As a soldier, a ruler, and a human being, Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi was a person of His work is more than just a biography, as the readers will see. –. Direct Downloads: Download Salah Ad-Deen Al-Ayubi – Volume 1. Salahuddin Ayubi history book is now available on Pakistan virtual library for reading and download. Check out the below mentioned link to read online and. Biography of Salahuddin Ayyubi - Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb (Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب , Kurdish: سەلا.
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'Imad ad-deen's political and military role in Islamic history .. given this book the title of Salah ad-Deen al-Ayubi: Destroyer of the. Fatimiyah state and. Fateh Bait Ul Muqaddas Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi ronaldweinland.info by: urdu islamic history boosk pdf. Topics: download fateh bul. سلطان صلاح الدین ایوبی 1/2Mor ronaldweinland.info
Saladin, a Kurdish warrior, became the Sultan of Egypt and known as a champion of Islam. Salah al Din became a legend in the East and West for his role in clearing the Crusaders from Jerusalem. His capture of Jerusalem , and the Muslim triumph that followed, gave him a remarkable place in the pages of history. The rise of a new, unified Islamic state centered in Egypt was accomplished by the skilled leadership of Saladin. The First Crusade captured Jerusalem in June , amid a horrible massacre of the inhabitants. In , Saladin began his expansion of his territory. In just twelve years he conquered Damascus, Alleppo, and Iraq.
The challenges that faced the state were extensive and touched on every aspect of life in Egypt. The condition of Fatimid Egypt can be best segmented into three areas: political, social, and economic. Political[ edit ] Power in the original Fatimid State stemmed from the Fatimid Caliph who ruled by divine right.
Over the years, however, true power had shifted into the office of the vizier. The initial post of vizier was intended to be the chief administrator of the state.
As the decades passed the vizier systematically increased their power over all aspects of the state, most importantly the military.
With this expansion of power the Fatimid Caliphs steadily became little more than figureheads in a government run by the viziers. Any remaining power the Caliphs may have had was shattered when the last adult Caliph died in This death initiated yet another period of instability and intrigue, culminating with the killing of many males in the Fatimid royal family in These killings sparked a revolt by the Armenian governor of middle Egypt , Tala ibn Ruzzik , who was aided by al-Fa'iz's the extremely young Caliph sister Sitt al-Qusur.
Under Ruzzik, Egypt regained some measure of international influence, successfully defending itself from naval molestation, raiding opposition shipping in the Eastern Mediterranean , and engaging in negotiations with Nur al-Din concerning a unified jihad against the Crusader States. The Crusaders in the Kingdom of Jerusalem were not unaware of the delicate nature of their position and sought to establish a functional relationship with Ruzzik, culminating with a truce between the two states with Egypt paying large annual sums to Jerusalem as one of the conditions.
Ruzzik's son succeeded him but was quickly overthrown by the Arab governor of upper Egypt , Shawar , in In the same year Shawar himself was almost immediately overthrown by a courtier named Dirgham. Shawar fled Egypt and sought aid from Nur al-Din in Syria. The internal chaos of spilled over onto the international arena when the new king of Jerusalem, Amalric I , undertook a punitive campaign in Egypt in response to the failure of the Egyptian to pay their annual tribute.
Amalric's campaign was stopped not by the Fatimid military, but rather the flooding Nile that crippled his army while they laid siege to the town of Bilbays in northern Egypt. The official doctrine was a branch of the Ismaili sect of Shi'ism , for further information on Fatimid doctrine, please refer to Da'a'im al-Islam 'The Pillars of Islam' written by al-Qadi al-Nu'man.
This sect was viewed as heretical not only by the Sunni Caliph in Baghdad the Abbasid Caliph but also by many Shi'ites. Most Egyptians, however, rejected Ismailism and practiced Sunni Islam.
Into this growing void stepped Sunni Islam, which thrived in Egypt's north especially around the city of Alexandria. This resulted in the deaths of many of Egypt's most talented people, contributing to the free fall of the Fatimid state.
Economic[ edit ] Perhaps the only part of Egypt before Saladin that can be referred to as successful was its economy. Since ancient times the fertile banks of the Nile had made Egypt the bread basket of the Eastern Mediterranean. The tombs of the Pharaohs served as man made gold mines to the Fatimids, who actively stripped the wealth of these ancient tombs to support their projects. The final lynch pin in Egypt's successful economy was the growth of trade.
Trade routes extended as far as India with goods from the East funneling through upper Egypt on their way to Europe and the Middle East, contributing to the extensive growth of trade cities like Damietta and Alexandria. For once the weakness of the Fatimid state served as an advantage as people of all religious backgrounds capitalized on all aspects of the thriving trade and succeeded in creating a surprisingly successful financial system.
This strong economy and financial system provided the Egyptian viziers like Ruzzik with the ability to wield amazing funds in both internal and international politics. Campaigns in Egypt[ edit ] A map of conquests in Egypt during Saladin's time. Nur al-Din had long sought to intervene in Egypt especially after missing his opportunity when Tala ibn Ruzzik successfully brought the country under control, blocking his ambitions for nearly a decade. Thus, Nur al-Din closely watched the events of with his reliable general Shirkuh waiting for an appropriate opportunity to bring the country under his control.
Before the campaigns it would be hard to find a figure more obscure than Saladin, but by their end he would emerge as one of the most prominent figures in the Medieval Middle East.
Nur al-Din was motivated partially by his long standing desire to gain control over Egypt and partially by a desire to block further military adventures by Amalric.
Nur al-din sent the head of his army Shirkuh who in turn took his nephew, Saladin, with him to accompany Shawar back to Egypt and return him to power. The force set out in May and quickly entered Cairo where they deposed Dirgham.
Once Dirgham had been overthrown, however, it quickly became clear that Shawar was not going to uphold his agreement, neither paying tribute to Nur al-Din nor giving Shirkuh's troops the fiefs he had promised. Shawar then entered into negotiations with Amalric in an attempt to garner support against his former benefactor.
Together Amalric and Shawar marched on the city Bilbays , which Shirkuh was using as his base. Neither of the allies wanted to storm the city so they chose to put it under siege the native Egyptians understood the flood cycles of the Nile and thus knew they would not suffer the same fate as Amalric's previous siege of the city.
Nur al-Din took advantage of the absence of Amalric and Jerusalem's army to attack the Crusader States, winning a pitched battle and retaking the city of Harim. A peace deal was brokered in November which required both Amalric and Shirkuh to withdraw from Egypt in exchange for large payments from Shawar. Shawar emerged as the ultimate victor having both gained personal control of Egypt and having avoided submission to either Nur al-Din or Amalric. Shawar was aware of Shirkuh's intentions and entered into negotiation with Amalric to renew their alliance in the event of Shirkuh's invasion.
Amalric and Shawar quickly mobilized against Shirkuh's coming force. Shirkuh managed to avoid Amalric's army in the open and travel south into Egypt and use the west bank of the Nile to stave off an attack from the combined forces of Amalric and Shawar.
Finally in March the allies forced a battle which Shirkuh won, despite heavy losses to both sides.
Shirkuh then proceeded to Alexandria where the largely Sunni population opened their gates to him and offered support. Amalric and Shawar quickly regrouped, however, and closed on Alexandria. Not willing to be trapped with his main army in Alexandria, Shirkuh left the city, leaving Saladin and a small force to defend it. The allies quickly subjected the city to a vicious siege.
When Saladin's uncle Shirkuh died in , al-Adid appointed Saladin vizier, a rare nomination of a Sunni Muslim to such an important position in the Shia Muslim-led caliphate. During his term as vizier Saladin began to undermine the Fatimid establishment, and following al-Adid's death in he took over the government and realigned the country's allegiance with the Baghdad-based Abbasid Caliphate. In the following years, he led forays against the Crusaders in Palestine, ordered the successful conquest of Yemen and staved off pro-Fatimid rebellions in Upper Egypt.
Not long after the death of Nur ad-Din in , Saladin personally led the conquest of Syria, peacefully entering Damascus at the request of its governor. By mid, Saladin had conquered Hama and Homs, inviting the animosity of his former Zengid lords, who had been the official rulers of Syria. Soon after, he defeated the Zengid army in battle and was thereafter proclaimed the "Sultan of Egypt and Syria" by the Abbasid caliph al-Mustadi.
He made further conquests in northern Syria and Jazira, escaping two attempts on his life by the Assassins, before returning to Egypt in to address issues there. By , Saladin completed the conquest of Syria after capturing Aleppo, but ultimately failed to take over the Zengid stronghold of Mosul.
Under Saladin's personal leadership, the Ayyubid army defeated the Crusaders at the decisive Battle of Hattin in , leading the way to the Muslims' re-capture of Palestine from the Crusaders who had conquered it 88 years earlier. Though the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem would continue to exist for an extended period, its defeat at Hattin marked a turning point in its conflict with the Muslim powers of the region.