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BUKU DIBAWAH BENDERA REVOLUSI JILID 2 PDF

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Dibawah Bendera Revolusi book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. Apa yang dinamakan “semangat proklamasi”?“Semangat. Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid II - Kindle edition by Ir. Soekarno. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like. Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid 1 - Kindle edition by Ir Soekarno. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like.

Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like. Muhammad Mahdi Sharif Beirut: During the time of revolution, many Western schools of thought, such as socialism, Marxism, idealism, communism, to mention but few, were commonly referred to by Indonesian leaders.

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About Sukarno. Other books in the series. Dibawah Bendera Revolusi 2 books. Books by Sukarno. Trivia About Dibawah Bendera R No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Click here to sign up.

Revolusi buku dibawah jilid pdf bendera 2

Details if other: Dimensi Manusia dalam Pembangunan: Sharia is a central theme in nowadays Indonesia, as the fever of Sharia can be felt in many local regulations which can threaten the integration of the country and nation. Thus returning to the six religious traditions means admitting indirectly that Indonesians are cosmopolitan and at the same time admitting that Indonesian traditions consists of different parts of foreign elements.

The six abovementioned religions are nothing but foreign products but adopted and adapted to Indonesian contexts. On the other hand, in rational thinking, Indonesians have no clear background in producing works which have influence on later generations. The answer to the question of whether rational thinking or religious piety should be taken in Indonesian epistemology is not simple.

Yet, to find Indonesian own tradition or to admit that Indonesians should adopt Western thought is not easy either. To embrace rational thinking cannot avoid Western philosophy based on the spirit of European enlightenment which so far leads the current globalizing world. Still, to combine religious traditions and Western philosophy is as complicated as the question itself. As Islam is the religion of the majority of Indonesians, Islamic philosophy based on faith and theological discussion becomes an issue which always occupies Indonesian scholarship.

Early leaders of nationalist movement, as mentioned above, were aware of this issue. But in fact Muhammad Yamin was in the right direction when trying to combine Western thought and the history of the archipelago. In other words, Yamin sought to find the past in order to create the identity of the future.

Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada, believed to have united the archipelago, a unity which later becomes an archetype of modern Indonesia.

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The answer to our question whether Indonesia has its own philosopher is yes, it does, but we should do as what early Indonesian leaders have done so, that is by appreciating the previous works but with the spirit of reinterpretation. Now the question over the existence of Indonesian philosophers is not a modest curiosity. It involves search for identity and foundation not only in scholarly works but also a broader national scope which have been addressed since the revolution of Indonesian independence.

A Proposal To answer the question about the existence of Indonesian philosophers is a long run project. This paper does not intend to give a final and complete answer. Nor does this paper present an example of the project. However, this paper will propose a sketch, or outline, of what can be done to define Indonesian philosophy and to define Indonesian philosophers.

Once again, to argue that Indonesia ever produces its own philosophers does not mean that we will present self-proclaiming local philosophers with their philosophical compendiums. A Translation and Commentary: Geoffrey C.

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Nagasaki, Japan: Hakkojo, Their works are written in various forms of poems, diaries, doctrinal religious teachings, or merely unclear records carved on the stones of temples. The term philosophy is not mentioned explicitly. But our task is to rediscover some elements, or foundation, of philosophy in them and to systematize them.

In doing so, we should reread them based on philosophical principles. As we know in hermeneutical philosophy the task of interpretation is never once completed, but reinterpretation is demanded in different time and space. Thus, what Indonesians have written should be reinterpreted based on new demands and new way of reading, thus giving new meaning based on new contexts.

Nor are their works similar in any level to those of the known modern philosophers. But as a basic rule, thinkers or philosophers earned great names due to their works which were appreciated in the scholarly world afterwards.

Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid 2 Pdf 22

They did write great books, so much so that their disciples venerated them. But they earned reputation, mainly because later generation appreciated their works and continued their legacy. He remains indeed influential and is respected until today for his great mastery in fiqh Islamic law. But in fact his works such as al-Umm or al-Risalah are not sufficient in defining his greatness. Oneworld, The greatness of thinkers came into reality after their death with their works having influenced the world afterwards.

Plato is great not only because of his Republic26 which is influential on many cultures and has been translated into Latin, Syriac, Arabic, English and other hundred world languages.

Similar cases are with other Western thinkers whom later generations venerated. We have no school of Majapahti, Demak, Mataram, Yogyakarta, Solo, Ciputat, or Sapen, or other literary circles that reinterpret, or at least appreciate, their works. To argue in this vein, Indonesia indeed has thinkers with their works influential on later generations, such as Negara Kertagama29 whose fame lies in the words Bhinneka Tungga Ika, adopted as the Indonesian symbol of diversity and unity.

However, Kertagama needs new readers who are committed to see the work in a different way and in a new light and to reinterpret what it contains. Kertagama, like the Republic, will live on in the hands of new readers who are prepared to assign new meanings.

F Ferrari, trans.

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Tom Griffith Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press, Suka Press, Routledge, LKiS, By doing so, this article offers an outline of four possible sources of knowledge epistemology which can be further developed by our generation: Let us briefly explain one by one: If we are fortunate to find an old manuscript, then our task is also to appreciate the source.

Note that material cultures still beg our new way of reading. We are fortunate that old writings such as Syang Hyang Kamahayanikan is still at our disposal. But generally speaking, we inherit too few writings from this old tradition.

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However, material sources in the form of temples found across Yogyakarta, East Java, Central Java, Sumatera and Kalimantan are at our disposal which can be read with new interpretation. Keep in mind that Hindu Buddhist temples contain unlimited wisdoms and priceless knowledge about the way our ancestors brought and put Indian traditions into the context of Nusantara. In short, the idea and reason behind adopting and adapting foreign wisdom put in the new context of Nusantara still challenge our new way of reading.

Like material cultures preserved in the architectural works, this source also needs rereading. Of course, the history of Indonesian religiosity witnesses that Sumatera is a home to Hamzah Fansuri,30 Nuruddin al-Singkili, and other Sufi writers who penned their wisdom by mixing local culture, Persian, Indian, and Arab tradition to express their religiosity.

Keep in mind that Sulawesi is also a place where syncretistic tradition remains alive until today. New traditions are often born in this island. Likewise, Nusa Tenggara also gives birth to a unique tradition of mingling Hinduism, Islam and local traditions.

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In this vein, we readers should reinterpret their revelations. Many historians, anthropologists, and sociologists, however, were tempted to treat them as an ethnological data rather than as a system of philosophical reflection which deserves a special attention.

Furthermore, numerous works by later leaders, such as Tan Malaka, Soekarno, Yamin, Tjokroaminoto, and others, who injected the spirit of nationalism to Indonesians, as mentioned earlier in this article, can also serve as another epistemological foundation.

By reading these works with a critical attitude, at least the foundation of epistemology of Indonesian philosophy can be unearthed. Bur Rasuanto, trans. Selected Essays New York: Basic Books, Recalling ancient wisdom But before proceeding to the latest modern work, a foundation of the past should be discovered.

Perhaps the oldest writing in the archipelago which remains at our disposal is the Sang Hyang Kamahayanikan which contains Buddhist Tantric philosophy showing how to achieve enlightenment.

The statues of Tatagatha can also be found in many Buddhist temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta the main verb is missing. Thus comparison can be made between Tatagatha in Kahamayanikan and the statues of the temples. Borobudur, for instance, shows various attitudes and positions of Tatagatha which can be compared to the description in the book.

Iconography which serves as the foundation of building of the Borobudur remains vital in our endeavor to unearth ancient epistemology which influenced later culture and religious traditions.

Borobudur itself as material culture needs rereading, such as how to achieve enlightenment in the version 33 I. Sang Hyang Kamahayanan Mantranaya. Naskah-Terjemahan- Penjelasannya Tahun: Lokesh Chandra New Delhi: Golden Tales of the Buddhas Hongkong: The philosophy of three worlds, or three phases of enlightenment: These phases symbolize the steps taken in achieving enlightenment in Buddhist Borobudur; the three worlds are also described in Hindu Prambanan, and in mosques of Demak, Yogyakarta, and other shrines.

To explain them briefly, the world kamadathu basically means underground world which contains examples of sinful deeds which should be avoided. The second world of rupadhatu contains laws and rules in the world of human kind which more or less is comparable to sharia in Islam.