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CAKE BAKING BOOKS PDF

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CAKE. BAKING. SECRETS with. Silver Cake Recipe and. Angel Food Cake Recipe. Mrs Edith Moore valuable booklet on cake baking than this booklet you now hold in your .. I sincerely hope you will find in this book- let the answers to. LadyWeb's Virtual Coffee Table Books GENERAL EQUIPMENT FOR CAKE MAKING making of cakes should be of as good quality as possible, and when. of the book recast so that the latest aspects of modern cake production are fully considered. The material in the text covers the syllabus for the. National Diploma .

Keep these pointers in mind for flawless pastry Stick to unsalted butter. Not only does this mean you can control how much salt you add, but salted butter can occasionally make the pastry greasy. Start by using just butter, then as you get more confident, start reducing the amount of butter you use but make up the difference with your white fat. Pastry needs to be as cool as possible. Butter needs to be diced for pastry recipes so if your hands are hot or its a hot day, dice it and then return to the fridge for a while. Keeping with the cold theme, use cold fillings for best results. Pastry is combined with water, so pop a couple of ice cubes in the glass to keep things nice and cool.

A 2lb tin will suit most recipes but you can also download miniature or other sizes for a change. Not only necessary for making bread. They are rectangular and come in many different sizes. Baking for Beginners 11 WorldMags. They come in lots of different sizes but to start out. Trays Special tins A shallow-sided tray is useful for things like brownies. In addition to the standard tins. You can download really shallow tins.

Some now come with lids that can be attached. One that is 9-inches is a good bet. Straight sides are better for recipes that call for the cake to be covered in icing. These include things like Bundt tins or Angel Food cake tins. These mixers beat up cake mixtures or whisk up meringues without breaking a sweat. You can pick up most of these items from your supermarket for not much at all. Out of all of these. A tool to make life easier 12 Baking for Beginners WorldMags. More expensive ones will have separate fittings for beating.

As with pretty much anything. In addition to saving you some exertion. The most basic ones will just have one fitting. But if you want to save some time or energy there are a few electrical devices that can make your life much easier. Unless you are completely seduced by an item. More expensive models will have separate fittings for whisking.

Mix and prepare all in one Hand mixer Digital scales Quick and easy mixing for little money Enjoy accurate measurements Hand mixers are generally very affordable so are a perfect first-download. You can use them to mix up sponges in one go and they are also excellent for mixing up pastry in seconds. Of course. These have a clear readout so you always know how much you have.

The best way to measure the ingredients is with a set of digital scales. The basic models will just have whip fittings. Baking for Beginners 13 WorldMags. It is important that you measure your ingredients out properly. No problem if your hands are steady. Thanks to the growing popularity of baking.

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If it does. Cake leveller Some recipes call for a cake layer to be cut in half. You need this to get accurate liquid amounts. Having said that. None of these are particularly expensive. Whisk Spatula Measuring jug Even if you have a mixer. There is nothing like a spatula for scraping around bowls to get to all of the mixture. Just drag through your cake for a level cut. These are good for quickly mixing sauces or icings without having to turn to the heavy machinery. They are also excellent for levelling mixture in pans and even flopping icing onto cakes.

Some are even essential. If you are nervous about ensuring your cakes are cooked properly, pick up a special cake tester. These heatsensitive devices change colour to let you know the cake is done. Use this to line baking trays and cake tins to ensure nothing sticks. Some are in an aerosol for you to spray on, while others are in a bottle for you to brush on.

You can get themed cases, as well as special surrounds for a nice finish. If you like making miniature pies, then pick up one of these special wooden prodders that enable you to push pastry into small tins without damaging it. Weighing and measuring ingredients is essential. The best scales are digital scales. You can place your mixing bowl on top, saving washing up, and also measure in different units.

If you are based in the UK, you can do without a set of measuring cups, but if you have them you can follow US recipes. Measuring spoons are ideal for ingredients such as vanilla essence. Go for a long one so you can roll things out in one go. They come in wood, plastic or silicon.

Baking for Beginners So much of baking is based around scientific reactions. From getting the correct ratio of flour to raising agent to get the required reaction for a beautifully risen sponge, through to the perfect amount of cream to melted chocolate for spreadable ganache, each ingredient reacts with the next to make a tasty treat.

So here are some techniques to ensure all goes smoothly. Invest in some digital scales. We know we have said it before but you will be amazed at what a difference they make, especially if you get some that measure in different units. Begin by digging into the ingredients. If you are measuring flour, do a couple of scoops to fluff some air and loosen the flour up. Then scoop so the cup is full. Grab a knife and use the edge to scrape along the top of the cup, gradually knocking all of the excess from the top.

You can do this with a finger if you like. Once you have scraped all the way along, you should be left with a beautifully smooth, level top and a perfectly measured ingredient. Tip into your bowl. A lot of recipes will call for a certain amount of firmly packed sugar, usually fruit cakes. Begin as we have already shown, using your measuring cup to scoop up the sugar. Grab a knife again and start to scrape along the top, but this time press down as well.

Once all the excess sugar has gone, tip out into your bowl, ready to be used. If you have done it correctly, you should be left with a mould of your measuring cup. Just like a sandcastle! It may be a different result, but the opening is the same. Get your spoon, dig and lift in your ingredient. Heaped is once again the aim here. Get your spoon and have a good dig in your ingredient.

You want to go in deep and then lift up to make sure you get the best results. The heap As you dig into your ingredient and then lift up the spoon, you should be left with a mound, literally a heaped spoon.

Carefully transfer over to your bowl. Smooth it out With the heaped spoon, gently shake the spoon or use a knife to level it off.

The ingredients need to come up to the top of the spoon. If you need to add a flavour to a delicate mixture such as meringue or a very light sponge.

Do not be tempted to stir otherwise you will ruin it. Just repeat the scoop. Keep repeating Patience is rewarded It will seem as though the mixture will never come together. As you get to the start point. Instead of rapidly mixing things together in a circular motion. This is a simple process of a small amount of the airy mixture being stirred into the other mixture to loosen it up and make it easier to fold in.

Follow the steps below for how it is done. You will lose some air. With a big spoon. The key is in going slow and also making sure that you reach down the bottom of the bowl so everything gets incorporated. The start Scoop round Cut through Place the ingredient to be added to the side of your airy mixture. Use the spoon to cut through the middle of the mixture and repeat the scoop and lift move.

Folding does take longer than beating. Folding allows you to do just this. By cutting through the middle. Time to stop. Beat a cake mixture Follow the process through Initial beat Here we are adding flour to a cake mixture. Keep beating until the mixture is pale and has a fluffy appearance.

Done and dusted Just a little bit of beating later and all of the flour is incorporated and the mixture is nice and smooth. It should be smooth and creamy and remind you of soft ice cream.

Creaming method The beginning point of many recipes The main players Look for the colour Pale and fluffy The term creaming refers to mixing butter and sugar together to make it look. As you begin to beat you will not only notice the mixture becoming smoother. Start with soft butter and add the sugar. Flour is a temperamental ingredient and too much mixing will release gluten. Although the point of beating is to thoroughly combine ingredients.

It can be carried out using a spoon. Baking for Beginners 19 WorldMags. Mid-way point After a bit. To begin with it will look a right mess. We are whipping egg whites here to make a meringue. Once the peaks stand upright. Soft peak Smooth mounds for relaxed mixing Frothy Although the technique is simple. Keep stopping and lifting the whisk up. It just requires a bit of swift movement. Both meringue and cream can be overwhisked and return back to their liquid stage.

As you move the whisk through the mixture. This is showing that a nice amount of air is being introduced to the mix. Whisking involves nothing more than moving a whisk very fast until a liquid changes mass. And in the case of meringues. The more you whisk. This miraculous technique enables you to turn liquid into voluptuous peaks of desire and the best thing? It is incredibly simple to do. Soft rivulets Once the frothy stage has been reached.

Soft peak To test the soft peak stage. You are looking for peaks where the tips fold over. Peak tends to refer to meringue. Stiff peak Keep whisking for proud peaks Once your are at the soft peak stage. If they seem too liquid. Unfortunately each machine is different so it is impossible to give set whisking times for each stage.

You can tell when pastry is cooked by its colour. The skewer was put into the same place and this time when it came out. Rich and golden sides usually mean a cooked bottom.

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Turn the bread or roll over. If you are cooking a cake in a pan. There are a couple of other tests you can do to ensure cooked perfection and both are really easy and cheap to do.

This means the cake is cooked. Ovens vary in how well they hold their temperature. If you pull it out and there is mixture stuck to it. Sometimes a cake can look beautifully cooked on top. This time it springs back up.

Just pick up a skewer. Not great. After a few more minutes in the oven. If the indent remains when the finger is pulled away. But even this isn't foolproof. Cakes are different. After a few more minutes cooking time. Bring the cake out of the oven and gently push down on the surface with a finger.

Baking for Beginners 21 WorldMags. Test with a skewer — not cooked Test with a skewer — cooked This is the easiest test to perform. Bread is a sound test. This shows that the cake is cooked. It sounds incredibly fancy but is so delicious and ridiculously easy to make that we had to include it.

Ganache is a rich icing made with chocolate. Use it to top cupcakes or spread over a sponge for a glossy. There are many different types of icings. It holds its shape extremely well and will keep for a good few days with no damage being done to the cake.

Aim for something like a paste.

The simple glaze. You might also like to try adding jam to the icing. Mix the liquid with the icing as before and then use as needed. It can turn a humble sponge into an object of beauty and with the huge choice of ready-made decorations widely available. If you are going to ice cupcakes.

Using a small whisk. Instead we will look at three types that will set you up for whatever cake you make. It will eventually set to a soft consistency and is great for adorning cupcakes or being drizzled over loaf cakes. It can be spread. Instead of using water. If you want to drizzle the icing over something like a loaf cake. Add the ingredients Check the consistency If it is a hot day. You can add other ingredients to the icing to flavour it.

Baking for Beginners 23 WorldMags. If you want to colour the icing. Blend This way it will be nice and firm. You can add flavourings and colourings and spread it or pipe it on. It only has two ingredients. And don't forget to experiment with colours! Soften the butter Quick beat Sift the sugar The key to this icing is using soft butter.

You will only need a very small amount. This makes it nice and smooth. The process is incredibly simple. But be careful to not let it melt! Place your butter in your bowl and with a hand or stand mixer. Very gently and at the lowest speed. Things will look clumpy but this will soon sort itself out. It can be mixed by hand or use an electric mixer for really soft and fast results. If your butter is a little hard. Beat for a minute or so and the icing will transform from yellow clumps to smooth.

If you want to turn this into a frosting. You want the pieces to be small. Once the ganache is shiny and smooth. Your guests quieten down in respect. The ganache needs to be smooth and glossy. Move the bowl until the cream gently swirls over the chocolate. It just involves heating some cream.

It is best made with dark chocolate at least 70 per cent cocoa works best but if you find it too bitter. As soon as it reaches boiling point. If you want it to be slightly thicker.

Mix the chocolate Pour and bask in the ganache glory When the chocolate has melted. You bring out a chocolate cake covered in shiny and resplendent icing. Ganache is one of those things that sounds incredibly fancy but is really very simple. The chocolate The cream Gently stir Break the chocolate up into small pieces and place into a bowl. If you find it difficult to break by hand. Prep the bag Fill the bag We are using a disposable bag.

With the icing compressed down to the bottom. You simply push one end of the coupler through the end of the bag. Unless your icing mixture is the perfect consistency. Hold the tip up to the end to get an idea of where to cut. Fold the top of the bag down a few times to make a cone shape.

You can either hold the cone in one hand and spoon the icing in with the other. Keep one hand around the top of the bag and use the other to guide the icing tip if needed.

A permanent icing bag uses something called a coupler to attach the icing tip to the bag.

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You can download plastic contraptions with a plunger fitted on the top. This will make it much easier to use. Simply cut and push the tip through. It should sit tight. The process of filling and moving is the same for both. Squash down Squeeze Icing time At the moment there is a lot of air in the bag. The easiest way to ice is to use an icing bag. Use the spoon to push the icing as far down the bag as you can and then close it up and squeeze down. We would advise you to stay away from these.

Create nice patterns using an icing bag Baking for Beginners 25 WorldMags. Gently squeeze the top of the bag to push the icing down and move it to make a pattern. It really is easy; if you can make a fist and push your arm forward, you can make bread. But you will need time. Most recipes will use the mix, knead, rise, knead and bake technique, which we have outlined here. Occasionally you will be asked to let the bread rise for a second time. Once yeast has been mixed with flour, you need to let it come to life and do its thing.

Just place your prepared dough into a bowl, cover with a damp cloth, plastic wrap or shower cap trust us! After an hour or so it should be double its size. Most recipes start by mixing flour, yeast and warm liquid. You might not need all of the liquid — keep adding it until the mixture has come together but is still a little bit sticky.

Tip the bread mixture into the middle. The flour stops it sticking, so a slightly sticky mixture prevents any dryness. With one hand pushing on the back edge of the bread, use the ball of your other hand to push out from the middle. This is the first part of the kneading process. Bring the dough back together and push out from the middle in a different angle. Repeat the process, moving the dough around so every part gets this treatment. The process takes about 10 minutes. The dough transforms from stringy to smooth and elastic.

If you used a mixer and dough hook, do it for around 5 minutes at a low setting. Place both hands on the top in the middle, smooth out to the bottom, and tuck under to make a ball. Place in your bowl, pop a damp towel over it and leave to rise. You might have to keep going back to the recipe; you might have to patch up the odd bit here and there, but you can do it. Being able to make pastry from scratch is a satisfying task.

Just imagine a delicious apple pie, all hot, steaming and covered with cream. Now imagine that it was your hands that made the filling and your hands that made the.

We promise, it feels very good indeed. Before we move on to showing how to make two types of pastry that will see you through hundreds of recipes, we will start with some rules. But we also understand that you need to choose your battles, so if you have a recipe with a tricky filling or you are running short of time, get to the shops and download ready-made pastry.

It is one of the best inventions of the modern world, and you should never feel ashamed of downloading it. Just make sure that you select one with lots of butter. You should always have excess pastry when you line a pie, flan or tart tin, and you can trim the excess away before you put it in the oven.

But if your pastry shrinks while cooking, you can end up with shallow sides. Remove this possibility by cooking it with the excess spilling over and then trim when the cooking is complete. Always create a hole in a pie top. Not only does this mean you can control how much salt you add. When you do this. Keeping with the cold theme. If the day or your kitchen is hot. This will stop it drying out. Use the smallest amount of flour you can for rolling out.

When rolling. Adding lard. If you find this a bit difficult. Pastry is combined with water. Baking for Beginners 29 WorldMags. After mixing the pastry ingredients together. Pastry needs to be as cool as possible. This is also a good way to avoid adding any more flour to the mix. Flattening the pastry by brute force will just make it tough and increase the chance of it sticking to your surface.

The majority of pastry recipes call for the butter and flour to be rubbed together in your fingertips until a breadcrumb texture is created. Flour contains gluten. If you spend ages mixing the flour in with the butter. Too much and you will just make a dry dough. Start by using just butter.

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It will do it in seconds. Flour is a temperamental beast. This is one that is crumbly and melts in your mouth. Additions can be made to the pastry depending on how it is used. The ingredients are very simple: Making breadcrumbs This is the most important part of making the pastry. Cut up the butter into small cubes and lightly toss them in flour. Use both hands to pick up a small amount of the mixture and hold between your thumb and fingertips.

It will take a minute or so to do. Shortcrust pastry abides by the cold rule and you need to factor in a couple of trips to the fridge.

Use a rounded knife. For a richer result. For sweet recipes. Mix fat with flour Cut through Get a nice large bowl and place your flour in there.

Double for a double-crust pie. Use the least amount of flour you can. You can see how the dough is starting to take shape and bind together. You should be able to move it around the bowl and for it to collect all the bits of pastry without sticking. Time to ruin all that! Add water A little more Stop now Water will turn the crumbs into dough. The breadcrumbs will start to adhere together and form clumps. This is after a few minutes of rubbing. It will start off looking a mess.

This is after 3 tbsp of water. All of the crumbs are nice and fine. Add it a spoonful at a time. Once the pastry has chilled. It does take a while for it to work. Keep stirring to take it to the final level.

After continuing to stir the mixture with the knife. After about 8 minutes of rubbing the fat into the flour we can call it a day. Notice how the large lumps have been transformed into smaller ones and how the flour has become a golden colour.

Baking for Beginners 31 WorldMags. If you are using a food processor to make pastry. Protect the pastry from drying out by wrapping it in some plastic wrap and then putting it in the fridge for at least 20 minutes.

Bring together Wrap and chill Ready to roll Use our hands to gather the pastry together and make a ball. The first pass Getting there All done Begin to rub the fat into the flour. And if you have more patience than us. All those lumps of butter are going to make the pastry nice and puffy.

Absolutely delicious. This pastry is brilliant for savoury fillings but also try it with apple pie. It is incredibly easy to resist the faff of making it.

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The idea is to keep little pockets of butter throughout the pastry. Lumps are good The aim is a mixture that is lumpy and soft but not sticky.

Add lemon juice to cold water and stir in a tablespoon at a time. The process involves rolling and turning and chilling and more rolling and turning… you get the picture.

Once it hits the heat. Use a rounded knife to gently move it all about to cover the fat with flour. Rough puff. There are still a fair few to get through.

If a recipe asks you to roll something out to set dimensions, measure it out on some greaseproof paper or baking parchment and then turn it over.

Now roll directly onto the paper with your trusty guides in place. Spread some flour on your surface and also on your hands. Gently tip the mixture out and into the middle of your floured surface. Making sure your hands are nice and floured, gently pat the mixture to make a brick shape.

Tap the top and bottom and then each side. Grab your rolling pin and flour it well. Roll the pastry out and away from you, ensuring the rolling pin has enough flour to stop it sticking. The aim is to roll out into a rectangle, roughly 45cm by 15cm 17in by 5in. You can either measure as you go, or create a template. Imagine that the dough is split into thirds. Lift up the bottom third of the pastry and gently fold it to cover the centre third. Bring the top third down to cover the middle and bottom layers.

Use the rolling pin to seal the edges. Cover in plastic wrap and chill for 15 minutes. Unwrap the chilled dough and place the folded edge on the left-hand side and roll out as before.

Fold up into the thirds and chill for 15 minutes. Repeat this process again, rolling with the smooth side on the left. Repeat so the dough has been rolled out a total of four times. Chill before using.

Having a floured surface is vital for stopping the pastry sticking, as is adding a touch of. If you are using very rich pastry and are worried about transferring it, use a loose-bottom tin. Remove said loose bottom and roll the pastry out directly on top of it, extending as far as is needed in order to cover the sides. Fold the sides over and put the bottom back in place.

Now lift the folded edges up. Another good tip for rich pastry, or for any pastry if you are worried about handling it too much, is to roll it out between two sheets of plastic wrap. This helps keep it nice and cool, as well as avoiding any sticking. A good thickness to aim for is approximately 2mm, unless your particular recipe calls for something specific. Make sure there is flour on your surface and rolling pin 34 Baking for Beginners.

Before you chill your dough, pat it out into a flat circular shape. This makes it easier to get started. When ready, place in the middle of a floured board. Place your rolling pin in the middle of the pastry and then roll it away from you. Turn the pastry and then repeat this process. Keep turning the pastry and rolling out until you get the thickness you want. Flour the rolling pin as needed, but don't add too much flour. With your chilled pastry on your prepared surface, use your rolling pin to gently press down and make a rough brick shape.

The key here is to move your rolling pin away from you in order to get the desired width, turning the pastry as needed. Turn the pastry and roll out from the centre to start making the desired length.

Turn again and roll out the other half. As 36 Baking for Beginners WorldMags. Ovens can vary mildly or wildly. Instead of obsessing over these things. Get into the habit of reading a recipe through before you start it.

In the majority of cases of something not working. If you open it too soon. They always spread. If you add a cold ingredient to a mixture. Just add a few minutes on! If the butter is cold. This usually happens when the eggs are added. It can be avoided by adding the egg slowly and beating well after each addition.

If it sounds hollow. Add liquid in small batches and stop once the mixture comes together. By kneading the dough you are activating the gluten in the flour and this is what helps make bread rise and be tasty. This will give protection and avoid soggy results. If it is too dry. This will ensure a cooked pastry. If you leave any gaps. You made it so you enjoy it! Baking for Beginners 37 WorldMags. Mix it in and the curdle will disappear.

Bread they cook and rise. Despite various contenders to the crown macarons and whoopie pies. As you get used to the process of making the cakes. We have a good range of recipes for you here. The only taste you need concern yourself with is in the eating — not the decorating! Although cupcakes are delicious. Their biggest draw is the fact that they are very easy to make. A simple vanilla cupcake has very few ingredients and can be whipped up. And if a couple of cakes are a bit well done.

With their ice cream-like swirl of icing in all sorts of enticing colours. You can also let your imagination run wild with the toppings. Tap the tin on the work surface to remove any unwanted air bubbles. Look for golden brown tops and springy textures Place the mixture into a piping bag or use a round-bladed knife to spread over the waiting cakes.

This can be dry to start with. Bake for 20 minutes or until risen. The mixture should take on a much thicker and paler consistency. Frosting Beat the butter for minutes until soft and creamy. Try to keep as much air in the mixture as possible as you delicately fold the flour onto the mixture.

The mixture will look quite runny. Fill the cake cases equally for even cooking Sift the flour and salt into a separate bowl and gently fold into the runny mixture. Leave to cool for 5 minutes and then gently transfer to a wire rack. Gently shake the tin from side to side to help level the mixture out. Add the flour one spoonful at a time whilst incorporating a spoonful of milk in-between these additions. Baking for Beginners 41 WorldMags.

Ensure this is thoroughly combined. Spoon the mixture evenly into the paper cases until they are about two-thirds full.

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The caster sugar will make the mixture slightly grainy. Add the egg and vanilla extract to the mixture and blend together for minutes. Dice the butter and add the sugar. And it doesn't stop with the flavours. You can download them in all sorts of colours and patterns. And don't forget the cases. It can be as easy as swapping out your vanilla extract for some orange extract. You can easily pick up special additions like sprinkles.

Bake for minutes. Pay a visit to the home baking aisle of your local supermarket and indulge in the wealth of decorations. Beat the ingredients together for minutes until light and creamy. Divide the mixture evenly into the cases.

Add the nuts and fruit to the creamy mixture and stir for minutes until evenly combined. Option 3: Chop the apricots into small pieces and add to the diced butter. Bake for 25 minutes until risen. Beat the almonds.

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Divide the mixture evenly into cases. Beat the diced butter. Bake for 20 minutes. Apricot Prep time: Option 4: Cherry Prep time: Cut the cherries into quarters and stir them into the mixture. Beat the ingredients together for minutes. Baking for Beginners 43 WorldMags. If it comes out clean they are cooked. Cream the butter on its own with a wooden spoon. Break one of the eggs and combine it all with a wooden spoon.

Baking for Beginners 45 WorldMags. Icing time Wait until the cakes are cool to ice. Mix together Mix the flour and the ground ginger together then sift a third into your mixture. Repeat this for the other two thirds of the flour and the other two eggs. Follow it around and then keep working in the spiral When all of your cakes are iced. Check the cupcakes are ready by putting a skewer into the middle.

Put your buttercream into an icing bag with a large nozzle. Take the stem ginger out of its syrup. Let them cool for 5 minutes in the tray before taking them out and placing on a wire rack. Cream the butter and the brown sugar together. Let the cakes cool before you attempt icing Cake: Buttercream icing: Begin piping the swirl. Draw a spiral from the outside of the cake in.

This mixture might look like scrambled egg for a little bit. Divide the mixture evenly between them and bake in the oven for 20 minutes. Add the sugar and beat again. Allow the cupcakes to cool in the tin for a couple of minutes then take them out of the tin and cool on a rack. Mix in liquid Fill cases to a maximum of two-thirds full Add the eggs. Baking for Beginners 47 WorldMags. To make the frosting Beat together the butter and cream cheese for about 3 minutes.

Beat the butter together for approx two minutes until light and fluffy with an electric mixer. Bake until they are golden and springy to the touch Fill the cases about two-thirds full. Fold in the coconut with a wooden spoon or spatula. The mixture will be thick. A placenta was baked on a pastry base or inside a pastry case.

In so doing, cake as it is known today became a mass-produced good rather than a home- or bakery-made specialty. Later, during the post-war boom , other American companies notably General Mills developed this idea further, marketing cake mix on the principle of convenience, especially to housewives. When sales dropped heavily in the s, marketers discovered that baking cakes, once a task at which housewives could exercise skill and creativity, had become dispiriting. This was a period in American ideological history when women, retired from the war-time labor force, were confined to the domestic sphere , while still exposed to the blossoming consumerism in the US.

Ever since, cake in a box has become a staple of supermarkets, and is complemented with frosting in a can. Varieties A fudge cake is a type of chocolate cake Cakes are broadly divided into several categories, based primarily on ingredients and mixing techniques.

Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find, the precise classification has always been elusive.

Butter cakes are made from creamed butter, sugar, eggs, and flour. They rely on the combination of butter and sugar beaten for an extended time to incorporate air into the batter. Baking powder is in many butter cakes, such as Victoria sponge. Sponge cakes or foam cakes are made from whipped eggs, sugar, and flour. They rely primarily on trapped air in a protein matrix generally of beaten eggs to provide leavening , sometimes with a bit of baking powder or other chemical leaven added as insurance.

Sponge cakes are thought to be the oldest cakes made without yeast. An angel food cake is a white sponge cake that uses only the whites of the eggs and is traditionally baked in a tube pan.

Highly decorated sponge cakes with lavish toppings are sometimes called gateau, the French word for cake. Chiffon cakes are sponge cakes with vegetable oil, which adds moistness. Fudge cakes are chocolate cakes that contains fudge.