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We next discuss the basic server control construction, as well as how server controls are organized in an ASP. NET web form. Finally, we cover the root server control namespaces with an example of the types of server controls found in the different namespaces. Source Code The source code for this book is available for download from the Apress web site for those who want to follow along by running the code in Visual Studio There is a main solution file titled ControlsBook2Solution.
Please refer to the read-me file included with the source code download for detailed instructions on how to get the code running. The full source code is also printed in this book, so those who want to read while not in front of a computer can still enjoy reading the source code.
NET page, whether a tag without server-side interactivity, a complex list control such as the DataGrid that supports templates, or the web form itself that hosts the HTML tags, is generated by an object that inherits from the System. Control base class. These objects, or server controls, are the engine that drives the ASP. NET page-rendering process. The fact that every snippet of rendered HTML exists as a server control allows for a consistent page parsing process that permits easy control configuration and manipulation to create dynamic and powerful content.
NET also facilitates extension through custom server controls that share a common object model. A master page, one of the many new features in ASP. NET 2. The Master directive takes most of the same options as the Control directive. If you have not migrated to ASP. Figure Notice in Figure that the master page area is grayed out and cannot be edited at design time in a web content form. Listings and show the master page source page and code-behind file.
Listing Each web form sets values for the chapter title and number by simply placing the value in the corresponding Content tag in the content page. This is a simple example of providing a consistent user interface in a web site, but still allowing customization.
In fact the MasterPage class inherits from the UserControl class. The resulting source code generated by Visual Studio is shown in Listings and The HelloWorld server control web form Listing Collections; namespace ControlsBook2Web. Add "Hello" ; list.
Add "Goodbye" ; Greeting. The HTML rendered to the browser is backed by powerful objects that can be wired up to programming logic to perform useful work on the web server. During server-side processing, the object-oriented nature of server controls provides us with three main constructs to interact with controls as objects: properties, methods, and events.
We discuss these constructs in the sections that follow.
Control Properties The most common means of working with a server control is through the properties it exposes. Properties allow the control to take information from the web form to configure its output or modify its behavior in the HTML-generation process. Properties provide an additional layer of abstraction through the use of get and set methods; get and set methods or function calls provide a convenient location for programming logic, such as displaying an error if a value is out of range or otherwise invalid, enforcing read-only access implementing a get method only , and so on.
Properties can be declared as public, protected, or private. Properties are easily viewable in the Properties window available when you select a control in the Visual Studio Design view of the. Figure shows the Properties window when the Name TextBox is selected. To see this, set a property for a control in the Properties tool window and then switch to HTML view.
Likewise, if you modify attribute values in the HTML view of the. This behavior can be very handy for quickly duplicating attributes between controls.
You can think of the Designer as a code generator that allows you to declaratively work with the look and feel of the ASP. NET application without having to write the code. One of the best examples in ASP. NET of using methods for a server control is the data-binding process that links a control with a data source.
In the postback scenario, the code to create the option list is not necessary for the DropDownList control via the LoadDropDownList method, because the server control DropDownList1 maintains its internal option list via the web form ViewState mechanism for subsequent postback operations to the server.
We cover ViewState extensively in Chapter 3. The DataBind method of the Page class recursively calls the DataBind methods for all its child controls that have references to a data source. Control Events Events are the final constructs used for interacting with controls that we discuss in this chapter. Events provide a mechanism to notify clients of state changes inside the control. In ASP. Through the automatic postback mechanism, events in ASP. NET appear to behave very much like their counterparts in a Windows Forms application.
If events did not exist, objects would have to resort to polling to know about state changes in other objects. The asynchronous nature of events provides an elegant means for communicating between objects. Event handler methods are generally protected to the control class the event subscriber , as it would not make sense to call event handlers outside the consuming class.
The Button Click event is easy to map in the Designer by simply double-clicking the button. Double-clicking a control in Visual Studio automatically generates the default event handler for the control. In the case of the Button, it is the Click event. NET Framework 2.
This allows Visual Studio or similar non-Microsoft tools to provide better design-time support. Events in ASP. NET take advantage of delegates as the infrastructure for this communication among objects.
In Chapter 5, we discuss how to work with events in detail. Figure illustrates creating the event handler for the TextBox control. NET Much of the boilerplate code that existed in ASP. The result of all the not-so-hard work to this point is the browser view in Figure , which shows what happens when Rob enters his name and selects a polite greeting. The architecture in ASP. NET that provides this capability is the.
The reality is that the entire display surface of the. The control structure of the web form can be seen by turning on the trace features of ASP. However, if you wish to enable and customize the trace functionality, you have to paste the element within the element of the web. NET provided by the trace feature dissects the web form in gory detail. At the top is the Page control that represents the web form of type ASP. The form server control looks like the following in the ControlsBook2MasterPage.
At runtime in the browser, the generated HTML has this tag: The HtmlForm server control renders HTML with all the necessary information to post the page back to itself, as shown in the preceding line of code.
This allows each control on the page to remember its previous state via the ViewState mechanism and raise the appropriate server control event.
The literal controls have the responsibility for rendering the generic text and HTML tags in the web form without much of a server-side presence. These are the flyweight classes of the ASP.
NET server control framework. The literal controls pick up text or tags in the master page or. The LiteralControl class is the simplest of the two shown in the control dump, because it is a pure text-in and text-out operation. Notice how the control tree picks up the tags between the other server controls as well as the closing and tags as LiteralControl objects.
That is not a backward compatibility concern, because the class is an internally implemented class in the ASP. The DataBoundLiteralControl is the most complex of the literal controls, because it represents a data-binding expression like the one in the document that binds to the GetTitle method of the Page object. It has a DataBind method that must be called by the Page class to resolve its value, just like the DropDownList control had to read from the ArrayList data source in its DataBind operations.
NET web form page execution process. We now shift gears to briefly discuss where the various controls exist inside the. Scott Allen. Based on real-world techniques and workflows, this book skips over the basics to show you what you need to know to become productive with the framework.
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