ASD-STE ASD SIMPLIFIED TECHNICAL ENGLISH SPECIFICATION ASD- STE EUROPEAN UNION TRADE MARK NO. INTERNATIONAL. A worldwide standard Technical writers started to use ASD Simplified Technical English, ASD-STE (STE), in the s. It was initially. Asd ste simplified technical english or simplified english is the original name of a controlled language specification originally developed for aerospace.
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Simplified Technical English, ASD-STE Issue 7. Highlights. Page HI Highlights. This Issue 7 of the specification fully replaces all previous. Simplified Technical English, ASD-STE Issue 6. Highlights. Page HI Highlights. This Issue 6 of the specification replaces all. are experts in producing user guides online help knowledge systems and technical writing consultancy asd ste asd simplified technical english specification.
Introduction 1English is currently becoming a global lingua franca enabling millions of professionals to deal with their day-to-day activities. More particularly in France, English has become a professional skill, among many others, enabling professionals to fulfill a very wide range of purposes and handle genres from an equally wide range of domains and activity types. A problem emerges when one wonders what unifies English as a professional lingua franca, since the phenomenon emerges from extremely diverse situations, which jeopardises any attempts to conceptualise it as a specialised variety. English as a professional lingua franca may not be considered as a unified domain with clear-cut boundaries. Rather, it is a multidisciplinary field of study involving various forms of knowledge such as English as a lingua franca, business and professional discourse analysis PDA , business and management studies, politeness theory, terminology, conversation analysis, ethnography, computer-mediated communication, and corpus analysis.
For example, the verb 'to follow' means 'to come after'. As an alternative to 'Follow the safety instructions', write 'Obey the safety instructions'.
The writing rules specify the structure of the text. For example, descriptive sentences must have no more than 25 words.
This rule puts a number on the plain English guideline to keep sentences short. Tenses are restricted. For example, you cannot use the present perfect tense. As an alternative, write the sentence in the simple past tense : 'We have received the technical reports from HQ' is not permitted, because the sentence uses the present perfect tense. Each industry has its own special vocabulary.
In technical documentation, ambiguous text is bad. Each instruction must be clear. For example, we use synonyms such as ' technical writer ' and ' technical author '. This website is a marketing tool. If people use the term 'technical author' in search engines, and if our term is 'technical writer', then people will not find this website. Therefore, we use the synonyms. Thus, the website is clear to people who do not read English well, and readers can use machine translation.
Wikipedia is not a single wiki but rather a collection of hundreds of wikis, with each one pertaining to a specific language. In addition to Wikipedia, there are tens of thousands of other wikis in use, both public and private, including wikis functioning as knowledge management resources, notetaking tools, community websites, intranets ; the English-language Wikipedia has the largest collection of articles.
Ward Cunningham , the developer of the first wiki software, WikiWikiWeb described wiki as "the simplest online database that could work".
Ward Cunningham and co-author Bo Leuf , in their book The Wiki Way : Quick Collaboration on the Web, described the essence of the Wiki concept as follows: A wiki invites all users—not just experts—to edit any page or to create new pages within the wiki Web site, using only a standard "plain-vanilla" Web browser without any extra add-ons. Wiki promotes meaningful topic associations between different pages by making page link creation intuitively easy and showing whether an intended target page exists or not.
A wiki is not a crafted site created by experts and professional writers, designed for casual visitors. A wiki enables communities of contributors to write documents collaboratively. All that people require to contribute is a computer, Internet access, a web browser, a basic understanding of a simple markup language. A single page in a wiki website is referred to as a "wiki page", while the entire collection of pages, which are well-interconnected by hyperlinks , is "the wiki".
A wiki is a database for creating and searching through information. A wiki allows non-linear , evolving and networked text, while allowing for editor argument and interaction regarding the content and formatting. A defining characteristic of wiki technology is the ease with which pages can be created and updated. There is no review by a moderator or gatekeeper before modifications are accepted and thus lead to changes on the website.
Many wikis are open to alteration by the general public without requiring registration of user accounts. Many edits can be made in real-time and appear instantly online, but this feature facilitates abuse of the system. Private wiki servers require user authentication to edit pages, sometimes to read them. Maged N. While such openness may invite'vandalism' and the posting of untrue information, this same openness makes it possible to correct or restore a'quality' wiki page.
This can lead to a text-based editing page where participants can structure and format wiki pages with a simplified markup language, sometimes known as Wikitext, Wiki markup or Wikicode. For example, starting lines of text with asterisks could create a bulleted list.
The style and syntax of wikitexts can vary among wiki implementations, some of which allow HTML tags. Wikis have favoured plain-text editing, with fewer and simpler conventions than HTML, for indicating style and structure. Although limiting access to HTML and Cascading Style Sheets of wikis limits user ability to alter the structure and formatting of wiki content, there are some benefits.
Archival records differ from the items in a library collection because they are unique unpublished and unavailable elsewhere, because they exist as part of a collection that unifies them.
For these reasons, archival description involves a hierarchical and progressive analysis that emphasizes the intellectual structure and content of the collection and does not always extend to the level of individual items within it. Following the development of technologies in the middle to late s that enabled the descriptive encoding of machine-readable findings, it became possible to consider the development of digital finding aids for archives. Work on an encoding standard for archival description began in at the University of California , in the first version of EAD was released.
A second version was released in , the latest version, EAD3, was released in August ; the Society of American Archivists and the Library of Congress are jointly responsible for the maintenance and development of EAD. EAD is now used around the world by archives, museums, national libraries and historical societies.
Through a standardized system for encoding the descriptions of archival finding aids, EAD allows users to locate primary sources that are geographically remote. At its highest level, an EAD finding aid includes control information about the description as well as a description of the collection itself.
EAD3 was revised in to address concerns relating to the ease of access to archival descriptions and its ability to interface with other systems. Archives by their nature are different from libraries. While libraries contain individual items, such as books and journals, of which multiple, identical copies exist, archives contain records that are both unique and interrelated.
Archives represent the activities of a person, family or organization that are created and accumulated in the course of their ordinary activities.
In contrast to the items in a library, all the items in an archival collection share a relationship. Archivists refer to records of an individual or organization as its fonds.
A fonds may contain anywhere from one item to millions of items, may consist in any form, including manuscripts, drawings, audio, video or electronic records; because published materials differ in significant and fundamental ways from the collections of interrelated and unique materials found in archives, there are significant differences in bibliographic and archival description.
A bibliographic description represents an individual published item, is based on and derived from the physical item, is thus considered item-level. Archival description, by contrast, represents a collection, or a fonds containing individual items of various media, sharing a common origin, or provenance. The description of archival materials, involves a complex hierarchical and progressive analysis.
It begins by describing the whole moves down to subcomponents. In this way archival description focuses on the intellectual structure and content of the collection rather than its physical characteristics.
A finding aid is a tool that helps users to find materials within an archive through the description of its contents. Most findings aids provide similar types of information, including, at a minimum, a title that connects the finding aid to the creator of the collection; the unique nature of archival records and the geographic distribution of individual collections has presented a challenge for those wishing to locate and access them for over years.
With the advent of international networked computing and online catalogs, the potential emerged for making archival collections searchable online. The project's goal was to create a data standard for describing archives, similar to the MARC standards for describing bibliographic materials. The initial EAD Version 1. Such a standard enables archives, museums and manuscript repositories to list and describe their holdings in a manner that would be machine-readable and therefore easy to search and exchange.
Since its inception, many archives and special collections have adopted it. In addition to the development and maintenance work done by the Society of American Archivists and the Library of Congress, the Research Libraries Group has developed and published a set of " Best Practice " implementation guidelines for EAD, which lays out mandatory and optional elements and attributes.
LilyPond LilyPond is a computer program and file format for music engraving. One of LilyPond's major goals is to produce scores that are engraved with traditional layout rules, reflecting the era when scores were engraved by hand.
LilyPond is cross-platform , is available for several common operating systems; the LilyPond project was started in by Han-Wen Nienhuys and Jan Nieuwenhuizen, after they decided to abandon work on MPP, a project they began collaborating on in Its name was inspired both by the Rosegarden project and an acquaintance of Nienhuys and Nieuwenhuizen named Suzanne, a name that means lily in Hebrew.
LilyPond 2. It has a large codebase. It uses a simple text notation for music input, which LilyPond interprets and processes in a series of stages. LilyPond is a text-based application, so it does not contain its own graphical user interface to assist with score creation, it does, have a flexible input language that strives to be simple, easing the learning curve for new users.
LilyPond supports experimental musical notation, its guitar facilities support alternative tunings, such as major-thirds tuning. LilyPond's primary goal is to produce output comparable to professionally engraved scores instead of output that looks mechanical and computer-generated. An essay from the LilyPond website, written by LilyPond developers, explains some typographical issues addressed by LilyPond: Optical font scaling: depending on the staff size, the design of the music font is altered.
As a result, note heads become more rounded, staff lines become thicker. Optical spacing: stem directions are taken into account when spacing subsequent notes. Special ledger line handling: ledger lines are shortened when accidentals are nearby, thus enhancing readability. Proportional spacing: notes can be positioned in such a way that reflects their duration.
For example, with this setting, the space between consecutive quarter notes is four times greater than between consecutive sixteenth notes; the native input language for LilyPond is comprehensive, consists of many commands needed for expressing any sort of articulation, meter, etc. It is similar to that of TeX; the ability to embed Scheme code within a LilyPond source file permits arbitrary extensions to the input language and assists with algorithmic composition.
Some general syntactic features are listed below. Notes are represented in pitch-duration format: pitch is specified with Helmholtz pitch notation, duration is specified with a numeral based system.
The semantics of the pitch-duration format change depending on the active input mode. For example, in absolute mode, a'4 is an A, one octave up from the base A, of quarter note length.
Commands begin with a backslash ; the function of the command in question determines. Some common commands are represented symbolically to ease typing.
One example is with slurs, where ending of a slur, respectively. Another example is with manual beaming.
One benefit of this is. Lilypond can create extensively customised output. An example is the short extract of the Stockhausen piano piece below. Denemo integrates the PDF output of LilyPond in its display, allowing some editing operations on the final typeset score. The Mutopia Project , which distributes free content sheet music, uses LilyPond to typeset its music, as does Musipedia, a collaborative music encyclopedia. Emacs ' org-mode contains support for embedding LilyPond scores into documents.
Lilypond is available in MediaWiki via the Score extension code. This, for example, transforms the notation into The above excerpt is a simplified version of Solfeggio in C Minor by C. More complex scores, including lyrics, are possible within MediaWikis. See Pastime with Good Company for an example. Unlike Wireless Application Protocol , i-mode encompasses a wider variety of internet standards, including web access, e-mail , the packet-switched network that delivers the data.
I-mode users have access to various services such as e-mail, sports results, weather forecast, financial services, ticket booking.
Content is provided by specialized services from the mobile carrier, which allows them to have tighter control over billing. Like WAP, i-mode delivers only those services that are converted for the service, or are converted through gateways.