Download the Book:The Artist'S Guide To Drawing Animals: How To Draw Cats Dogs And Other Favorite Pets PDF For Free, Preface: In this step-by-step how-to. The Art of Drawing Animals: Discover all the techniques you need to know to . The Artist's Guide to the Dynamics of Figure Drawing PDF Book, By Valerie L. Animals are very rewarding to draw, there is such variety in shape and size from a . of the complete book which is full of helpful advise on drawing. What I have.
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We will show in this book that drawing the human body need not be so difficult. or another, people in our audience are aware of human and animal behavior. This eBook is provided as-is, with no guarantees of any kind. Bellow you will find high resolution drawing tutorials for the following animals, in alphabetical. This book will show you a way to draw animals. You need not start with the first illustration. Choose whichever you wish. When you have chosen, follow the.
How to Draw School Books 5. Books are a common symbol of school days. This is due in large part to the invention of the printing press some years ago. Before books could be printed en masse, they had to be copied by hand and were very expensive. Did you know? Several hundred years ago, children in America and Europe used hornbooks. Scroll down for a downloadable PDF of this tutorial.
These areas can relate to figure drawing, perspective, general rendering, or more detailed subjects like animals. Life drawing techniques are always valuable for studying any subject. But the intricacies of animal anatomy are most often learned from books. The Art of Animal Drawing teaches how to look at animals from two perspectives: realism and cartoony drawings.
Detailed construction is vital to the accurate design of animal illustrations. Hultgren covers all of this while sharing tips to improve your drawings along the way. An Atlas of Animal Anatomy for Artists Everyone from sculptors to 3D animators and digital artists can learn from studying anatomy.
An Atlas of Animal Anatomy for Artists is one of the best you can get. This book covers the skeletons, muscles, tendons and outer layers of skin for a number of common mammals. But this book is a great place to start for drawing common animals like dogs, horses, cows, and lions. This is much more valuable to an artist who can extrapolate the information across a broad range of animals for example, rhinos and hippos.
Artists should do their own research and keep themselves educated on the nuances of animal anatomy. But there is no wrong way to study and everyone needs a jumping off point. I trust his teaching style and definitely recommend all of his books to serious artists. Animal Drawing: Anatomy and Action for Artists Learning to draw animals the right way helps a lot whether you want to become an illustrator, painter, sculptor, animator, or any other type of artist.
The book Animal Drawing: Anatomy and Action for Artists teaches less about detailed anatomy and more about drawing. You get a wide variety of animals to study including most zoo animals like gorillas and giraffes.
Birds are another topic of discussion since their feathers are often difficult to render for beginners. This is less of a detailed anatomy book and more of a guide to actually drawing animals realistically. The Weatherly Guide to Drawing Animals relies on this strategy by teaching artists how to break down animals into their simpler forms.
Anyone can pick up this book from any skill level and learn a lot from the exercises. Weatherly shares lots of diagrams and drawings in the book so you can see how he approaches animal drawing.
But you should only use these as suggestions to help you find your own style of drawing animal creatures from life. The author Doug Lindstrand has over 30 years experience observing animals in the wild and studying how they move. He teaches in a step-by-step approach using lessons and guided exercises to help you achieve a realistic end result. I love this book for its simplicity and practicality. Definitely a nice book for beginners who want to learn the constructionist approach to drawing from life.
This is exceptionally difficult but can be learned with lots of practice. I recently covered some creature design books that deal with imaginary drawing. Most of those books would be helpful study resources along with Animals Real and Imagined. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Details on how to seek permission, further information about the Publisher's permissions policies and our arrangements with organizations such as the Copyright Clearance Center and the Copyright Licensing Agency, can be found at our website: This book and the individual contributions contained in it are protected under copyright by the Publisher other than as may be noted herein.
Notices Knowledge and best practice in this field are constantly changing. As new research and experience broaden our understanding, changes in research methods, professional practices, or medical treatment may become necessary. Practitioners and researchers must always rely on their own experience and knowledge in evaluating and using any information, methods, compounds, or experiments described herein.
In using such information or methods they should be mindful of their own safety and the safety of others, including parties for whom they have a professional responsibility. This book is dedicated to my parents and my parents-in-law, for their support, kindness, and love…and to Zoe, the family hamster; she was a great pet. Special Thanks In any endeavor, there are many great people behind the scenes that share in a vision and allow it to become reality.
First and foremost there is my family. My ever-supportive wife Ellen and inspiring kids, Marin and Makenna. They consistently encourage me to follow my dreams and aspirations. To Katy Spencer, my editor at Focal Press, who believed in the value of this book and who always responded exquisitely to my demanding emails and phone calls.
Lauren Mattos, at Focal, thanks for supporting the cause. Melinda Rankin, the Senior Project manager on this book, thank you for your clarity and diligence. You helped me perfect the book in its final weeks prior to press!
Thank you Terryl Whitlatch, you are invaluable as a friend and resource, keeping me on track with my anatomy and ideas. To you, the reader of my books, whose growth and curiosity I love to feed with my epiph- anies of our world, thank you!
Mike Mattesi 6. Many students of animation are understandably challenged by the convincing portrayal of animals in motion. The sheer number of different species alone can make this task seem overwhelming. Yet, there are basic principles that, when followed, create a useful roadmap in negotiating this territory. This marriage of biophysics, gravity, time, and motion can be learned and expressed in different ways.
For some, like myself, it is an intuitive process, from a lifetime, beginning in earliest childhood, of unconscious yet focused and intense observation on what makes each animal and animal group special unto itself—the beauty first of all of the anatomy and then the beauty of that anatomy in action. All animals, from the tortoise to the tiger, have their own variation of dance. I was fortunate, through my parents and grandpar- ents, to have been constantly exposed to animals of all kinds, from tadpoles to horses, nearly all of my life.
Thus, there is a mental disconnect. But to take that anatomy and animate it, one must go that extra step. This book is a useful tool and guide in doing just that, breaking down motion and form into a formula that is easily grasped by both students and professionals alike. Terryl Whitlatch October 31, Foreword 7. She's alarmed by something, and has arrested her walk to swivel toward it. It must be something significant or unusual, because she has no natural enemies…. I described to my wife, Ellen, the secret sauce for this force animal drawing book I committed to write.
This was the first time I had put my ideas on paper. The sketches revealed to me that I had something new to share with the art community, and I was very excited to get started. Here I am now ten months later, in my basement office—or what Ellen likes to refer to as my man cave—a little wiser to and more appreciative of the complexities of drawing animals.
Let me humbly say, my first two books were MUCH easier to write and illustrate than this one. Preface 9. Animal Drawing and Design describes how the abstract theory of force relates to the animal kingdom! This book marks the third in the Force series and rounds out the library for drawing live subjects. The ability to draw humans and animals is a requirement for a portfolio to secure a job in the world of animation at the top studios.
These present requirements are the same as sixteen years ago when I was accepted to Walt Disney Feature Animation. We can understand physically what the model is experiencing because we are extremely similar to him or her. We understand how the model's body works, pulls, stretches, and bends.
We understand that certain poses tell certain stories and represent emotions. A slumped-over pose with a person's hands covering their eyes usually depicts sadness.
A pose with arms stretched straight above the head, fists clenched, and chest pushed out means tri- umph. Imagine Rocky Balboa reaching the top of the stairs at the end of his physical and emotional journey and then slumping his shoulders forward, bending his head down into his hands, and rejoicing in his accomplishments. We are so accustomed to what postures signify that we take for granted their universality.
Everyone else who spends money on the entertainment industry is a human being! Well, other human beings are what you can most relate to, right? A film about motionless, expressionless rocks will not move you in a heartfelt, entertaining manner.
So why are there so many films with animals representing people? First off, many animal emotions are expressed using the same mannerisms and poses in which we humans express ours. My theory is that an animal is not a specific human, so more people can relate to the specific HUMAN emotions of the character without the need to see past the specifics of the character's facade. Sometimes tough subjects can be approached since it involves a character one step removed.
We have in many ways humanized animals. These are some of the reasons why animation studios want to know whether you can draw humans and animals. Obviously, I did not know any of this when I was attempting to obtain a job by learning how to be the best draftsman I could be.
I am here to tell you I have come full circle in answering why I do it. I want to empathize with them in some deeper manner than just copying what I see. An amazing method of deeper expression is force. Through this method, you learn to understand the abstract ideas of force and how gravity, anatomy, environment, and many other factors affect the sub- jects you are experiencing. You will learn how to draw animals through the theory of force. This book is organized by the different types of animal locomotive anatomy.
That structure makes this the first book of its kind. Within each chapter, we investigate how force, form, and shape affect that specific type of anatomy. I take one revolutionary, simple animal shape based on force theory and apply it to the different types of animal locomotive classes.
This approach will simplify your outlook on drawing animals. The last chapter of this book discusses a method with which to exaggerate animal designs. Key Concepts Fear Since writing my second book, I have taught at Pixar and DreamWorks, and I am here to say that whether or not you are a professional, there is still fear to conquer! Fear is the most detrimental blockade to the forward pursuit of education. Fear comes in all forms, some more obvious than others. The top reasons for fear I have witnessed from myself and my students are: Fear based on perfection.
If it is not, then I have failed and thus I am a failure. Fear of the teacher. Fear of judgment. Notice when and why you are indecisive or concerned. Allow drawing to be about your experience and curi- osity, not the final product. YOU create the fear, so rid yourself of it!
It will only slow you down. Remember, you are drawing, not jumping out of airplanes, hunting sharks, or liv- ing in the Depression, so fear nothing! Risk to one indi- vidual is the norm to another. Be aware of that. Use your curiosity and passion for learning to push through your risks.
This is where your courage and pride will come from. To have opinion, you MUST be able to take risk! You MUST move beyond your fears. You MUST be willing to fall on your face to pursue your creativity and become more than who you are today! Once you break the bonds of fear, and love feeling risk while you work, you will never turn back. You must see truth to form opinion. Opinions come from heightened clarity! Much of this clarity comes from knowledge. Your search for knowledge comes from curiosity.
Don't draw with medioc- rity. Strive for opinion through clarity. What are you trying to say? How do you feel during your experience of drawing the subject?
Use creative ideas when drawing animals. You might have a thought that is an analogy. Perhaps the animal's pose reminds you of a natural power, architecture, a culture, a time Draw upon your intuition to inspire your experience. Vision and Empowerment When I was in school, I would play games with my own mind. I would look at the model and then envision what my drawing would be on the page.
My image of my drawing was far beyond my abilities at the time, but I do believe that the repetition of this activity allowed me to believe in myself and attain my goals more quickly.
It is empowering to ask yourself if you are doing your best and answering honestly. You are capable of more than you are achieving. Hold yourself to excellence. I promise you that you will be amazed by your abilities.
Hierarchy Thinking hierarchically, or from big to small, is a profound method to assess challenges. Hierarchy creates a clearly defined path and priorities that then assist in the comprehen- sion of complex ideas. It seems to be human nature to initially resist this idea. We want to get mired in the details instead of seeing the big picture.
Hierarchy is so profound that you can use it on anything, not just your drawing experience.
It could be used to orga- nize work procedures, your process for food shopping, the flow of automotive traffic, personal relationships, and more. When you are drawing an animal, the whole pyramid represents the main idea of the pose or moment. Then within it, the top of the pyramid is the biggest idea, and the ideas get smaller as you travel down the levels of the pyramid.
So, a pose is the whole pyra- mid: The top is the hip to ribcage to head relationship; the next tier is arms, legs, and tail; and then the last is hands, feet, fingers, and toes. As you get more sophisticated, the top of the pyramid might be the face and right paw because they best represent the main idea or story of a pose.
Beware medioc- rity through the lack of contrast. Look for idiosyncrasies. Watch out for symmetry, par- allel moments, and monotonous line.
This rule works for character design, landscape painting, film editing, writing, and all works artistic. Contrast is self-explanatory, but how many ideas can be contrasted? That is where the magic happens. A line on a piece of paper can have much contrast or little contrast. Is the line parallel to the edges of the paper, or is it at a forty-five degree angle?
Is there variety in the weight of the line? How long or short is the line? Does it go off the page? All these possibili- ties represent different ideas in the world of art. Remember that every mark on the page has meaning, a meaning to create the bigger purpose of the artist's statement! Affinity, or unity, means the similarity between items in the drawings. Now, with the ani- mals, there is the obvious, such as two hands or two feet.
In experiencing them, there can be patterns in shape, color, tone, line, and much more. Design is an abstract way of looking at our world and using it to communicate our thoughts. Your art is only as powerful as your thoughts and how you communicate them with your skills. I hope to present you with some new tools to assist you in communicating your experiences. Now let's get down to brass tacks: Line Is an Idea!
As a refresher to some of you or a new concept to others, the idea behind force is to comprehend and experience a live creature's energies created by its anatomy relative to the pull of gravity. In my first two books, Force: Dynamic Life Drawing for Animators and Force: Character Design from Life Drawing, I was focused on the functionality of the human form.
In this book, we are obviously focused on animals. If this is your first Force book, this will be an exciting and new method with which to experience the life around you through the process of drawing. If this is not your first Force book, the new concepts on how to draw animals through similar processes you have been using with the figure will be enlightening and liberating.
The preceding image shows three examples of line. The two on the left represent common methods of mark making with which an artist executes a line or, in my terms, the artist's idea. The lines you place on a page are a direct reflection of your thoughts and emotions—nothing more, nothing less.
Due to this point, the line on the right presents the force line. It is one stroke that represents one idea. Example number one represents small thoughts and two is typically careless thoughts. Power lies in its clarity and meaning. Actually, the force line represents three ideas. That's right, three ideas in one darn line! Line can represent even more than that, but for now let's focus on the force line's three main components.
They are the beginning, middle, and end. When you are thinking about force and confronted with your subject, focus on a main event that clearly jumps out at you. I call this force the directional force because it directs force from one location in the subject through an event to another location. The horizon- tal arrows in the image represent applied force. Applied force directly affects the curvature of a directional force.
The image on the left shows a weak amount of applied force. The small horizontal arrow, pushing upon the vertical directional force, presents this. The directional force on the left has barely any curvature; this tells you the applied force was weak.
You can take the same directional force and add more applied force to it from the side, as shown in the right diagram, and see how much more curved the directional force becomes. It is crucial to understand applied force for a few reasons. When you are in the act of drawing a directional force, the strength or weakness of the curvature of that line is dictated by the amount of applied force driving into it.
Also, the energy that you are about to apply to the next directional force is decided while you are drawing the directional force you are involved in at the moment. Whew, a lot to swallow. This will make more sense with the next illustration.
When you have two directional forces, you have one rhythm. The rhythm on the left side of the page is weaker, simply because the angles of applied forces represented here by the straight arrows are weaker.
On the right, you can see an illustration of a more dramatic rhythm because the angles with which the applied forces approach the directional force are much stronger, forty-five degree angles. Forty-five degrees is the strongest angle on the page. It is the medium between perfectly vertical and horizontal.
If you want drama in your work, think about the forty-five. The force lines create the shape. The way I like to discuss the forceful shape is by starting with what NOT to do. The preceding images show three examples of what NOT to do when drawing force.
The image on the left shows two parallel directional forces that define this grayed-in shape. The issue with this shape is that we have two directional forces and no rhythm.
This has to do with the symmetry created with the two lines. We have created something similar to a pipe. The black arrow here represents the vertical direction of force with no chance of creating rhythm. The image in the middle shows force crashing into itself at the top and bottom of the shape. Again, this is due to symmetry.
Two lines that create a shape like this sausage do not allow force to bounce from left to right. The image to the right shows force equally squeezing into itself from both sides on this shape. This causes force to get trapped within that shape. This again is due to sym- metry.
So what does all this information suggest? Do everything in your power to stay away from symmetry if you want to experience force! If this is the case, what type of shape exemplifies force? The shape is asymmetrical. Force, represented by the curved line, simply moves through this shape and around the straight line to the next shape. FORCE seam- lessly slides from one shape to the next around the structural, straight ideas.
At first glance, this shape seems to occur most obvi- ously in the unguligrade class legs horses, giraffes, etc. Your job is to look more closely and think about the function of force in the shape. Here are some methods with which to do so: This is an example again of two straight lines parallel to one another.
This shape is absent of force. The way to add some force to the shape is to angle one of the lines and create a more arrow-like shape. Although it is not as aggressive as the curve, you still retain a sense of energy moving down the arrow shape. This last shape is an iteration on the forceful shape. The curved line here is con- cave though instead of convex.
This shape occurs in animals due to the stretching of skin from joint to joint. Be careful not to overuse this shape because it can pull force out of the animal design.
In the above illustration, the line that runs along the left side of the shape is actually composed of three separate lines or ideas. Although it looks as though lines One and Two are one line or idea, they are not. Line One is a concave curve, and line Two is a convex curve. To draw from one directly into the other without recognition of this fact causes a disconnect from force. The long line on the right side of the shape is the actual force running through the page.
This means that the lines on the left are there to support that concept. If the left side becomes too soft, the shape will fall apart. So those are the basics of forceful shape. Let's take these principles and bring them to the three different locomotive classes of mammals covered in this book: Chapter 1 There is only one anatomical structure to understand when drawing human beings.
In the animal kingdom, there are many. This vast difference lead to numerous architectural iterations for the book. Other animal drawing books present their ideas on a per ani- mal basis, but that did not make much sense to me.
My focus was NOT to teach you, the reader, how to draw a bear or horse. I want you to leave this book with a broader understanding: Since this book is based on the abstraction of force, it made perfect sense to compose the chapters in the main three mammal locomotive classes. They are plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade. This approach was still not a simple enough manner with which to draw all mammals, so I dug deeper.
My epiphany was that the main difference in these mammals is the adjustments made in their appendages or front and back legs, not in the trunk of their bodies. These changes determine how fast the animals move. In general, a plantigrade animal is much slower than a unguligrade, for example. These two animal types are designed to function against friction and gravity in two different ways.
My research led me to another incredible find, one that will change the way we per- ceive the animal kingdom and thus how we connect to and draw it. Join me now, through the step-by-step process I experienced to reveal this discovery. Since I am not an animal but a human, I started with human anatomy and analyzed how it is different from an animal's. Always start with what you know. Let's go through these steps together to better help you understand my conclusions.
Animal Drawing Step One Let's start with the human body. The main concept to focus on in the upright human is rhythm's functional design defined by a left-to-right motion. This motion is caused by gravity unfailingly pulling down on the human body.
Our anatomy has reacted to this pull and therefore is designed to function with this invisible FORCE'S constant pull on us.
The animal has one less directional force than the human. Why does this occur? The rhythm of the animal is as follows: There is an upward force in the hips, similar to the human.
Then there is a downward force in the human lower back. In the animal, downward force occurs much further up the spine where the weight of the ribcage and all the animal's internal organs are pulled down by gravity. This difference will lead us to further investigation. In the human, the third force pushes up into the upper back, where in the animal we find our last force pushes up the neck and head.
So the force that is missing in the animal is the upward force in the shoulders and upper back. Let's take a closer look at this region of anatomy and figure out why this is occurring. The human's ribcage is in a more horizontal alignment. The blades slide left and right along the back of the body.
They can also rotate to some degree on the back's surface. An animal's ribcage is primarily vertical in its alignment. This allows for the blades to slide along the long axis of its ribcage.
This also stops animals from stretching their forelimbs away from their ribcage, otherwise known as brachiating. The close-up image on the bottom presents that skeletally the clavicle attached to the ribcage , scapula, and the humerus, or upper arm bone, all lock into one another.
Just to make my point clear, this means that all the weight in the front end of an animal's body is supported by the sliding scapulas and the muscles that surround them. When we, as human beings, do a push-up and position ourselves horizontally, our ribcage and internal organs are sup- ported by the skeletal structure of the clavicle, scapula, and humerus! An animal does not possess this skeletal support! Animal Drawing The Big Reveal! Here is the silhouette of our force animal.
This animal is what all others will evolve from. Perfect efficiency. The shape is broken down into three sections. Each section comprises a straight to curve shape that links up with the next one in the adjacent section. The orientation of this shape is called out with a separate illustration of a straight to curve shape.
Let's discuss: This area represents the upward force in the hip region.
This occurs here because the spine is attached to the hips. The bottom of the shape in this area offers a straight line to support the upward force. This section presents what we have been discussing for the past few pages. Area two represents the downward force of gravity pulling on the animal's ribcage and organs. The straight line along the back shows the support needed to sus- pend the animal's weight from area one to area three.
The opposing force found here lifts the animal's head through the structure of the neck. The more horizontal the animal's natural orientation, the lower on the skull the spine is attached. I threw a grid along its surface, clearly accentuating its form. Now you can see how it fills space. So let's test-drive this design a bit.
The poses to the left present the force animal shape filled with form. See the flexibility and form. No limbs yet. Animal Drawing Just to add the slightest bit of anatomy, the preceding quick sketches of the force animal show tone representing the head, ribcage, and the hip regions. Simple form and overlapping lines present us with perspective.
These simple forms remind me of the first animal we will discuss. A seal! As I mentioned in my previous book, Force: Most of that anatomy is buried within the shape of the mammal's body.
The comparison images are designed to clearly present a quick snapshot of many different aspects of the specific animal. This same layout will be applied to multiple animals throughout the chapters in this book. Following are the different areas and the information they present us with: The silhouette of the seal based on our force animal shape with the skeletal system found within the shape.
Human anatomy of the rear leg and foot to compare to the animal in question. A pull-down image of the seal's rear limb compared to a human's leg. A pull-down image of the seal's forelimb compared to a human's arm. The human arm, used to compare to the forelimb of the mammal in question. This visual protrusion signals applied force thrust upward by the vertical directional force fighting gravity.
This protrusion causes confusion among many artists between the scapula's upward force and the downward force in the ribcage. Giraffes eat the leaves off acacia trees. Because of this, they have a long neck and legs. Their scapulas are enormous, defining the large triangular shape of their bodies and supporting the heavy front end that they carry. The anteater, on the other hand, eats ants. Its short and stubby legs traverse over the landscape while its vacuum-like snout searches and sucks up food.
Its snout curves toward the ground, not the sky. Its body silhouette, created by anatomy, derives from the animal's function.
The silhouette of an animal's trunk can drastically change based on the functional design evolved for today. The animal's environment helped mold the most efficient machines. The design of the animal's anatomy derives from eating habits and its methods of motion, protection, and hunting. This design comes from the environment: The animal's lung size legitimizes the animal's need for oxygen, which comes from its physical exertions. This size changes the silhouette.
As mentioned previously, I will be using comparative anatomy throughout the entire book. So the above illustration shows the different grades based on human anatomy. This is how they function: These animals plant their entire hand and foot on the ground. Similar to a human being. The definition is that these animals walk on their toes, but I see it more as walking on the pad of the hand or ball of the foot.
These animals walk on their fingertip or toe. Height increase in the joints among different animals increases the springiness of the animal, the length of its stride, and thus the general speed of that locomotive class. Specific animals break this general rule, such as the world's fastest land animal, the cheetah.
This cat lives in the digitigrade locomotive class and yet owns a top speed greater than any unguligrade class animal: A cheetah is a digitigrade and moves faster than a horse, an unguligrade. Animal Drawing For an animal to obtain forward movement, two directions of force must take place to create a third. One direction is vertical: The legs of the creature in question must lift off the ground to allow forward movement.
The second direction is horizontal: The creature must move parallel to the ground. The image above shows how mammals move forward. Forward motion is achieved through the above rhythms in the body and head by allowing for a front limb to reach out into space. The rhythms set up a canter levering between the ribcage and hips. As a corner of the ribcage tips upward relative to this image , the arm reaches outward.
Another way to describe this follows: The ribcage tilts, as presented with the gray line and arrow. This movement allows the forelimb to stretch forward.
As the ribcage tilts, so do the hips, allowing the back legs to operate. When a mammal walks, one side stretches open, and the other side compresses, or closes up the space between the front and rear limb. When the back leg on a given side steps forward, it appears to kick the front leg on the same side forward. So, as the right rear leg closes the gap with the front right leg, it appears to kick the front leg forward.
The rear leg replaces the weight the front leg was bearing by taking its place on the ground surface so the front right leg can now stride forward.
This pattern occurs at opposing times on each side of the animal, allowing the animal's four legs to walk. The above images present more information clearly illustrating a horse's walk sequence. I will use the word far for the appendages on the horse's left side and close for the horse's right side. Also, the close appendages support the horse's weight, allowing them to move into their supportive positions. Something has to carry the weight! As the legs on one side are performing this act, the other two legs support the weight of the animal.
This is the general manner with which all four legged mammals walk. It has a lead foot, the foot that hits the ground first. That lead foot switches relative to the direction of a turn. For instance, if the animal in question is running and turning to the right, the right foot hits the ground first out of the front two feet. The left or outside foot is there for balance.
The lead is taking the brunt of the animal's weight. Motorcycles operate in a similar manner. The side you lean on takes the brunt of the weight, and it is the direction the bike will turn in at high speeds. To add to the analogy, the back legs of the animal are its engine; the spring of the rear legs propel the animal forward while the front legs steer.
The animal silhouette displays its spring-like quality. When an animal runs, new locomotive patterns and movements occur throughout the body. The spine not only bends left to right, but on faster land animals also bends toward and away from the ground. The cheetah is an exaggerated example of this, as presented above.
The bending of the spine permits the cheetah to stretch its limbs out further in front and behind itself than most animals, giving it tremendous reach and thus allowing for the cheetah to travel at great speeds. These three drawings present what could be either the fore or rear limbs of an animal.
Within each gray box, two white lines show the angle of either the shoulder blade and forearm in the fore limb OR the thigh and foot in the rear limb. The point or trick I am stating here is, generally speaking, the angle of the shoulder blade or thigh is almost parallel to the forearm or foot. The top drawing shows an animal standing and the bottom, reclining. Look at the parallel presented in the relationship between the anatomies described earlier.
At Disney, this was described as the folding chair concept, since a folding chair opens and closes with parallel bars with simple hinges connecting them.
This is caused by the way the chair or an animal's anatomy is built. Animal Drawing An important use of force that I have not described in any of my previous books is its use at a higher level than within one drawing. In this image, the concept of force describes the power found within multiple moments or drawings.
The force paths of the front and rear limbs of a horse track the first joint similar to the ball of the foot on a human and the wrist joint in the forelimb. The path of the forelimb possesses a strong peak at the top of its movement before the leg snaps down to the ground to support the weight of the animal. This is seen within the path of the right arrow.
The elliptical rear leg path describes motion with less shape contrast. This chapter, the most important in this book, defines force and its relationship with animals. Please read and reference it numerous times for a full understanding of what lies within its pages. Your level of understanding determines your success with the following chapters. Chapter 2 Examples of plantigrade animals are prairie dogs, raccoons, opossums, bears, kanga- roo, weasels, mice, pandas, rats, squirrels, skunks, and hedgehogs.
Plantigrades Slow Land Animals Bears Here is a basic profile view of a plantigrade mammal—in this case, a bear. Keeping in mind all that we discussed in Chapter 1, remember that the shoulder blades are NOT attached to the ribcage in any skeletal manner, but the hips are.
That gives us our force mammal shape. Then I have superimposed on top of that shape the rectangles that align with the extruded fore and rear limbs of the bear, and next to each limb is the human anatomy counterpart.
In short, you can see how identical the two are. The similarity in proportion and anatomy to humans makes the plantigrades the easiest of mammals to understand and therefore draw. With all animals, pay attention to where the knee, elbow, ankle, and wrist joints land between the bottom of the body and the ground. Animal Drawing This image shows a side-by-side comparison of the hand of a plantigrade mammal. The similarity here is the closest of all the animal locomotive classes we will cover in this book.
The front paws of these mammals basically operate in the same behavior as human hands. When the plantigrade bends the wrist, force will apply itself across the forearm to the top side of the wrist, creating another rhythm, as demonstrated above. Animal Drawing The plantigrade foot is also extremely similar to ours. The knee is typically not in a locked-back position, so force drives down the front of the entire leg and then applies itself to the back of the ankle. This new directional force then moves over to the top of the foot, where it then moves to the ball of the foot and out the toes in smaller rhythms.
Notice how the fore and rear legs are close together, and on the far side, they are apart. That is why it is up in the air and making its way to a location in front of the bear. I have also illustrated the force shape of the grizzly and presented the three main movements of force in the body and the small one for the upturned front of the muzzle.
This bear divulges his struggle with gravity through the amount of force presented in the shoulder. The bear fabricates a brace-like structure with the front limbs, while the rear limbs attempt to resist the slide down the slope.
Observe the force shape to assist in understanding its previously described relationship to the front and rear limbs. Animal Drawing The name grizzly comes from grizzled or gray-haired.
This characteristic is one that separates the grizzly from other bears. Their beginning is up in the shoulder blade. Force then travels down into the shoulder, where force transfers itself over to the back of the forearm, creating a rhythm. My favorite moment in this drawing is the weight captured at the bottom of the ribcage and start of the belly.
I hope you can see the suspension of that weight supported by the hips and then the shoulders. Remember that the stomach force sweeps up to the top of the neck. The grizzly with the upper hand is hierarchically at the top of the pyramid in their relationship, and this image again proves why. The transition from image to image provides the process with which the king grizzly overpowers the younger one.
Notice the change in angle of the arrow furthest at the bottom and how it moves in a clockwise direction, presenting the change in applied force from the top bear. This guy is just moments away from enjoying his meal.
This image shows the same two bears with the finishing move. Now you are looking at the relationship of directional and applied force between two animals instead of FORCES found within one. The force of the upper grizzly is pressing itself down against the other. This is a simple example of action and reaction. Using straight to curve concepts, I have added design to this drawing. See the shape in the close fore leg and the far front paw.
Simple straight to curve shapes create an elegant rhythm as the bear prepares for its next step. Animal Drawing The grizzly is one of the larger brown bears. This guy was standing around that eight- to nine-foot benchmark and not looking too happy. The one area that I brought particular attention to was the wrist on the left side of the image.
The way I think about this is to take what is core about the grizzly and push it far enough in my mind to react to it and make it core in the design. When I look at this image, I see that the eyes are small, and the muzzle is long with a sweep. The nose itself is quite large.
The story represents resting and calmness. I like the dense, black claws against the soft, furry face and the size difference I pushed between the ears to give the image depth. Animal Drawing Above, we have a close-up of an Alaskan brown bear and another, fishing for salmon along the top of a short waterfall.
During the experience of drawing the bear in the top-left corner, I thought about the large dish-like head top, the steep plane of the eyes and cheeks, and the long, boxy snout. The fishing image was a fun moment to capture. I like the manner with which the bear joyously walked toward land to eat his catch.
I tried to capture the compression of the back leg as he walked away. Alaskan Brown Bear This bear has huge arms and shoulders to endure his weight. These Alaskan brown bears are large!
They can weigh upwards of 1, pounds and stand around nine feet tall.