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Advanced Grammar in Use - 3rd Edition - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. Advanced Grammar in Use with Answers: A Self-Study Reference and Cambridge IELTS 13 Academic Student's Book with Answers (PDF. ISBN Online access code pack and book with answers . This is the fourth edition of English Grammar in Use. t wrote the original edition when I was Some advanced students who have problems with grammar will also.

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English Grammar in Use Supplementary Exercises with Answers Advanced grammar in use: a self-study reference and practice book for advanced learners of. Advanced Grammar in Use was written as a self-study grammar book but teachers might also find it useful for supplementing or supporting their classroom . PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today Advanced Grammar in Use with Answers: A Self-Study Reference and Practice Book for Advanced.

Educational resources of the Internet - English. A self-study reference and practice book for advanced students of English. With Answers. Advanced Grammar in Use contains units of grammar explanation and practice exercises. The book provides coverage of those language areas advanced-level students will find most rewarding to study. The book retains the clarity of presentation of other books in the "in Use" family. Two-page units present grammar explanation and examples, including typical student mistakes, on left-hand pages, and useful and varied practice on right-hand pages.

In one, you can use only the past simple; in the other you can use either the past simple or the past continuous. C 1 a It was now getting late, and my eyes trouble focusing on the birds in the disappearing light, b I trouble with that car the whole of the time I owned it. D 1 2 3 4 5 Whenever I called in on Sam, he talked on the phone. When I lived in Paris, I was spending three hours a day travelling to and from work.

Peterson was winning the tournament four times before he retired. We were having to play netball twice a week when I went to school. The weather was so good last summer that we went to the beach most weekends. Sometimes we use the present perfect continuous with expressions that indicate the time period e. Without such an expression, the present perfect continuous refers to a recent situation or activity and focuses on its present results: It's been snowing.

We can use the present perfect continuous or a present tense the present simple or the present continuous when we talk about a situation or activity that started in the past and is still happening now or has just stopped. However, we use the present perfect continuous when we are talking about how long the action or event has been going on.

For the difference between the present perfect and present perfect continuous in sentences like this, see Unit 8. When we talk about situations or actions that went on over a past period of time but finished at a particular point in time before now, we don't use the present perfect continuous: We generally avoid the present perfect continuous with verbs that describe states see Unjt 2A.

A 1 The situation continues to be serious, and troops their lives to rescue people from the floods. She her husband get over a serious illness.

I hope I do well. This year the focus is on Sweden. If necessary, look at the verbs below to help you. A 1 Henry moved to California three years ago. I always find I have always been finding it difficult to get up on winter mornings. I have been wanting I want to meet you since I saw your concert. Over the last six months I've been learning I I'm learning how to play the flute.

The phone's been ringing I phone's ringing. Can you answer it. How long have you learned I have you been learning Swahili? During the last few years the company has been working I works hard to modernise its image. If the underlined verbs are correct, put a S. If they are wrong, correct them using either the past continuous or the present perfect continuous as appropriate. C 1 I was expecting the book to end happily, but in fact it was really sad.

He can already take two or three steps unaided. We use both the present perfect continuous and the present perfect to talk about something that started in the past and which affects the situation that exists now. The difference is that the present perfect continuous focuses on the activity or event which may or may not be finished.

The present perfect, however, focuses on the effect of the activity or event, or the fact that something has been achieved. Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis see also Unit 10B: However, if we mention the number of times the activity or event was repeated, we use the present perfect rather than the present perfect continuous: We use the present perfect rather than the present perfect continuous when we talk about longlasting or permanent situations, or when we want to emphasise that we are talking about the whole of a period of time until the present see also Unit 5D: When we talk about more temporary situations we can often use either the present perfect continuous or the present perfect: However, if we talk about a specific change over a period of time which ends now, particularly to focus on the result of this change see A , we use the present perfect: Use the present perfect in one sentence and the present perfect continuous in the other.

Plants and vegetables from my garden since we had new neighbours. Dr Fletcher the same lecture to students for the last ten years. Mr Goldman nearly a million pounds to the charity this year. With their win yesterday, Italy into second place in the table.

As house prices in the cities have risen, people into the countryside. For years he that he is related to the royal family. The earthquake over lives. All day, the police motorists to question them about the accident. Good, the noise I can start concentrating on my work again. Choose the most appropriate sentence ending. B 1 I've swum Complete these sentences using the verb given. If possible, use the present perfect continuous; if not, use the present perfect.

C 1 2 3 4 5 6 disappear Since they were very young, the children enjoy travelling by plane. It snow heavily since this morning. I'm pleased to say that the team play well all season. I never understand why we have to pay so much tax. I not read any of Dickens' novels. In recent years, Brazilian companies put a lot of money into developing advanced technology. Complete the sentences to describe the information in the graph.

Use the verb given. D 2 Industrial output 1 Inflation since fall from.

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Notice the difference in meaning of these sentences with the past perfect and past simple: If we want to refer to an event out of order - that is, it happened before the last event we have talked about - we use the present perfect. Study the use of the past perfect and past simple in this text: Don Jose was a wealthy Cuban landowner who emigrated to Mexico in The agricultural reforms had begun a few months earlier.

He moved again in and made his home in the United States. He had made his fortune in growing sugar cane, and he brought his expertise to his new home. When we use a time expression e. But to emphasise that the second event is the result of the first, we prefer the past simple for both: She had found I found what she was looking for.

By the time I got back to the bathroom, the bath had overflowed I overflowed. She walked into the station only to find that the train had left I left. I was just about to leave when I had remembered I remembered my briefcase. My sister told me that Joe had died I died. He had looked I looked at his watch again and began to walk even faster. In a surprise move, the Prime Minister had resigned I resigned last night. These things happened in the order given in brackets e.

Write sentences using this information beginning with the words given. Use either the past simple or the past perfect. Expand one of these sets of notes using the past perfect to begin each sentence. Use these pairs of verbs to complete the sentences.

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Choose the past perfect where possible; otherwise, use the past simple. Here is an extract from a newspaper article about a missing boy Roy and his father Neil. Decide why the past perfect was used in each case. Neil said that Roy, who used to enjoy riding with him on his bike, followed him as he set off.

He told the child to go back to his mother, and rode away. It was only some hours later, when Neil returned, that they realised Roy had vanished We use the past perfect continuous when we talk about a situation or activity that happened over a period up to a particular past time, or until shortly before it. D Compare how the past perfect continuous and the past perfect are used: She had been suffering from flu when she was interviewed.

Sometimes the difference between them is simply one of emphasis see also Unit 8A: If we talk about how many times something happened in a period up to a particular past time, we use the past perfect: However, some verbs that describe states see Unit 2A are not often used with continuous tenses, and we use the past perfect with these even when we are talking about how long something went on up to a particular past time: Compare the use of the past perfect continuous and past continuous: Use the past perfect continuous.

You will need to use a negative verb form in some cases. Sue until she reached the hill. By the smell in the room and his guilty expression I could tell that Alex The principal called Carmen into his office because she I had to give Peter some money when I found out that he He told the police that he He said he thought it belonged to his brother. Complete the sentences with appropriate verbs, using the same one for each sentence in the pair.

Use the past perfect continuous if it is possible; if not, use the past perfect. B 1 a She took a bottle from the bag she all the way from home. Look again at the sentences where you have used the past perfect continuous. In which is the past perfect also possible? Also, study Unit 9 and decide when you could use the past simple instead of the past perfect in these sentences.

If not, use the past perfect. C 1 2 3 4 5 Andrew died last week. He from cancer for some time, suffer I the view many times before, but it never failed to impress me. This was the third time it since I got it. Sometimes the difference between them is very small: For other uses of will see Units 18 and In B-D below we focus on where there is a meaning difference.

It may be that we predict an event that is just about to happen on the basis of something that we feel, see etc. However, if we make a prediction based on our opinion or our past experience we use will: The children will enjoy seeing you again. Coffee will be available from 9. When we state a decision made at the moment of speaking, we prefer will: I'll get it. I think I'll go to bed now. We can use will or going to with little difference in meaning in the main clause of an if-sentence when we say that something often something negative is conditional on something else - it will happen if something else happens first: However, we use will or another auxiliary , not going to, when we describe a future event that follows another.

Often 'if' has a meaning similar to 'when' in this kind of sentence: Shall For other uses of shall, see Unit It sounds like the generator. He mentioned it at the meeting recently. I you there. I'm not feeling well. In fact, I think I! This office on 2nd January. We with Tim tonight. He's asked us to be there at 7.

I wouldn't walk across that old bridge if I were you. It looks like it 1 read in the paper that they the price of gas again. Do you like my new solar watch?

Here, I you how it works. If both will and going to are possible, write them both. I warn you that if I see you here again, I your parents. If we don't leave now, we the train. If you decide to contact Jane, I you her address. If you stand in the rain much longer, you cold. He's seriously hurt. If we don't get help immediately, he If you want to leave this afternoon, Joe you to the station. If you visit Bernard in Vienna, I'm sure you very welcome. Make any necessary corrections or improvements to the underlined parts of this extract from a telephone conversation.

Have you got a holiday planned? Ruth has asked me to visit her in Kenya. Sound brilliant. You're going to 1 have a great time. How about you? Well, I expect I shall 2 go away if I can spare the time, but my boss shan't 3 be very happy if I take off more than a few days. I imagine that my parents shall 4 probably go to Mexico again, to see their friends there, but I don't think I shall 5 be able to go with them.

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They've told me theyll 6 learn Spanish before they go this time Look, I'm sorry, Jo, but someone's at the door. I'm going t o 7 call you back tomorrow morning.

I'm not going to work any more tonight.

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We don't use will to talk about arrangements and intentions but see Unit 11C: Study these sentences: I'm learning some Cantonese. I think I'm seeing the doctor Can you come? We don't use the present continuous for the future: Complete them with either going to or the present continuous, whichever is correct or more likely, using any appropriate verb. I on that bench for a while. The game at two o'clock tomorrow. I hope you can be there.

The service here is very slow. I to the manager if we're not served soon. I have a right to be heard, and no-one me from putting my side of the argument.

The two leaders for talks later this afternoon. The bank has announced that it its interest rates by one per cent from tomorrow. Are you my questions or not? I have to get up early tomorrow. I a physics class at 8. Before I apply for the job, I more information about it. Brazil Colombia in today's final. These sentences refer to the future. There are going to be more of us at the picnic than we'd thought.

I'm tired. I'm going to go to bed. Dave's being very disappointed. The bomb's exploding. In future, the company is going to be known as 'Communications International'. I've redecorated the bedroom. Do you think Jane is liking it when she gets home?

Advanced Grammar in Use - 3rd Edition

Whether we like it or not, within a few years biotechnology is transforming every aspect of human life. What is the difference in meaning between the other two? Remember you've got to go to school tomorrow. Can we meet the week after? Instead we use will, going to, or the present continuous see Units 11 and I'm just staying in to watch TV tonight, not I just stay in I think it affects the rest However, we prefer the present simple if we can make a definite, specific prediction because an activity or event is part of an official arrangement such as a timetable or programme see A: We use the present simple to refer to the future, not will, in adverbial clauses introduced by time conjunctions such as after, before, when, and until: However, if we are talking about a fixed arrangement we can use either will or the present simple.

With more practice she an excellent violinist. National No-Smoking week on October 24th. On tonight's programme we to the deputy president about the latest unemployment figures. In a few moments, I over there and give the signal to start running. The eclipse at three minutes past midday. Dr Brown available again at 9. The door in front of us automatically in a few moments.

We Amsterdam on Tuesday morning, but we Sydney until Thursday evening. You will need to decide the order in which to place them. Use the present simple in the first clause and will or won't in the second. Underline one or both. D 1 Tonight I'm going to check that Susan does I will do her homework correctly. He says that he is I will be with us tonight. With the future continuous we normally mention the future time Next Friday etc.

We also use the future continuous when the future activity or event is the result of a previous decision or arrangement: That's when we usually meet. Future continuous and present continuous for the future We can often use either the future continuous or the present continuous when we talk about planned activities or events in the future see also Unit But we prefer the present continuous to talk about surprising or unexpected activities or events: Dr Radford is leaving!

Future continuous and will Compare the use of will and the future continuous in these sentences: However, we use will, not the future continuous, to talk about such things as decisions that people have made, willingness to do things, inviting, promising, etc. You can use the future continuous rather than will or the present continuous for the future to sound particularly polite when you ask about people's plans. For example, if you are asking about their plans because you want to ask them to do something unexpected or difficult.

You see, I hope to use it for a meeting tomorrow. We have to be at the theatre by 7 o'clock. In which sentences are both possible? Where only one form is possible, consider why the other is not. Dave and Sarah married. Now that I've got a new pair I them again.

Here, give me the bottle. I it for you. Keno to win his third gold medal in the next Olympics. I to get over to see you, but I've got a very busy weekend coming up. Sam to the dentist. He simply refuses to make an appointment. I to the party, I'm afraid; I have to be in Spain that weekend. It's odd to think that this time tomorrow we to Madrid.

He anywhere without first looking at a road map. I won't have time to meet you next weekend, I'm afraid. I the school timetable for next year.

I'll ask him. He's good at that sort of thing. Use Will you be -ing? D 1 You want to use the computer. David is using it now. Ann is just leaving the house.

A lift would be nicer than the bus. Use either the future continuous or the present continuous. A-C Example: I'll be gowg to university In September.

I'm leaving -for Prague on tlie 2. It is particularly common in news reports to talk about future events. Children are not to be left unsupervised in the museum. You are not to leave the school without my permission. The medicine is to be taken after meals. Future perfect We use the future perfect to say that something will be ended, completed, or achieved by a particular point in the future see also Unit 18B: Notice that we can use other modal verbs instead of will to talk about the future in a less certain way: Future perfect continuous We can use the future perfect continuous to emphasise how long something has been going on by a particular point in the future: In sentences with the future perfect continuous we usually mention both the particular point in the future 'On Saturday Notice that we don't usually use the future perfect continuous with verbs describing states see Unit 2: A appear arrive become begin feel fit move resign 1 A man in court today after a car he was driving killed two pedestrians.

Choose front the following verbs. B bring collapse compare elect fail flourish improve operate rise We recognise the urgent need to improve international economic performance if we, sustainable benefits to millions faced with poverty.

He is still learning Spanish. Before He gets Home -from school tonlgHt Peter By next montH I By tHe tune tHe so-ftware goes on sale, tHe company I'll finish it before you get back.

Advanced Grammar in Use with Answers

WHen you get bock, I There are a number of ways of talking about an activity or event that was in the future at a particular point in the past. In order to express this idea, we can use the past tenses of the verb forms we would normally use to talk about the future will - would, is going to - was going to, is leaving - was leaving, is to talk - was to talk, etc.

Compare the following sentences: The future from now Please take your seats, ladies and gentlemen. The future from the past The context in which these forms are used will often indicate whether the activity or event did or did not happen, although in some cases we may not know whether the activity or event happened or not. He was very upset when I told him. If they are wrong, correct them. Where were you? I thought you were going to wait for me? We were discussing your case tomorrow, so I'll be able to give you an answer soon.

I never thought that I would be spending my holiday in hospital, but there I was. I hope the building work would have finished by the time we get there. At the height of her popularity her face is to be seen on advertisements all over the country. The council has announced that the housing estate is to be demolished. I was about to report him missing, when he walked through the door.

Underline the one that is correct or more appropriate. Sometimes both are possible. Now it seems they'll be with us until Thursday. B 1 The meeting was to have taken place in the hall, In spoken English either was or going is stressed.

Complete the sentences in any appropriate way to make excuses. A 1 2 3 4 I was going to tidy up my room, but I was going to help you do the shopping, but However, we use should or would , not ought to, when we give advice with I: We often indicate some criticism or regret: However, we don't use it to talk about the past or to make general comments: When we make a logical conclusion from some situation or activity, we use must not should or ought to for more on must, see Unit It is commonly used in spoken English to express a' less strong obligation: We use be supposed to when we report what many people think is true: In which one is ought to NOT possible?

Are there any in which should is more likely? This medicine in a cool place, from a medicine bottle label Here's someone you really If you're feeling ill, I at home today, if I were you. To have got a better mark, you your answers more thoroughly. According to the label, the jam after opening. I think you to him. He knew what he was talking about. The results were completely wrong.

Advanced Grammar in Use With answers

As a scientist she the experiment more carefully. It's cold outside, so you had better put on a warm coat. I think children had better learn to cook at an early age. You'd better not to go out tonight. It's raining. As you are feeling ill, you'd better not go to work. Some plants had better not be grown in direct sunlight. It will damage their leaves. In which sentences can you put should or must and in which can you only put must? Where both are possible, consider the difference between should and must.

D 1 A timetable be set for withdrawing the army. He have been held up at work. E 1 Walking under a ladder is supposed to be unluck y- 2 It's supposed to be lucky if a black cat walks in front of you.

Use supposed to in your answers. Sue won't give me back my pencil case. Notice that we can also talk about the refusal of a thing to work in the way it should: To talk about general or repeated willingness in the past we can sometimes use would, but we can't use would in this way to talk about a particular occasion in the past.

Ron would give me The past seen from a present viewpoint As you will have noticed, he has cut off his beard. They will have reached home by now. B call forget collapse pass develop receive disapprove save spend enjoy 1 Mary's mother certainly.

By the time he sees his children again he what they look like. You a lot of money. He it. Use won't in your answers. We don't use would in this way to talk about a particular occasion in the past. In speech, we can stress will or would to criticise people's characteristic behaviour or habits: He would talk about people behind their backs.

When we use stressed would in this way, we can also use it to talk about a particular occasion in the past. We suggest that what happened was predictable because it was typical of a person's behaviour: Used to is more common in informal English: We use used to but not would when we talk about past states that have changed: When we use would we need to mention a specific time or set of occasions.

We don't use either used to or would when we say exactly how many times something happened, how long something took, or that something happened at a particular time: Study how we normally make questions and negatives with used to in spoken English: These forms are sometimes written as ' However, in more formal spoken and written English the following negative and question forms are also used, although this question form is now rare: Notice that nowadays very few people use used to in tags: If it is not possible to use will or would, write only the verb in brackets in the past simple.

It's very annoying, start As soon as he woke up he things ready for breakfast, get He work in as an assistant to the managing director, begin After I read about the place in a magazine, I to visit Madagascar myself, want When I was younger I hours just kicking a ball around the garden, spend Even when it's freezing cold, some people just jeans and a T-shirt, wear When I was at school all the children in silence when the teacher came into the room, stand up Everywhere she went, people her name and ask for her autograph, call out Jack three days ago from a holiday in France, return 1 usually get up late, so most mornings, I just a cup of tea for breakfast, have There's a boy in my maths class who the most ridiculous questions, ask She all her closest friends and relatives to her 50th birthday party last summer.

If more than one answer is possible, write them both. Business people watch what their competitors are doing with great interest.

The country now known as Myanmar be called Burma. My father didn't know that we borrow the car when he was at work. When I was a child, summers be warmer and winters colder than now. Accidents happen in the home, however safe we try to make them. When the weather was good, we go walking in the hills every weekend.

Answer these questions by expanding the notes, using an appropriate verb tense. If you can, use used to in your answer. B 1 How often did you see Judith? A 'He will play his music too loud when I'm trying to work. There is often little difference in meaning, but might can suggest that there is less possibility. We can also use could, but not can, to express a similar meaning. We prefer could to show that we are giving an opinion about which we are unsure: I'll go and look.

We can use can in affirmative sentences when we talk about a more general possibility of something happening rather than the possibility of something happening in a particular situation: We prefer may rather than can in more formal contexts: Instead we use, for example, could n't or the phrase be likely: It is possible to use might in this type of question, but it is rather formal: In negative sentences, including sentences with words like only, hardly or never, to say that something is not the case we can use can't or more formally cannot or couldn't or could not: The difference is that we use may not or might not to say that it is possible that something is not true, and can't or couldn't to say that it is not possible that something is true.

We use may well, might well or could well to say it is likely that something will happen: We don't use can well in this way to talk about the future. However, can well is used to talk about something we think or feel now: Other words commonly used after may, might, could and can to say it is possible that something will happen are conceivably and possibly: May, might, can, could: Write Yes or No.

I'll go and ask him. Infections sometimes actually be made worse by taking antibiotics. Moving to a new job be a very stressful experience.

I think Michael enjoy himself if he joins the football club. This 17th century chair be of interest to you. The seeds from this plant be up to 20 centimetres long. With the factory closing next week, he lose his job. Around this time of year, eagles sometimes be seen in the mountains.

Where necessary, suggest a correction for these sentences, or put a S. It mightn't be true. There must be some mistake. It's snowing heavily in Scotland so it can take Hugh a long time to get here.

If we don't get to the market soon they can't have any flowers left. They will all have been sold. If you're free at the moment, we may have a job for you. May you be given the job permanently? I thought they were on holiday - but I can be wrong, of course. I might go out later if the weather improves. Children may enter only when accompanied by an adult.

Read these newspaper cuttings and speculate on what may happen in the future. For example, 'During the war, the police could arrest you Could can be used in the same patterns instead of may or might, particularly when we want to show that we are unsure about the possibility.

Notice that we can combine these two patterns to talk about possible situations or activities that went on over a period of time until now see also Unit 8: Notice that we don't use 'can well etc. A 1 Don't throw the picture away, give it to Tony.

Tomorrow I'll start on the ceiling. Study this table: We prefer be able to but can also use can: We use be able to not could: However, we commonly use can or could, even when we are talking about specific occasions, with verbs of the senses, feel, hear, see, smell, taste, and with verbs of 'thinking', e. We use be able to, not can or could, if the idea we want to express needs a to-infinitive, an -ing form, or a perfect tense, or if it follows another modal verb: However, when we make a decision now about something in the future, we use can: Can and could: If two answers are possible write them both and underline the more likely one.

I had some free time yesterday, so I write a few letters. From where we're standing, this land belongs to me for as far as you see. My teacher's given me a translation to do for homework, but I understand it.

Watch this, Mum; I stand on one leg. Until you repay some of your present debt, we cannot lend you any more money. I throw or kick a ball properly.

In one of each pair you can use either, so write them both. B 1 a Despite yesterday's snowfalls, we b I only lived a mile from the office and drive home in less than an hour. If it is inappropriate to use can, use a form of be able to instead. D count fine give investigate meet put forward start work 1 2 3 4 5 We don't seem.. You on me to help with the party.

You me a call at home. The builders said that they might work today. When the satellite is launched next week, scientists the rings around Saturn in more detail than ever before. When we want to say that it will be necessary for someone to do something in the future, we use must, have got to, or will have to: Have got to is less formal than the others, and is particularly common in spoken English.

We can often use need to with a similar meaning: D Using have got to suggests that someone else or some outside circumstances or authority makes something necessary. We use must when the speaker decides it is necessary.

I want to discuss something with her We prefer have got to when we talk about a necessity that is characteristic of a person: There must be about 2, people at the meeting. However, in informal speech, we can use have got to: There's got to be about a million of them! You've got to be joking!

Instead, we use can't cannot or couldn't: He's on holiday then. It couldn't have been his fault. Must has no other forms than the present tense no past tense, no participles, etc. He had to leave early. I wish I'd seen the match. Sometimes we can use either have to or have got to. However, we prefer have to with frequency adverbs such as always, never, normally, rarely, sometimes, etc.: With the past simple, we use had to, especially in questions and negative sentences: After contracted forms of have, has or had e.

I've, He's, It'd we use got: In formal English we prefer have to rather than have got to. You and visit us soon. It would be so nice to see you again. That's really good news. I my friend, Steve. I always sleep through the alarm clock. My Dad me every morning. As I won't be at home tonight, I my homework during my lunch break. I to the dentist at I more exercise. Underline the correct or more likely answer.

If both are wrong, suggest a correct alternative. You must I had to have been worried about her. He says he's 50, but he mustn't I hasn't got to be that old. I looked at my watch and must I had to admit that I didn't have much time. To get to Peru, I must I had to borrow money from my sister.

Being so well-known, you must I have to receive hundreds of letters each week. Write new sentences with a similar meaning. E 1 It is necessary to do all of this work before the end of the day. It is necessary to build the road to take traffic away from the city centre. It is rarely necessary to tell Mary anything twice. Is it necessary for us to get up early tomorrow morning? It wasn't necessary for her to take time off work when her son was ill.

Can you suggest what A might have said in each case? C 1 You've got to be kidding. She needs a drink.

They say they need to see you urgently. We can use either needn't or don't have to when we say that is unnecessary to do something: Nobody can hear us. Compare these uses of needn't and don't need to. To give permission not to do something we can use either needn't or don't need to: To talk about a general necessity, we prefer don't need to: To show that we think something that was done was not, in fact, necessary we use need not have: Just as it was ready, Chris and June phoned to say that they couldn't come to eat.

Underline the more likely answer. If they are equally likely, underline them both. C 1 You needn't I don't need to close the door. I'm just going out. I went shopping earlier. D 1 I bought a new car last year, and then a month later I won one in a competition.

So I all that money. They accepted me without one. Correct any mistakes. A-E 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I need hardly to tell you how important it is that we win this order. I don't have to remind you that we are competing with two other companies.

We don't need to allow our competitors to gain an advantage over us. We were delighted that we needn't have sold off our subsidiary company last year. We mustn't allow our production rates to drop. You mustn't work at weekends for the moment. You needn't to worry about redundancies. We use could to be particularly polite. If we want to put extra pressure on someone to give a positive answer we can use can't or couldn't. For example, you might use couldn't where you expect that the answer is likely to be 'no', or where permission has been refused before: To give and refuse permission we use can and can't: You can stay in the spare room.

In rather formal English, may not can also be used to ask, give or refuse permission, and might can be used to ask permission e. D We use can for the present or the future and could for the past to report permission see Unit 49 for more on the choice between can and could in reporting: In offers that are questions we can also use shall or should: If we use could or should we sound less certain that the offer will be accepted.

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