading a novel. Owner s manuals are normally written in a way that is cut and dry and there is no beating around the bush. Hence they arent userfriendly by any stretch of the imagination. Not that its surprising that there are many authors who actually write these manuals on how these cameras ought to be used. Some authors might not have even used the cameras that they are actually writing about.
Gear One tool should be right for the job. If pictures of all of the products that need to be used with your camera are be uploaded on a retail site like site then the product would be too high-end unless and complicated for use. Normally a point and shoot camera would suffice. If you see too many parts on a product then it may not be the right option for you to use because it would not be all that easy to use and may even be far more expensive than what you might be willing to spend on such a camera.
Reliance on the LCD or Preview Screen Everything appears sharp on a little LCD monitor on the back of a camera but that doesn't mean they will be just as sharp when you are done taking a picture. Editing Image on Camera By all means the temptation to edit images on a camera should be resisted.
More often than not, a shot could have been taken unintentionally but instead of deleting the image it should be saved on a memory card and downloaded on a computer. Backing Up Images This may sound too obvious but nonetheless it is essential to back up images prior to erasing or. There are file recovery programs though that may be able to recover or salvage pictures that may have been erased or deleted but they cant be relied upon every single time.
Lack of Memory Cards There was a time when memory cards were expensive but those days are far gone. They are much more affordable now more than ever before and can hold more data for less money. Therefore, downloading as many cards as possible is advisable and recommended.
With sufficient memory cards, high resolution pictures can be taken and the best results would be guaranteed even if the pictures were to be cropped. Lack of Batteries If there is no power then the camera is nothing but a paper weight. There are some paper weights that are heavier and then there are some that are relatively lighter.
Only those cameras that are compatible with AA batteries are the ones that are recommended. Proprietary batteries are alright also but sufficient spare batteries should be available. A card reader rather than a computer to transfer images is advisable because by using this, the battery will have a longer life. Not Researching On Hardware Prior to downloading a camera, what needs to be ensured is whether or not the photo editing software that you will be using is compatible with the computer you have.
Many cameras these days require high-end computers so they can read and process images. A computer that is outdated would not be able to cope and may even stall. It could very well get the job done but at a much slower pace. In short, you have to take a look at the hardware you need to get when using such a camera so you will know what you will be doing when getting an image taken the right way.
Afraid of Making Mistakes As they say, failures are the pillars of success. Its an apt analogy because through mistakes, one learns and progresses and grows as a photographer. To be afraid of failing is tantamount to restricting oneself to explore and thereby not being able to create extraordinary photographs. Picture perfect shots cannot be guaranteed every time and even expert and professional photographers havent been consistent with taking exceptional snapshots.
You should not be afraid of not doing well. Rule of Thirds Not following the rule of thirds is a problem in digital photography that people constantly get into.
The underlying premise of this rule is that the eye of a human being is by nature inclined to focus on points of intersection that can be seen due to the image being split into three different sections.
The rule of thirds is in essence two imaginary lines vertically and horizontally making three columns and rows and nine sections on an image. Vital elements of composition and leading lines are put in place on or in proximity from the imaginary lines and at intersection points.
With the rule of thirds in mind the composition of the photograph is best done in the camera to avoid having to crop later and retain the image as much as possible and to avoid sacrificing quality of photographs as well. They are designed for viewing at an optimum distance between 8 and To compose images, the cameras eye level viewfinder ideally ought to be used and the LCD viewfinder to set parameters and view the image that has been captured.
Even high-resolution LCD viewfinders that the digital cameras are equipped with use the image as a test sample therefore one to one resolution cannot be seen on the viewfinder.
Hence they arent suitable for focusing in detail or for framing purposes. Whats even worse, LCDs consume a lot of power and moreover if used for protracted periods of time it could lead to dead batteries rather quickly. The ubiquitous viewfinder is incorporated on most digital cameras and there are two types available. One is a clear glass frame; the other is the beam splitter, a swinging mirror in other words.
This system has one advantage as the mirror is stationary to eliminate vibration. Its main disadvantage and indeed a flaw that could turn out to be fatal for indoor shots and for photography in poor light is that very little light reaches the eye of the photographer so much so that the photographer may find it difficult to compose and focus properly as the subject may appear dark.
Thereafter the mirror swings back in so that the photographer can continue viewing the subject. When shutter speeds are fast, the mirror will be invisible to the photographer. An inexpensive and less complicated viewing solution at eye level is the optical glass viewfinder which most digital cameras are equipped with. Made of clear glass, it may see something but it does not show what the lens sees.
Instead it gravitates to the lenss top or the side. The biggest advantages are that no power is required, there arent any moving components and its brightness is unparalleled. The system isn't impacted by inaccuracy as it usually shows quite a bit less than what actually has been captured. Still, this may lead to elements on the edges of the photograph. The cause of parallax is positioning the viewfinder 1 or 2 from the lens.
Thus the angle from which the viewer sees the subject is a little different when compared with the lens. This hardly matters while shooting distant shots but for relatively closer shots the difference between the viewer s angle and the angle from which the shot is actually taken increases.
Macro shots are typically within 12 of the subject or closer; glass viewfinders are practically useless due to the parallax error being very high. The optical viewfinder is replaced by a far more advanced viewfinder which is the electronic eye level viewfinder equipped with a small high resolution color monitor that consumes minimum power and can be viewed when the camera is held at eye level.
Over and above what most electronic viewfinders have to offer in terms of direct and viewing in detail which brings clarity as to whether or not a subject is in focus. Electronic viewfinders display vital statistics with regard to the settings of the camera including f-stop, shutter speed, flash status, so on and so forth. An electronic eye level viewfinder undeniably is popular but its also unpopular in equal measure due to its disadvantage.
The technology has not been tried and tested enough in still digital cameras as it has been in camcorders and therefore is in its incubation stage.
Hence in terms of brightness, clarity and responsiveness, a traditional optical viewfinder is a far better option. Chapter 7 - Post Processing and Image Editing An image editing software program is equipped with tools and features to enhance a photograph. Post processing is about adjusting pictures after they have been taken by opening photographs in an image editing software which is equipped with tools to enhance the pictures appropriately.
An image editing software program sharpens the photographs automatically to add to its focus. No matter how much the photographs are sharpened by software, if the pictures are blurred then there isnt much that software can do to remove the blur. Focus and sharpness of a picture begins from the camera. All that a software program does is to further sharpen and improve the picture. Saturation is the process of moving the colors of a photograph either more towards gray which is known as desaturation or to saturate them to make them vibrant.
Saturation if used effectively could make pictures lifelike but at the same time pictures may be lacking in their natural look. Levels control the shadows, mid tones and highlights of a picture. Contrast or lightness or darkness are simple controls that simultaneously adjusts shadows, mid tones and highlights.
With levels, each of these features can be controlled separately. With the midtone control, an overall adjustment of an image in terms of the image being lighter or darker can be made. The shadow control increases the depth and how shadows are accentuated. Highlights can create contrasts to be higher so the photograph can be aesthetically appealing. There arent any preset formulas or rules to use Levels. An image may have the wrong temperature which could be rectified with the hue control tool.
There are categories of colors that are warm and then there are categories of colors that are cold. Reds and yellows are warm colors while greens, blues and violets are cold colors. If a photograph of a group of people is taken and there is a blue cast due to lighting, the group would lack warmth; hence with hue control, the general color of the photograph would have to be moved towards red and yellow, thereby warming the image. Hue adjustment is more of a matter of perception as there arent any guidelines or rules to abide by or follow.
White balance of a camera effectively rectifies color issues as well. Chapter 8 - Memory Cards A memory card or a flash memory card is a small storage device where different types of data - text, pictures, audio, and video - can be stored and used on portable or remote computers. Other memory cards that are available include the secure digital card, the compact flash card, the smart media card, the memory stick, and the multimedia card.
These cards are available in various shapes and sizes and with a wide range of storage capacities that impact the price. The CompactFlash card is approximately the size of a matchbox while the Multi Media Card and Secure Digital card each are as big or small as a postage stamp.
This is important for any camera you use. Most cards that are out there are reliable. There will be absolutely no loss of data due to power snags and there is no need to periodically refresh data either. As memory cards are solid state media with immovable parts, they will not have technical issues. The cards that are available today are decidedly smaller and consume less power than older options and the storage capacity is much higher on average.
Chapter 9 - Why Upgrade? Quality of image As the image sensors are comparatively larger on DSLRs, the sizes of the pixels on these cameras are larger as well. DSLRs in comparison with point and shoot are far more flexible in terms of the range of premium quality lenses that are included from wide angle to super long focal lengths which can be used based on what the photographer is shooting.
In addition to the lenses that are available, there is also an entire gamut of accessories, flashes, filters, etc. Hence DSLRs are adaptable to any situation or circumstance. Point to be noted; with regard to your choice of lenses, DSLRs have an unparalleled reputation. The qualities of lenses that are used can directly influence the quality of the image.
Manual Controls There are many point and shoot cameras which are equipped with manual mode of shooting. However, a DSLRs design is such that the user would be inclined to control settings manually. DSLRs are equipped with auto modes as well but since the manual controls are at a photographer s fingertips, they are far more accessible than auto modes. Hence its far more convenient for a photographer to set the controls manually while shooting. Arguably DSLRs in comparison with point and shoot cameras would be valuable for a long time to come.
In all probability there is truth in this speculation. In fact, the lenses that are bought along with the camera are compatible and universal in the sense that as long as one does not change brands, the lenses can be used on other cameras as well.
Hence the lenses can be used for a long time to come and the investment is not a waste after all. Depth of field in particular is really referring to extended manual control when you adjust the photos you shoot. DSLR has the flexibility of using varied lenses as well but what makes the camera special is its depth of field which has the ability of taking everything from the foreground and putting them in the background and in focus.
Blurred backgrounds may be created at this point to create an extra effect. There is more glass in these optics, thus making the lenses of high quality. A lot of man hours are spent to manufacture the lenses particularly when the lenses are high end lenses. Nothing but the best quality lenses ought to be downloadd. However, if the camera is a high-end model then the lens ought to be high-end as well. Chapter 10 How to Choose a Model Increasingly, DSLR cameras are becoming within reach of novice or average photographers due to a fall in prices caused by user friendly models that are being manufactured in increasing numbers.
The big question though is how one decides which DSLR camera would be suitable. One would easily be spoiled for choices as there are many varieties of DSLRs available today. The factors that are to be taken into consideration while deciding and choosing a DSLR camera are as follows:.
Some models may be found for thousands of dollars each. Having a budget for a download is a wise decision but the budget should not be rigid as there are additional costs involved apart from the cost of the camera. It's particularly best to go with upgrading lenses than lit lenses.
All DSLRs come with a single battery but a spare battery is required for traveling purposes. The memory card that comes with most models does not have enough memory, hence the need for an upgrade of memory to at least a gigabyte on average.
A camera bag would be included with the camera but that to a great extent depends on the dealer. Some dealers give camera bags and some dont. The bag though is not of a high standard as its complimentary; to protect the DSLR camera, the best quality bag should be bought separately from the camera itself.
A UV filter is needed for each lens that is downloadd. Other types of filters could be considered later on as well. Opinions vary on extended warranties whether they are good or bad but nonetheless they should be considered. What Would It Work For It is the question that would be asked by most sales persons in a camera store. The other variant of the same question that would invariably be asked is what type of photography does the photographer intend to get into.
Once the photographer in his or her mind knows the answers to these questions it. Some of the other questions to ask oneself are, will the camera be used as a general purpose camera to photograph life or will it be used for travel photography. Is sports photography the purpose of downloading the camera or is macro or low light photography needed? A realistic list should be made of the type of photography that the camera would be used for.
Size DSLRs are sizable than one of those compact point and shoot cameras but there is a fair amount of size variants as well. Carrying heavy gear for some photographers is not an issue at all but for photography on the go though, travels, bushwalking, etc. Previous Gear The best thing about DSLRs is that in most cases they can be used with the existing gear that one may already have.
Hence they are compatible. A case in point is with the lenses. More often than not, the lens that is used on a film SLR could be used on a DSLR as well if both the lenses are made by the same manufacturer. It would be wrong to be under the assumption that all lenses would be compatible, older gear in particular. Nonetheless the question should be asked just so that a considerable amount could be saved. The memory card of a point and shoot camera can be compatible with a DSLR as well.
This in all likelihood would probably not be a major issue as memory cards are quite a bit cheaper than what the price used to be but nonetheless it is a point worth considering. Resolution Photography enthusiasts and those who arent can be are curious about megapixel of a camera. The emphasis on megapixels is perhaps more than is required but nonetheless its a point to be taken into consideration as there are a wide array of megapixel ratings on DSLRs. Megapixels have a role to play in deciding how images would be used.
If enlargements need to be printed then the more pixels the better. On the contrary, if the size of the image is going to be small then the number of pixels isn't going to be much of a concern.
Sensor Size Another question in relation to resolution that needs to be considered is the size of the image sensor. More often than not, crop factor is a terminology that linked with image sensor size.
Simply put, there are advantages of a lager sensor compared to a smaller one. If future upgrades are not a possibility then entry level DSLRs can be affordable but they become obsolete quickly when compared with high end models. Moreover there is the possibility of venturing to download a professional camera to suit the needs of a professional photographer.
Your level of expertise and your desire to keep moving on in this field are critical to your decision for what type of camera you need to use. Burst Mode This is a feature worth exploring on many cameras. It is the ability to shoot images one after the other in quick succession by keeping the shutter release pressed.
This works just fine for sports and action photography. Not all DSLRs can shoot the same number of frames but they can shoot on a per second mode and on burst mode as well. This is where the camera shoots multiple images in a single burst. For sports and action photography alike top speeds are required. You need to think about the types of cameras you want to use. It hardly makes any difference though in the way photos are shot but it would be nice to be able to watch shots even on a slightly bigger screen.
Anti-Shake Anti-shake is a new and emerging technology that has been implemented in newer cameras. While lenses are equipped with image stabilization technology, the fact that cameras are being built with anti-shake technology is truly an advancement in leaps and bounds because it protects the camera from physical shakes. Connectivity You have to think about what you are going to do to transmit photos from the camera into a computer or directly onto a printer.
A USB port can be used in most cases. Firewire and wireless connectivity options are also options. Semi-Auto Modes Just like point and shoot cameras, most DSLRs, the low end ones in particular, are equipped with multiple shooting modes like the portrait, sport and night choices.
By using these modes on a point and shoot camera, one would know how to use them on a low end DSLR as the high end ones generally dont have these features except on a few may be. Flash Normally professional level DSLRs arent equipped with inbuilt but models for beginners will have it.
You might want to think about your flash needs when finding a camera like this. These are features worth exploring when finding ways to get your DSLR camera to do more for you. If you've ever wanted to take a nice self-portrait, dive into time-lapse photography or just get a different perspective on your images, you can do all of it with a variety of wired and wireless options.
Here's how you can control your camera remotely to expand your photographic tool set without spending a bunch of money on accessories you don't need. The reasons for remote controls when taking photos are great to see. As the camera can be controlled remotely, the person taking the photograph could be included in the photograph as well. Whether its a group photograph or a beautiful self-portrait, there is no substitute for a remote shutter.
As the name suggests, the shutter of the camera is activated remotely without touching the camera. Its not just that the shutter of the camera is triggered remotely but a person can see his or her self-portrait before the shot is taken. Over and above self-portraits, remote controls can also work for time-lapse photos. Traditionally, time-lapse photography is grueling and tedious as well as hard to accomplish without the assistance of a timer.
As if this was not enough, there is the risk that the camera may be moved from its alignment because of the fact that the shutter that is on the camera is activated. With a remote option and automation, the entire procedure is not as prone to errors as it is otherwise.
Manual intervention is not required at all. Remotely-controlled and fully automated photography creates an opportunity to move away from the viewfinder and photo composition can be accomplished from an entirely new angle. A domestic photo studio could be set up without having to invest in anything except the camera.
Today remote shutters can be used on almost all digital cameras but the specific options that you can use will vary by each model. Using a Remote A camera could be controlled by the remote itself.
If the camera has an inbuilt infrared receiver, a remote could either be built or bought so that the shutter could be clicked from a distance. Building a remote could be fun on a weekend but there isnt any cost advantage. It could in fact be a hobby for someone who is a keen and avid electronics expert. A more functional remote could perhaps be made than bought.
Most people though would prefer downloading a no-frills remote. Clicking the shutter remotely with a twosecond delay is all that these remotes can do but thats all that is needed anyway. This is a cheap and simple option for self-portraits, group photography or to get the camera ready and the shutter is pressed from a distance.
Remote photography is possible, but all facets of the camera cant be controlled remotely. Smartphone Controllers Can Work Smartphones are awesome controllers. Their support is varied and therefore is compatible with all kinds of cameras. A DSLR equipped with an infrared receiver is more compatible with smartphones than with a remote that has been bought for a particular model. Infrared Controllers are Popular Just like an infrared controller can be built for the smartphone and an application could be used to control the camera, a controller could similarly be bought which would fit into the headphone jack of the smartphone.
The camera could be controlled with a sensible application. It could very well be that the smartphone is already equipped with an infrared controller. Once the infrared is set up, an application will be required. All that needs to be done to begin remote shooting is to plug in the infrared transmitter to the smartphone.
The camera should be on a remote shooting mode and the application that was downloaded will need to be opened.
From that point onwards, the smartphone should be within 30 feet while pointing in the direction of the camera and the corresponding buttons ought to be pressed for a snapshot. It's simple to use like a hardware remote but the software has more features like high dynamic range, timed exposure and more. Wi-Fi and Tethered Controllers When applications interact directly with the camera then things can really get exciting.
If the camera supports live view mode then what the camera sees can be seen as well from an Android handset. The camera needs to be hooked up and turned on as the application is launched.
If the mobility of a smartphone or tablet is not required then tethering it to the computer is the next best option as the camera can be controlled a little better. Chapter 12 - Modes While choosing a shooting mode, you have to carefully think about which creative aspect which depth of field or motion and which exposure mode would be selected.
Decisions related to creativity are best left to the camera but everything could be handled personally as well. The advanced shooting modes are as follows:. Program Auto P Also known as Programmed Auto or Program AE, it is a combination of advanced auto mode and the relative ease of a point-and-shoot along with the flexible advanced shooting modes flexibility.
As the shutter button is pressed halfway, the aperture and shutter speeds of the camera are set automatically. In program auto mode, the advanced options of the camera can be set. In program auto mode the metering mode and drive mode can be changed. The white balance settings could be tweaked as well. Program Auto is ideal for snapshots and flash photography. Aperture priority A In Aperture priority mode, the aperture is set and the shutter speed is ascertained by the camera.
Aperture priority mode is used when the depth of field needs to be controlled. Aperture mode is appropriate for portraits, landscapes, and close-ups. In Aperture Priority or Aperture Value mode as its also known by, the required aperture is set by using the main dial and an appropriate shutter speed is selected automatically according to the light in the area. The purpose and objective of using AV mode is to control the depth-of-field which is again controlled by the aperture that is selected.
The depth of field could be a factor based on how far the subject of the camera is from it. As the lens aperture is shrunken down, you will see larger f numbers. It affects the depth of field as does when the distance between the camera and the subject decreases.
Shutter Priority S Also, known as shutter-priority auto or shutter-priority AE TV , this is where the shutter speed is set manually and the aperture is set by the camera. Shutter priority mode ought to be used when the shutter speed needs to be controlled to either freeze or to blur the action intentionally.
Shutter priority mode is appropriate for sports, action and kids photography and when one is in motion. Shutter priority is also known as Time Value; hence the abbreviation of TV mode is perfect for taking photographs of subjects that are in motion. Selecting TV on the mode dial of the camera signifies an automatic aperture selection has been made to be in sync with the user s chosen shutter speed.
Unlike program mode, on shutter priority mode it has to be ensured that the aperture range that. Most SLRs would provide some sort of indication or signal and if the shutter speed selected is one of the two extremes, either too fast or too slow for sufficient exposure, shutter speed should be different. Manual In manual mode the aperture, shutter speed and often the ISO are set manually. Normally auto ISO isnt available in manual mode. Even though the metered standard exposure is displayed on the exposure meter, the exposure could be set however one wants.
Manual mode works best for those photographers who seek the freedom of diversion from the recommended exposure. Its also superb when the settings are unchanged for a series of shots.
Manual mode is used by most professional photographers. There are certain lighting situations that are confusing even to the most sophisticated automatic exposure metering system. This is where manual mode is suitable. This mode is meant for experienced photographers. Manual exposure can be exceptional when the contrast in relation to the subject is high and the light in the background is strong. It is also effective to further enhance a certain mood. Bulb Bulb is a variation of the manual mode with which shutter speed can be lengthened by exceeding the cameras setup.
Bulb mode is a special type of Manual mode that lets you lengthen the shutter speed beyond your camera's built-in limit which normally is 30 seconds. As the shutter button is pressed, the shutter opens and closes when released. For long shutter speeds, a bulb is ideal. It also works during night time photography or in low light situations.
It's equally ideal for shooting storms, lightning, fireworks, etc. Without the B setting on the mode dial, the other alternative is to enter manual mode and lengthen the shutter speed until B or bulb appears. Mode Dial A mode dial, a setting which is also known as a camera dial, is nothing but a simple dial that is used on digital cameras to change the mode of the camera.
On point-and-shoot cameras that support modes, a veritable range of scene types is available. The point-and-shoot cameras which are comparatively more compact and cameras that offer a lot of modes often don't have these dials as they use menus instead.
There are a few SLR lenses that can control aperture to reduce the need for support from modes in the body of the camera. On point-and-shoot cameras, the mode dial does not have a standard location. The mode dial on most models can be found on top as it is found on DSLRs as well.
On point-andshoots with thin bodies in particular, the dial can be found on the back of the camera often along with a menu-navigation button. A few thin cameras can also use a slide switch instead of a dial. Most DSLRs have only a few manual settings and a small sampling of automatic modes. Most SLR cameras also have manual modes and multiple automatic scene modes. All manual controls on pointand-shoot cameras could be compressed into one mode known as aperture shutter priority or could be absent.
Compact cameras show a wide array of scene modes. Point-and-shoot and SLR digital cameras normally have movie modes for capturing videos and modern DSLRs these days support movie modes as well. Automatic Scene Modes In automatic modes, all aspects of exposure can be determined by the camera by selecting exposure parameters based on the application within the limits of proper exposure through the camera's aperture, focusing, light metering, white balance, and equivalent sensitivity.
In portrait mode for example, the camera would be using a broader aperture so that the background is out of focus and would look for and focus on the face of a human rather than extraneous content on the image. In a similar light condition, a smaller aperture is required for landscape photography and focus would not be enabled to recognize faces.