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Covering the major periods of Greek histo- ry, Ancient Greece:An Illustrated History brings the past alive to a new generation of students and gives them the. ANCIENT GREECE. Politics, Society, and Culture. Sarah B. Pomeroy. Stanley M. Burstein. Hunter College and. California State University, the City University of. ancient Greek World Revised edition. David Sacks Editorial Consultant Oswyn Murray Revised by Lisa R. Brody Encyclopedia of the Ancient Greek World.
No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information contact: Facts On File, Inc. ISBN Facts On File books are available at special discounts when downloadd in bulk quantities for businesses, associations, institutions, or sales promotions. Text design by Joan M. For Rebecca and Katie Sacks.
Their legacy to modern global society is immense.
The Greeks invented democracy, narrative history writing, stage tragedy and comedy, philosophy, biological study, and political theory.
They introduced the alphabet to European languages. They developed monumental styles of architecture that in the United States are used for museums, courthouses, and other public buildings. They created a system of sports competitions and a cult of physical fitness, both of which we have inherited.
In sculpture, they perfected the representation of the human body. In geometry, they developed theorems and terminology still taught in schools. They created the idea of a national literature, with its recognized great writers and the libraries to preserve their work.
And perhaps what most people would think of first the Greeks bequeathed to us their treasure trove of myths, including a hero who remains a favorite today—Herakles, or Hercules. The early Greeks learned much about art and technology from Near Eastern peoples such as the Egyptians and Phoenicians.
But more usually the Greeks became the teachers of others. They were an enterprising, often friendly people, and—as sea traders, colonists, mercenary soldiers, or conquerors—they traveled the world from southern Spain to Pakistan. Everywhere they went, they cast a spell through the magnetic appeal of their culture and style of life. Influenced by imported Greek goods and ideas from the s or s B. This early stage was followed by a more elaborate copying—of Greek coinage, architecture, and other arts— starting in the s B.
When the Romans sought to create their own national literature, they naturally turned to Greek models in epic and lyric poetry, history writing, rhetoric, tragedy, and comedy. They also became important patrons of Greek artists and craftsmen. But meanwhile Roman armies were capturing Greek cities and kingdoms—first in Italy and Sicily s—s B. In most locales, the inhabitants became taxpaying subjects of the Roman empire.
The Romans more or less put an end to the Greek achievement, even as they inherited it. The Roman poet Horace found a more hopeful phrasing for this when he wrote, about 19 B. Their borrowed Greek culture became part of the permanent legacy of Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. But there was no necessary reason for the Romans to imitate the Greeks the two did not even speak the same language , except that the ambitious Romans saw these people as superior to them in the civilizing arts.
The Romans were by no means the only ones to fall under the Greek spell. Another such people were the Celts. By the first century B. The creation of the French wine industry is a legacy of the ancient Greeks.
Similarly, from the s B. In time the Nubian upper class adopted certain Greek styles of life: for instance, queens of Nubia were using the Greek name Candace down to the s C. Nor were the Jews immune to Greek influence, especially after the conquests of Alexander the Great — B. In religion, Jewish monotheism was not much affected by Greek paganism.
But in society and business, many Jews of Near Eastern cities adapted enthusiastically to the Greek world. They attended Greek theater, exercised publicly in Greek gymnasiums, and used the Greek language for commerce and public life. In Egyptian Alexandria although not everywhere else , Greek-speaking Jews forgot their traditional languages of Hebrew and Aramaic. For the benefit of such people, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible began being produced in Alexandria during the s B.
Thus, for many assimilated Jews of this era, Judaism was preserved in Greek form. This encyclopedia attempts to give all the essential information about the ancient Greek world.
Aimed at highschool and college students and general readers, the book tries to convey the achievements of the Greek world, while also showing its warts. And warts there were, including slavery, the subordination of women, brutal imperialism, and the insanely debilitating wars of Greek against Greek. The entries embrace political history, social conditions, warfare, religion, mythology, literature, art, philosophy, science, and daily life. Short biographies are given for important leaders, thinkers, and artists.
Particular care is taken, by way of several entries, to explain the emergence and the workings of Athenian democracy. Supplementing the text are more than 70 ink drawings, based mainly on photographs of extant Greek sculpture, vase paintings, architecture, and metalwork. My research has involved English-language scholarly books and articles, ancient Greek works in translation, and many of the ancient Greek texts themselves. I have used my own translations for quotations from Greek authors.
In writing this encyclopedia, I have tried to be aware of recent archaeological finds and other scholarly developments. My manuscript has been vetted by an eminent scholar. However, I have chosen and shaped the material for the general reader, not the scholarly one. I have tried to keep my language simple but lively and to organize each entry into a brisk train of thought. Although facts and dates abound in this book, I hope they only clarify the bigger picture, not obscure it. In choosing the entries, I have had to abbreviate or omit much.
Names or topics that might have made perfectly good short entries—Antaeus, grain supply, or Smyrna—have been reduced to mere cross-references in the text or to listings in the index. The reader is therefore urged to consult the index for any subject not found as an entry. In time frame, the encyclopedia covers more than 2, years, opening in the third millennium B. Occasionally an entry will trace an ongoing tradition, such as astronomy, beyond the cutoff date.
And short entries are given for a few Roman-era Greek authors, such as Plutarch ca.
But most Greek personages and events of the Roman Empire, including the spread of Christianity, are omitted here as being more relevant to the Roman story than the Greek. Within its 2,year span, the encyclopedia gives most attention to the classical era—that is, roughly the s and s B. The s B. This was the wealthy, democratic Athens of the great names—the statesman Pericles, the tragedians Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, the historian Thucydides, the sculptor Phidias, and the philosopher Socrates.
This was the time of the philosophers Plato and Aristotle, the historian Xenophon, the orator Demosthenes, and the swashbuckling Macedonian prince Demetrius Poliorcetes.
Many of the topics that will bring readers to a book about ancient Greece fall within these two centuries. In a book of this scope written by one person, certain preferences are bound to sneak in. I have tried always to be thorough and concise. When I studied Greek and Latin at graduate school, my happiest hours were spent reading Herodotus. He was an Ionian Greek who, in the mids B. And I find, with all humility, that I have favored the same aspects that Herodotus tends to favor in his treatment—namely, politics, personalities, legends, geography, sex, and war.
Perikles dies in the plague at Athens B. Although other Greeks considered the Abderans to be stupid, the city produced at least two important thinkers of the middle and late s B. During the fourth century B.
This part of Abdera included a strong fortification wall, an acropolis, and two busy harbors. Sacked by Roman troops in B. Excavations on the site from to uncovered the outline of the city wall with a circuit of about 3.
The older part of Abdera and its cemetery have been the subject of excavations since Further reading: J. Traditionally said to have been founded by Herakles in honor of the hero Abderos, the city was actually first settled around B.
Soon afterward it was destroyed by the Thracians and was reestablished by Greek colonists around B. These goods in turn become valuable Abderan exports to mainland Greece and other markets. The disadvantages were periodic Thracian hostility and the northern climate cold and wet by Greek standards. Lying directly in the path of the Persian invasion of the spring of B. After the Persian defeat B. During the sixth century B.
In around B. In its breadth of inquiry, the Academy of B. Arcesilaus and his distant successor Karneades ca. After the Romans annexed Greece B. The Academy survived more than years from its founding, until the Christian Byzantine emperor Justinian closed it and the other pagan philosophical schools in C.
The site of the Academy has been investigated by Greek archaeologists since Further reading: P. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Their main town was named Stratos, and their political structure was a loosely-knit union of rural cantons later, of towns.
Because of these threats, the Acarnanians sought alliances with several great states of the Greek world. Thereafter, Acarnania passed into Roman hands. Further reading: Stewart I. The Peloponnesian Achaea the more important of the two was twice organized into a town Achaean League, with shared government and citizenship.
The First Achaean League was established at some date before the fifth century B. A Second Achaean League was founded in B.
Achaea was important in the Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean. In the late s B. Prior to B. When the tyranny was overthrown, the commander Aratus came to power active — B. Sicyon joined the Achaean League and became one of its leading members, so that the league soon emerged as the strongest power of mainland Achilles 3 Greece. This resulted in a tremendous reduction in power and prestige for the league.
As a Roman ally B. However, resistance to Roman interference led to the disastrous Achaean War of B. Further reading: E. In this, Homer probably preserves a usage of the Mycenaean Age ca.
As a result, modern scholars sometimes use the name Achaeans to mean either the Mycenaeans or their ancestors, the first invading Greek tribesmen of about B. In the documents, the name indicates a strong foreign nation, a sea power, with which the Hittite kings were on polite terms. To the Greek mind, Achilles embodied the old-time heroic code, having specifically chosen a brief and glorious life over one that would be safe and obscure.
Achilles recounts the terms of this choice in a well-known passage in the Iliad: My goddess mother says that two possible destinies bear me toward the end of life.
If I remain to fight at Troy I lose my homecoming, but my fame will be eternal. Or if I return to my dear home, I lose that glorious fame, but a long life awaits me [book 9, lines —]. Consequently, the Greeks suffer a series of bloody reversals books 8— At Troy, Achilles showed himself the greatest of warriors, Greek or Trojan.
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Login or register to post comments. Comments JimJams Apr 19 Think I've found myself a new author to delve into before i study classics next year Why 12 documents? Apr 19 Claire Chandler Apr 21 Deck access Apr 21 Reference source not found , — Reference source not found , 1—3. Coltheart, K. Rastle, C. Perry, R. Langdon, and J. Further references in F. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 25 , —91, at , and in D.
Papagno and L. Caramazza and A. Further references in Coltheart et al. Reference source not found , , Saenger n. Reference source not found , 3 and D. Besner, D. Snow and E. Reference source not found , , I.
Liu, J. Wu, I. Sue, and S. Li, L. Tan, E. Bates and J. Tzeng edd. Chinese Cambridge, , —24, at , and J.
Lee, G. Simpson and Y. Kim edd. Korean Cambridge, , —17, at Reference source not found , —7. McBride-Chang and R. Reference source not found , C. Hu and C. An Interdisciplinary Journal 5 , —37, Idd. Guo, D. Peng and Y. Neurological data confirm both phonological recoding in Chinese silent reading—see G. Ren, Y. Liu and Y. Lee, H. Huang, W. Kuo, J. Tsai, and J. Bitter, M. Reference source not found , for further references.
For the Hebrew script, see R. Frost and M. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 19 , 23— Pagliuca, L. Arduino, L. Barca and C. In transparent orthographic systems each grapheme corresponds more or less strictly to one phoneme only. Gaskell ed. Prosodic information at word level is also part of the word recognition process, see J. Ashby and A. Human Perception and Performance 34 , — Yap and D. Reference source not found , 3—5. Castles and M. Castles, M. Wilson, J.
Valpied and J. What helps children learn letter-sound correspondences? Defior and P. Kosmidis, K. Tsakpini and V. Effect of Literacy or Education? McDowell and M.
Ho and P. McBride-Chang and Kail n. See S. Roediger III edd. For sub-vocalization, see A. Sokolov, Inner speech and thought New York, , , and I.
Taylor and M. Taylor, The psychology of reading New York, , — Reference source not found , 7—9. Reichle, K. Rayner and A. See also R. Engbert, A. Nuthmann, E. Richter and R. Reference source not found , and H.
Winskel, R. Radach and S. Rayner and B. There is some evidence that some phonological, orthographic and semantic information can even be retrieved from words that lie in the parafoveal area, which would allow parallel pre-processing of subsequent words.
This seems to happen both in logographic and in alphabetic scripts. Hohenstein, J. Laubrock and R. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 36 , — Juhasz, S. White, S. Liversedge and K. Exterior letter pairs play a major role in word processing in spaced alphabetic scripts, most likely due to their position, see T. Jordan, S. Thomas, G. Patching, and K.