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give 90 Magnetic particle testing Advantages Inexpensive equipment liquid that has good wetting properties will act as a cswipnew-book DOWNLOAD FULL PDF EBOOK here { ronaldweinland.info }. T.W.I ronaldweinland.info Level 2 Latest Book Remember me in your prayers. 3 Welding Imperfections and Materials Inspection Definitions Cracks . welding inspector should be familiar with at the start of a new contract are all. CSWIP Welding Inspector. Level 2. Duration. 5 days. Suitable for. Inspection engineers and supervisory staff. The course is ideal for inspectors requiring.


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Cswip New Book - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. CSWIP - Welding Inspector WIS5 () - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. be dressed. rules and specifications that a welding inspector should be familiar with at the start of a new contract are all the . DOWNLOAD PDF. Report this file. Description. Download Cswip New Book Free in pdf format. Sponsored Ads. Shop Related Products. Ads by site.

Check course schedule Is it for me? As a direct result of training with TWI, I have seen an extraordinary change in my career and personal life Fatchur, Indonesia Inspecting the inside of a pipe for defects Measuring the weld reinforcement on a pipe Measuring the length of a defect on a pipe Previous image Next image What will I learn? This course will teach you the duties and responsibilities of a welding inspector including fusion welding processes, typical weld defects, types of steel including carbon-manganese, low alloy and stainless steels , the hardening of steels, weldability, heat treatment, and parent metal defects. The programme also includes visual inspection, the testing of parent metals and welds, and destructive and non-destructive test techniques. You will also learn welder and procedure approval, codes and standards, and an outline of safe working practices. There will also be the opportunity to practice examination questions while undergoing continuous and end-of-course assessment.

Which of the following steel structures has the highest hardness: a Martensite b Austenitic c Ferritic d All have the same hardness Silicon is added to electrode coating as: a A slipping agent b A slag former c A de-oxidant d A colouring agent The main reason degreasing agents should always be dried from metals prior to welding, is because they are likely to: a Increase the arc voltage b Produce hazardous fumes c Slow down the welding speed d Produce lack of fusion defects Which of the following is an inspection point in Sub Arc Welding?

Why is Hot Pass so called? Which of the following is not inert gas? Why is a welding arc shielded?

Which welding process is considered to be the most versatile? The HAZ associated with a weld is: a The melted portion of the parent plate b The area immediately adjacent to the weld which has undergone a micro structural change c The weld area plus the parent plate which has undergone a micro structural change d The are in the weld region with the lowest tensile strength A crack in a weld zone: a Is repairable b Always results in a cut out and complete re-weld c Is acceptable up to 2mm in length d May be repaired or cut out depending on specification requirements If the amperage is too low during the welding of a root bead, the possible result would be: a Lack of penetration b Lack of fusion c The freezing of the electrode d All of the above Page 8 of 43 Pre-heating prior to welding: a Must always be carried out b Need not be carried out if post heat treatment is to follow welding c Is always carried out using gas flames d All of the above e None of the above Cold lap in another term for: a Lack of fusion b Low amperage c Undercut d Hydrogen cracking When a medium to high carbon steel is quenched: a It becomes malleable b Its hardness increases c It becomes ductile d The plasticity is increased One of the advantages of a multi-pass MMA weld is that it generally produces a: a High tensile strength b High degree of ductility c Coarse grain structure d Fine grain structure The extent of the changes in microstructure will depend on the following: Page 9 of 43 a Material composition b Heat input c The rate of cooling d All of the above A code of practice for visual inspection should cover the following: a Before, During and After welding activities b Before welding activities only c After welding activities only d None of the above Incomplete root fusion would certainly be caused by: a Linear misalignment b Incorrect tilt angle c Differing root face widths d All of the above This is most likely caused by: a Poor consumable choice b Welding position c Excessive travel speed d None of the above Undercut is caused by: a Excessive amps b Excessive volts c Excessive travel speed d All of the above Undercut is normally assessed by: a Its depth b Its length c Its blending d All of the above An essential variable may: a Change the properties of the weld b Influence the visual acceptability c Require re-approval of the weld procedure d All of the above MIG welding tends to be susceptible to lack of fusion problems.

This is because of: a Poor maintenance of equipment b Incorrect settings c Poor inter run cleaning d All of the above MMA electrode can be grouped into three main types. Cracks in welds may be due to: a Solidification problems b Hydrogen problems c Excessive stresses d All of the above Welding a single V butt with laminations showing on the side wall may give rise to: a Lamellar tearing b Solidification cracking c Martensite d Undercut With reference to a root penetration bead, you could certainly assess: a Root fusion and penetration Page 12 of 43 b Root concavity c Burn through d All of the above A fatigue failure is characteristic by the appearance of the fracture surface.

This is because: a It may reduce the thickness dimension of a component b It may cause liquation cracks c It may cause hard zones d All of the above Overlap in welds could be influenced by: a Poor welding technique b Welding process c Welding position d All of the above Flame cut preparation may, during welding, increase the likelihood of: a Cracking b Misalignment problems c Inclusions d All of the above Macroscopic examination requires any specimen to be inspected: a Once after welding b Twice — once before and once after etching c Using a microscope d None of the above A code of practice is: a A standard for workmanship only b A set of rules for manufacturing a specific product c Levels of acceptability of a weldment d None of the above Page 13 of 43 A metallurgical problem most associated with Submerged Arc welding is: a Hydrogen cracking in the HAZ b Solidification cracking in the weld metal c Hydrogen cracking in the weld metal d Lamellar tearing in the weld metal Oxy pressure and nozzle size would influence what in flame cutting: a The temperature required for cut initiation b The ability to cut Stainless steel c The depth of cut obtainable d None of the above Which of the following processes joints metals plastically: a Friction welding b Resistance welding c Plasma welding d All of the above Which electrode classification would be relevant to AWS A5.

The type of SAW flux is more resistant to moisture absorption: a Fused b Agglomerated c Basic d All of the above the same resistance A large grain structure in steels said to produce: a Low ductility values b Low fracture toughness values c High fracture toughness values d High tensile strength The likelihood of brittle fracture in steels will increase with: a A large grain formation b A reduction of in-service temperature to sub zero levels c Ferritic rather than austenitic steels d All of the above Repair welding is often more difficult than production due to: a The material being ingrained with in-service contaminates b Restricted access within the repair area c The possible position of the weld repair d Any of the above EN standard would refer to which of the following: a Welder approval testing b Welding equipment c Welding procedure approval Page 15 of 43 d Consumables for Submerged arc welding Porosity is caused by: a Entrapped slag in the solidifying weld b Entrapped gas in the solidifying weld c Entrapped metallic inclusions in the solidifying weld d None of the above In a bend test, the face of the specimen is in tension and root is in compression, the type of test being carried out would be: a A root bend test b A side bend test c A face bend test d None of the above Ultrasonic testing is of advantage in detecting which of the following weld imperfection over other NDT method: a Lack of side wall fusion b Surface undercut c Incompletely filled groove d Overlap The process of tempering is often carried out to regain toughness after which of the following processes: a Annealing b Normalising c Hardening d Stress relieving The presence of iron sulphide in the weld metal is most likely to produce which of the following upon contraction of the weld: a Solidification cracking b Hydrogen cracking c Intergranular corrosion d Stress corrosion cracking Hot shortness is a term used to indicate: a Lamellar tearing b Solidification cracking c Hydrogen cracking d None of the above The use of cobalt as an isotope would generally be used on: a Thin material b Tee joints c Plate thickness greater than 25mm d None of the above The correct terminology in the preceding question 7 is: a - b - c - d - Page 17 of 43 The important point of high temperature steels is that: a They can withstand creep failure b They may suffer re-heat cracking problems c They may suffer loss of toughness d All of the above An austenitic stainless steel may suffer: a Weld decay b Sensitisation c Solidification cracking d All of the above Carbon equivalent values are useful to determine: a Weldability aspects b Crack sensitivity aspects c Typical mechanical properties d All of the above The most serious defect types are: a Planar b Cracks c Lack of fusion d All of the above Which of the following discontinuities could be as a primary processing discontinuity often found in cast material?

Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a service induced discontinuity? Which of the following contamination could affect the sensitivity of penetrant? Which of the following is a discontinuity that might be found in a forging? The prime purpose of the black light for fluorescent penetrant inspection: a To magnify indications b To make the indications visible c To develop indications d To speed up inspection In accordance with BS what is the minimum distance the pre heat shall be applied from the joint preparation?

In accordance with BS what is the recommended minimum time allowed for the pre heat temperature to equalize? Which of the following best describes the elastic limit? In accordance with BS which of the following is classified as triple de-oxidized filler wire? What is an active flux? Which of the following is most likely to reduce the chances of arc blow? When welding a double V butt joint with SAW process the presence of centerline porosity may be due to: Page 21 of 43 a Damp flux b Contaminated joint preparation c Incorrect stick out lengths d All of the above When considering the advantages of site RT over UT which of the following applies?

When ac only is required for welding, the power supply unit is almost always: a A transformer, rectifier and a means to change the current b A transformer, inverter and a means to change the current c A rectifier, alternator and a means to change the current d A transformer or alternator and a means to change the current The HAZ associated with a fusion weld on steel has up to how many separate regions of micro structure?

The possible effects of having a travel speed too fast: a Low toughness, slag inclusions and undercut b High hardness, slag inclusions and a narrow thin weld bead c High hardness, excessive deposition and cold laps d Low toughness, poor fusion and slag inclusions What five parameters would be checked when calibrating welding equipment for mechanized MAG welding? Which of the following statements is true when using a flat characteristic power source?

Which of the following will vary the most, when varying the arc length? Which of the following statement is true? A 12 pass weld made on the same joint using 4mm electrodes on the same material will: a Have a lower heat input and a higher degree of grain refinement b Have a lower heat input and a coarser grain structure c Have a lower amount of distortion and a higher degree of grain refinement d Have a higher amount of distortion and a lower degree of grain refinement The main reason for using a back purge when welding stainless steel with the TIG welding process is to: a Control the root penetration b Prevent root bead porosity c Improve positional welding d Prevent the formation of a dense oxide layer on the root A typical minimum preheat temperature for an MMA weld made on steel with a carbon content of 0.

Which is often the hardest part of a multi run weld made using MMA? Which of the following standards is entitled electrode wire and fluxes for submerged arc welding process of carbon steel and medium tensile steel?

Which of the following processes use a constant characteristic? What are the possible results of having a too lower heat input? This means that visual inspection of the finished weld is a minimum requirement. However, BS EN goes on to say that the extent of examination, and the stages when some inspection activity is required, should be specified by the Application Standard or by agreement between client and fabricator.

For fabricated items that must have high integrity, such as pressure vessels and piping or large structures inspection activity will usually be required throughout the fabrication process, namely: Before welding During welding After welding Inspection activities at each of these stages of fabrication can be considered to be the Duties of the Welding Inspector and typical inspection checks that may be required are described in the following section.

Rev 1 January Typical Duties of Welding Inspectors Copyright TWI Ltd Typical Duties of a Welding Inspector The relevant standards, rules and specifications that a Welding Inspector should be familiar with at the start of a new contract are all the documents he will need to refer to during the fabrication sequence in order to make judgements about particular details.

Examples of requirements that are difficult to define precisely are some shape tolerances, distortion, surface damage or the amount of weld spatter. Good workmanship is the standard that a competent worker should be able to achieve without difficulty when using the correct tools in a particular working environment. In practice the application of the fabricated item will be the main factor that influences what is judged to be good workmanship or the relevant client specification will determine what is the acceptable level of workmanship.

Reference samples are sometimes needed to give guidance about the acceptance standard for details such as weld surface finish and toe blend, weld root profile and finish required for welds that need to be dressed by grinding or linishing. When an inspection record is required it may be necessary to show that items have been checked at the specified stages and that they have satisfied the acceptance criteria.

The form of this record will vary possibly a signature against an activity on an Inspection Checklist or on a Quality Plan, or it may be an individual inspection report for each item. Straight edges and measuring tapes. Magnifying lens if a magnification lens is used to aid visual examination it should be X2 to X5. BS has schematics of a range of welding gauges together with details of what they can be used for and the precision of the measurements that can be made.

This means that visual inspection of the finished weld is a minimum requirement. However, BS EN goes on to say that the extent of examination, and the stages when some inspection activity is required, should be specified by the Application Standard or by agreement between client and fabricator.

For fabricated items that must have high integrity, such as pressure vessels and piping or large structures inspection activity will usually be required throughout the fabrication process, namely: Typical documents that may need to be referred to are: Although most of the requirements for the fabricated item should be specified by National Standards, Client Standards or various QC Procedures, some features are not easy to define precisely and the requirement may be given as to good workmanship standard.

Examples of requirements that are difficult to define precisely are some shape tolerances, distortion, surface damage or the amount of weld spatter. Good workmanship is the standard that a competent worker should be able to achieve without difficulty when using the correct tools in a particular working environment.

In practice the application of the fabricated item will be the main factor that influences what is judged to be good workmanship or the relevant client specification will determine what is the acceptable level of workmanship. Reference samples are sometimes needed to give guidance about the acceptance standard for details such as weld surface finish and toe blend, weld root profile and finish required for welds that need to be dressed — by grinding or linishing.

A Welding Inspector should also ensure that any inspection aids that will be needed are: When an inspection record is required it may be necessary to show that items have been checked at the specified stages and that they have satisfied the acceptance criteria. The form of this record will vary — possibly a signature against an activity on an Inspection Checklist or on a Quality Plan, or it may be an individual inspection report for each item.

For individual inspection reports, BS EN lists typical details for inclusion such as: The following definitions are taken from BS Brazing A process of joining generally applied to metals in which, during or after heating, molten filler metal is drawn into or retained in the space between closely adjacent surfaces of the parts to be joined by capillary attraction. Braze welding The joining of metals using a technique similar to fusion welding and a filler metal with a lower melting point than the parent metal, but neither using capillary action as in brazing nor intentionally melting the parent metal.

Joint A connection where the individual components, suitably prepared and assembled, are joined by welding or brazing.

Weld A union of pieces of metal made by welding. Welding An operation in which two or more parts are united by means of heat or pressure or both, in such a way that there is continuity in the nature of the metal between these parts. Slot weld A joint between two overlapping components made by depositing a fillet weld round the periphery of a hole in one component so as to join it to the surface of the other component exposed through the hole.

Partial penetration weld: A welded joint without full penetration. Two carbon steel plates welded with a matching carbon steel electrode. A repair weld of a cast iron item performed with a nickel-based electrode. A carbon steel lifting lug welded onto an austenitic stainless steel pressure vessel.

Metal to be joined or surfaced by welding, braze welding or brazing. Filler metal: Metal added during welding, braze welding, brazing or surfacing. Weld metal: All metal melted during the making of a weld and retained in the weld.

Heat-affected zone HAZ: The part of the parent metal that is metallurgically affected by the heat of welding or thermal cutting, but not melted.

Fusion line: The boundary between the weld metal and the HAZ in a fusion weld. This is a non-standard term for weld junction. Weld zone: The zone containing the weld metal and the HAZ. Weld face: The surface of a fusion weld exposed on the side from which the weld has been made. The zone on the side of the first run furthest from the welder.

The boundary between a weld face and the parent metal or between runs. This is a very important feature of a weld since toes are points of high stress concentration and often they are initiation points for different types of cracks eg fatigue cracks, cold cracks. In order to reduce the stress concentration, toes must blend smoothly into the parent metal surface. Excess weld metal: Weld metal lying outside the plane joining the toes. Other non-standard terms for this feature: Reinforcement, overfill.

For an MMA weld on carbon steel plates, the angle is: Included angle The angle between the planes of the fusion faces of parts to be welded. In the case of single V or U and double V or U this angle is twice the bevel angle.

In the case of single or double bevel, single or double J bevel, the included angle is equal to the bevel angle. Root face The portion of a fusion face at the root that is not bevelled or grooved. Gap The minimum distance at any cross section between edges, ends or surfaces to be joined.

Its value depends on the welding process used and application; for a full penetration weld on carbon steel plates, it has a value between mm. Root radius The radius of the curved portion of the fusion face in a component prepared for a single J or U, double J or U weld.

Land The straight portion of a fusion face between the root face and the curved part of a J or U preparation, can be 0.

CSWIP Welding Inspector

Usually present in weld preparations for MIG welding of aluminium alloys. If the root gap is zero ie if components are in contact , this preparation becomes a closed square butt preparation not recommended due to the lack of penetration problems!

Included angle Angle of bevel Gap Root face Single V preparation The V preparation is one of the most common preparations used in welding; it can be produced using flame or plasma cutting cheap and fast. For thicker plates a double V preparation is preferred since it requires less filler material to complete the joint and the residual stresses can be balanced on both sides of the joint resulting in lower angular distortion.

This asymmetric preparation allows for a balanced welding sequence with root back gouging, giving lower angular distortions. Whilst single V preparation allows welding from one side, double V preparation requires access to both sides the same applies for all double side preparations. However, tighter tolerances obtained in this case provide for a better fit-up than in the case of V preparations. Usually it is applied to thicker plates compared with single V preparation as it requires less filler material to complete the joint and this leads to lower residual stresses and distortions.

Similar to the V preparation, in the case of very thick sections a double U preparation can be used.

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Double U preparation Usually this type of preparation does not require a land exception: Backing strips can be permanent or temporary. Permanent types are made of the same material as being joined and are tack welded in place. The main problems related to this type of weld are poor fatigue resistance and the probability of crevice corrosion between the parent metal and the backing strip.

It is also difficult to examine by NDT due to the built-in crevice at the root of the joint. Temporary types include copper strips, ceramic tiles and fluxes. Double preparations are recommended in the case of thick sections.

The main advantage of these preparations is that only one component is prepared cheap, can allow for small misalignments. The metal melted or deposited during one passage of an electrode, torch or blowpipe. Single run weld Multi run weld Layer: A stratum of weld metal consisting of one or more runs.

Single side weld 6 Double side weld Fillet Weld A fusion weld, other than a butt, edge or fusion spot weld, which is approximately triangular in transverse cross section. The perpendicular distance between two lines, each parallel to a line joining the outer toes, one being a tangent at the weld face and the other being through the furthermost point of fusion penetration Design throat thickness: The minimum dimension of throat thickness used for purposes of design.

Also known as effective throat thickness. The distance from the actual or projected intersection of the fusion faces and the toe of a fillet weld, measured across the fusion face. A flat face fillet weld in which the leg lengths are equal within the agreed tolerance. The relation between design throat thickness and leg length is: Convex fillet weld: A fillet weld in which the weld face is convex. The above relation between the leg length and the design throat thickness written for mitre fillet welds is also valid for this type of weld.

Since there is excess weld metal present in this case, the actual throat thickness is bigger than the design throat thickness. Concave fillet weld: A fillet weld in which the weld face is concave. The relation between the leg length and the design throat thickness specified for mitre fillet welds is not valid for this type of weld. Also, the design throat thickness is equal to the actual throat thickness. Due to the smooth blending between the weld face and the surrounding parent material, the stress concentration effect at the toes of the weld is reduced compared with the previous type.

This is why this type of weld is highly desired in case of applications subjected to cyclic loads where fatigue phenomena might be a major cause for failure. A fillet weld in which the vertical leg length is not equal to the horizontal leg length. The relation between the leg length and design throat thickness is no longer valid for this type of weld because the cross section is not an isosceles triangle.

Horizontal leg size Vertical leg size Throat size Deep penetration fillet weld: A fillet weld with a deeper than normal penetration.

This type of weld uses the benefits of greater arc penetration to obtain the required throat thickness whilst reducing the amount of deposited metal needed, thus leading to a reduction in residual stress level. In order to produce a consistent and constant penetration, the travel speed must be kept constant, at a high value. As a consequence, this type of weld is usually produced using mechanised or automatic welding processes.

Also, the high depth-to-width ratio increases the probability of solidification centreline cracking. Fillet welds added on top of the groove welds improve the blending of the weld face towards the parent metal surface and reduce the stress concentration at the toes of the weld.

The orientation of a weld expressed in terms of working position, weld slope and weld rotation for further details, please see ISO Weld slope: The angle between root line and the positive X axis of the horizontal reference plane, measured in mathematically positive direction ie counter-clockwise.

CSWIP 3.1_Welding Inspection-WIS5-2007.pdf

Weld rotation: The angle between the centreline of the weld and the positive Z axis or a line parallel to the Y axis, measured in the mathematically positive direction ie counter-clockwise in the plane of the transverse cross section of the weld in question. Sketch Flat A welding position in which the welding is horizontal applicable in case of fillet welds. PB Horizontalvertical A welding position in which the welding is horizontal, with the centreline of the weld horizontal.

PC Horizontal A welding position in which the welding is upwards. Vertical-up PG A welding position in which the welding is downwards.

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A welding position in which the welding is horizontal and overhead applicable in case of fillet welds. This technique is generally used in vertical-up welds. Stringer bead: A run of weld metal made with little or no weaving motion. An unacceptable imperfection. This standard classifies the geometric imperfections in case of fusion welding, dividing them into six groups: An imperfection produced by a local rupture in the solid state, which may arise from the effect of cooling or stresses.

Cracks are more significant than other types of imperfection, as their geometry produces a very large stress concentration at the crack tip, making them more likely to cause fracture. Types of crack: Radiating cracks radiating from a common point. Branching a group of connected cracks originating from a common crack. These cracks can be situated in the: Crater cracks are found only in the weld metal.

Depending on their nature, these cracks can be: Lamellar tearing. Hot cracks Depending on their location and mode of occurrence, hot cracks can be: Occur in the weld metal usually along the centreline of the weld as a result of the solidification process Liquation cracks: Occur in the coarse grain HAZ, in the near vicinity of the fusion line as a result of heating the material to an elevated temperature, high enough to produce liquation of the low melting point constituents placed on grain boundaries.

Solidification cracks Generally, solidification cracking can occur when: The depth-to-width ratio of the solidifying weld bead is large deep and narrow. Solidification cracking is most likely to occur in compositions, which result in a wide freezing temperature range.

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In steels this is commonly created by a higher than normal content of carbon and impurity elements such as sulphur and phosphorus. These elements segregate during solidification, so that intergranular liquid films remain after the bulk of the weld has solidified. The thermal shrinkage of the cooling weld bead can cause these to rupture and form a crack. Scale can have a high sulphur content, and oil and grease can supply both carbon and sulphur.