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Title, A Comprehensive Book of Pakistan Studies. Author, M. Ikram Rabbani. Edition, 3. Publisher, Caravan Book House, Length, pages. Title, An Introduction to Pakistan Studies: Compulsory. Authors, Muhammad Ikram Rabbani, Monawwar Ali Sayyid. Edition, 5. Publisher, Caravan Book House. muhammad ikram rabbani is the author of new millinium introduction to pakistan studies ( avg rating, ratings, muhammad ikram rabbani's books.
UGC established in 1. Atta ur Rahman FRS its founding Chairman, with additional executive reforms granted by the constitution. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan reporting nameHEC, is an independent, autonomous, and constitutionally established institution of primary funding. Original Article. The name Pakistan literally means land of the pure in Urdu and Persian. It is a play on the word pk meaning pure in Persian and Pashto the suffix. BackgroundMore than 80 of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in lowincome and middleincome countries, but the reasons are unknown.
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Scooped by Maria Jones. Latest,english,tamil, punjabi,hindi movies free download. A Comprehensive Book of Pakistan Eabbani. Reviews, Pricing for Your New Car. He is related to the Indian philosopher Abul Kalam Azad through. Prepare Pak Affairs through following sources: Learn more about the different options. We must be prepared to face all difficulties and consequences, make al the sacrifices that may be required of us to achieve the goal we have set in front of us ON that occasion, on 15th August, he said: Muslims of India have shown to the world that they are a united nation, their cause is just and righteous which cannot be denied.
Let us, on this day, humbly thank God for His bounty and pray that we might be able to prove that we are worthy of it. This day marks the end of a painful phase in our national history and it should also be the beginning of a new and a noble era.
Once he said after the creation of Pakistan. There is no any power in the world who demolishes Pakistan. According to his ideas Islam was the only base of The Ideology of Pakistan.
Explain the Ideology of Pakistan in the light of sayings of Allama Iqbal? The social or political Programme of any movement that becomes a collective objective of any nation is called Ideology.
No doubt Islamic ideology is the base of ideology of Pakistan so the basic fundamentals of Islam are also the bases of the Ideology of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan and Ideology of Islam have same meaning.
Actually ideology of Pakistan is the practical shape of teachings of Islam. Ideology of Pakistan is the name of molding of individual and collective lives according to Islam and also of saving form conflicting ideologies.
He clearly explained the Ideology of Pakistan in his sayings and poetry. Aflame Iqbal and Ideology of Pakistan: 1. Separate Recognition of Muslims: Allama lqbal made it clear that the Muslims have the separate recognition from the Hindus on the base of religion and culture. In this regard he said India is not a country, it is a Sub-continent of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different religions.
Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity. Condemnation of Western Democratic Concepts: Allama lqbal was strongly against the western concept of Democracy. Despite flourishing all over the world, this system cannot provide solution of the problem of Islamic world. Iqbal was of the view that all social and political problems can be solved with the help of Islamic system.
He said, Western democracy is devoid of depth, it has merely an attractive out look. Concept of separate Muslim State: Dr. Muhammad Allama lqbal was great supporter and preacher of separate Muslim state. Whether India gets independences under the crown of England or out of it, I think independent state of western provinces is the destiny of the people living there. I remained the supporter of this idea but now I am of the view that preservation of separate nationhood is useful for Hindus and Muslims Pakistan Studies Compiled by: Hafiz Ashfaq Ahmad 10 birth.
To have the concept of single nation in India is no doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present circumstances. Concept of Two Nation Theory: Despite living together for years, Hindus and Muslims have their own individual ideologies so the only solution of political conflict in India is to have a separate independent parliament for each nation. Allama Iqbal explaining the two nation theory as: 6. Once he said in this regard as: Concept of nation and homeland is confusing the Muslims.
That is why Islamic humane objects are becoming dim. It is also possible that these concepts may destroy the real concepts of Islam. Allah, Universe and state all are the basic elements of single unit. Man is not so alien that he should leave worldly affairs for the sake of religion.
Islam is complete code of life In the annual meeting of Muslim League on December 29, at Allahabad, he said, Islam is not the name of some beliefs and customs but it is a compete code of life. In, Europe, religion is every ones personal matter which divides the human oneness into two opposite parts i.
In contrast to that in Islam, God, Universe, soul, matter, sate and religions are bound to each other or in other words Muslims are one nation 9. Islam is a lively power In his Allahabad address he said: Islam is a lively power which frees human mind from thoughts country and race. If we understand this thing then we can be the leaders of prominent Indian civilization. Islam is the way to success Allama Iqbal said in relation to Islam: The lesson which I learnt from history is that Islam always helped the Muslims.
Even today, Ideology of Islam can save your being from destruction by uniting your divided powers. No other ideology of life than Islam On the publication of his poem, Khazr-e-Rah people started to call Allama Iqbal as communist. He rejected this balance firstly in his essay and then in a letter to All-e-Ahmed Sarwur in He said: To me capitalism, communism and other isms of this world have no importance. Islam is the only reality which is the reason of salvation.
To have a contract with any other ism is just like to be out of Islam. Opposition of Nationalism He described the reason of opposition of nationalism in the words: I am opposed to nationalism, not because if it is allowed to develop in India.
It is likely to bring less material gain to Muslims. I am opposed to it because I see in it the germs of atheistic materialism which I look upon as the greatest danger to modern humanity Separate Existence of Muslims The fact is that even the enemies acknowledge that it was Iqbal who made the idea of a distinct Muslim Nationhood crystal clear in the minds of the masses. A bigoted Hindu leader Madan Mohan Malwiya once remarked.
Before Iqbal, we had not the slightest idea that the Muslims possessed a separate existence in India. We regarded them to be a part of a common nationalism Foundation of Pakistan Allama Iqbal not only put forward the proposal of Pakistans creation by uniting the Muslim majority provinces of north-western India, he also explicitly pointed out the foundations on which this state was to be established and was to function.
He said: To address this session of All India Muslim League you have selected a man who is not despaired of Islam as a living force for freeing the outlook of man from its geographical limitations, who believes that religion is a power of utmost importance in the life of individual as well as states.
He also declared that there is no any concept of discrimination on the base of colour, cast and creed in Islam. The message of unity of the Muslim World can be seen in his poetry as. Geographical Limitations of Mankind Compiled by: Hafiz Ashfaq Ahmad Pakistan Studies 12 According to Allama Iqbal, Islam is a practical way to eliminate the artificial distinctions of race and nation and to transcend beyond the geographical limitations of mankind.
He wanted to established Muslim nationality on ideological lines: Allama lqbal categorically stated that the Hindus and the Muslims cant live together in one state, and that the Muslims would succeed in making their own separate state sooner or later.
He advocated the separate nationhood of Muslims. Describe the importance of the Ideology of Pakistan. Following are the bases of its ideology. Right of Self Determination In the decent civilizations of the world, right of self determination has got the place of basic human right.
The Muslim of sub-continent work hard for the attainment of right of self determination, on the base of this right the Muslim demanded separate electorate in and this right was awarded to the Muslim in s Minto Morley reforms. Because of the ideology of Pakistan, the Muslims of India who had become a minority due to the western democracy became a great nation. Because of the ideology of Pakistan the Muslims of India got freedom and they got social betterment. In addition to that other nations like Sikhs, Hindus and Christians had other benefits out of that.
Along with that tension the events of terrorism also ended.
They both got peaceful atmosphere which is necessary for the development of any society. Symbol of Security of the Muslims The ideology of Pakistan is very important for the Muslim of the Sub-Continent after the start of this theory the Muslims feel better and secured in the SubContinent. The people who believe the ideology of Pakistan although belong to different races and different areas, are united.
Because of this natural unity, they can defeat foreign conspiracies and enemies of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan is based on Islamic ideology and exemplary principles of Islam. There is no any discrimination on the base of colour cast, creed, state or a country in Islam and Pakistan is obtained on the base of Ideology of Pakistan.
So the unity of the Islamic world is the key factor of the foreign policy of Pakistan and Pakistan tried his best to create the harmony and unity of the Muslim World. Source of Power Islam gave the concept of two nation theory in sub-continent and secured the separate recognition of the Muslims in sub-continent.
Two nation theory protected the Muslims in the hour of need especially in British rule, thats why ideology of Pakistan is the source of power in the sub-continent on which base the Muslims struggle hard for the attainment of Pakistan.
Finally they succeed to achieve Pakistan. Formation of Exemplary Society The Muslims wanted to establish the exemplary society in the sub-continent but this dream couldnt be fulfill in the united India.
According to the constitution of Pakistan, government is responsible for the security of basic human rights. This thing is necessary for an exemplary society.
In The British took-over the whole sub-continent and Muslim became their ruled. In the 18th and 19th century The British increased their efforts to spread Christianity and Hindus started to spread Hinduism. Under these conditions the ideology of Pakistan saved them from such spreading. The protection of Muslim Culture and Civilization is only possible the ideology of Pakistan. Symbol of Beneficence of the Society The progress of the Muslims of the sub-continent was hidden in the aim of getting Pakistan which was lightened by the creation of Pakistan.
Besides, ideology of Pakistan is ideology of Islam so it is in a way a source of beneficence on the Day of Judgment. Reason of Human Dignity The basic aim of creation of Pakistan was the formation of such state where Muslims can live their individual and collective lives according to the principles of Islam.
In addition to that there they can make such a society where courageous and morally high people dominate. This heightens the human dignity. Creation of Pakistan up to a high extent fulfilled this aim. Source of Economic Development of the Muslims Ideology of Pakistan is source of economic development of the Muslims, because after the creation of Pakistan, Muslims got the freedom from The British, and Hindu landlords.
Exploitation of Muslims of the sub-continent came to an end. And they became strong economically. Industrial and Mineral Development After the creation of Pakistan, Muslims used their capabilities in finding and using the minerals blessed by God and made progress in the field of industry and minerals. Success for the Muslims Ideology of Pakistan is the source of success for the Muslims in the world.
Due to the separate state, the Muslims became prosperous and they adopted Islamic ways of life. They obey the Islamic principles and follow Islam and start to spend of their lives according to Islam and introduced Islamic ethical system which led to the success of the Muslims both in this word and the life after the death.
Write a comprehensive note on Two Nation Theory? Though the Muslims and the Hindus both have been living together for centuries, yet they could not merge with each other. According to the holy Quran, the concept of one nation was produced before Adam.
Quran says: We Said: Go down, all of you from here; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and who so follow My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve. But they who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, such are rightful owners of the fire.
They will be therein. Islam and Two Nation Theory: Islam has different character and temperament.
The concept of Two Nations was given by Islam 14 hundred years ago. According to Islam there are only two nations in the world; Believers and Non believers. They were living in the geographically connected areas.
They were the citizens of one country. There was no huge difference between their customs. In spite of all these common things, religious fervor had provided them such a strong b ase for nationalism which altogether made the Muslims and everything different from Hindus.
It is clear from the words of the Quaid-e-Azam: Pakistan was created on the very first day when first Hindu accepted Islam in India 1. They will have to live separately from Hindus. If this consciousness of separate nationalism is not produced among the Muslims then the fear is that they would be swept away in the flood of one-nationhood.
He saved the Muslims of the sub-continent at that time when the Muslims decline was started after the death of Aurangzeb Allamgir in He also advised the Muslims to give up Hindu and Un-Islamic values. He considered that the Muslims are the separate nation from Hindus. During the Urdu Hindi Controversy he came forward with two nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation, having their own culture and civilization.
He talked to Mr. Shakespeare, Governor of Banaras and explained the two nation theory as: Hindi Urdu conflict is the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and a day will come when both the nations will separate from each other after division. He led the Muslims at every step and rendered great services for the establishment of Pakistan. Allama Iqbal considered Islam as a complete code of life. He said that he was fully convinced that the Pakistan Studies Compiled by: Hafiz Ashfaq Ahmad 17 Muslims of India would ultimately have a separate homeland, as they could not live with the Hindus in united India.
The evolution of the Two Nation Theory got momentum slowly. Allama Iqbal clearly stressed the need of a separate state by including the province of NWFP, in his address at Allahabad in But the British and the Hindus did not agree to it.
This two-nation theory was originated with the arrival of the Muslims in the sub-continent. He said: India is neither a country nor its inhabitants are a nation. This is a sub-continent where many nations live; among these the Hindu and the Muslim are two important nations. The Quaid-e-Azam was a big supporter of two-nation theory. It means that the Muslim of the sub-continent were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization, literature, history, religion and social values.
Islam, the religion of the Muslims was based on the concept of Tauheed and therefore could not be merged in any other system of religion. He challenged the might of Akbar, the great Mughal emperor, to re-establish to glory of Islam which had been gravely threatened by the anti-Islamic trends of Akbar. He was a prominent disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah, an eminent saint of the Naqshabandia spiritual order. Sheikh Ahmad was drawn into mysticism by his father. Sheikh Abd-al-Ahad, a prominent Sufi and scholar.
He received Khilafat from his father in the Chishtiya and Suhurwrdiya spiritual orders. Early Education He received education under the most prominent and learned teachers at Sialkot and Sirhind. He memorized the Holy Quran and then switched over to the study of Hadith, Tafsir commentary and Maqual philosophy. He traveled from place to place to benefit from the renowned scholars. During his wandering to quench his thirst for the mystical knowledge he came into contact with the leading lights of Akbars court Abu-al-Fazl and Faizi.
When Abu-al-Fazl and Faizi learnt of his brilliance and extraordinary mystical insight, they tried to draw him into the Court of Akbar.
Sheikh Ahmad wrote his famous book, Isbat-un-Nabuwwat affirmation of prophet hood in which he gave an excellent explanation of the prophet hood. Akbar had no leanings towards Islamic principles and tenets. He promoted Hinduism by marrying Hindu ladies and by allowing free access to the Rajputs and Hindus in his court. He also appointed Hindu Rajputs on higher civil and military positions. He assumed the title of Mujadid-i-Azam and Imam-i-Adil and issued orders pertaining to the religious matters which were to be considered as authentic and final.
The impact of Din-i-Ilahi greatly affected the Muslim beliefs and trends. It split the Muslim society into several factions and promoted heretic attitudes and practices. Social Reorms: At that time Muslim society was ridden with un-Islamic practices and trends.
Under the Hindu influence, a firm and widespread belief in Karamat miracles of the saints had developed in the society which greatly misguided the innocent people. In Sufism many means of developing magical and supernatural powers, alien to Islam, had been developed. Reforms in Tasawaf Spirituality : The mystics and Sufis of those days openly denied the authenticity of Sharia by declaring Sharia the law of Islam as superficial and external. They even proudly manifested their indifference towards the Sunnah or Examples of the Prophet peace be upon him.
The ulema and theologians ceased to refer to the Quran and Hadith in their commentaries and considered jurisprudence as the only religious knowledge.
By these trends the religious spirit excessively diminished and gave rise to the juristic view of Islam. Purgation of Muslim Society: Sheikh Ahmad undertook the job of purifying the Muslim society of un-Islamic tendencies by sending a number of his disciples in all directions to preach the true Islam.
He asked them the emphasis on Ittibat-i-Sunnah following the examples of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him , and the commandments of Sharia in their sermons and preachings. The work was vigorously pursued in India and other neighbouring Muslim countries.
Sheikh Ahmad also began a correspondence with the prominent scholars of all Muslim countries. In his letters he explained the religious doctrines and put great stress on the Ittibat-i-Sunnah. Struggle Against Atheism: Sheikh Ahmad was greatly opposed to the atheism and openly denounced un-Islamic society.
He worked very hard to restore the original teachings of Islam and emphasized on the concept of Tauheed. He exposed the fallacy of Din-i-Illahi and came out with full vigour to curb the influence of this satanic creed. He urged the Muslim to order their lives according to the principles of Islam. He declared that mysticism without Shariat was misleading and denounced those Ulema who had questioned the authority of Sharia.
Reformation of Nobles: Sheikh Ahmad stressed on the Muslims to revert to the purer Islam by giving up heretical customs and practices. He laboured diligently to settle the differences between the scholoars and the mystics. He initiated the leading nobles near the emperor into his discipleship and through them exerted an influence to bring about a change in the life of the Court. He also persuaded the great men of Jehangirs period to take an oath of Allegiance at Sheikh Ahmads hands.
In the time of Jehangir Sheikh Ahmad was successful to a greater extent to extract a solemn undertaking from the Muslims that they would not obey any orders repugnant to Islam. Sheikh Ahmad adopted an effective method of persuasion by writing letters to the leading nobles of the royal court.
He began addressing letters written in a language, which would move mountains, to leading nobles of the state, bemoaning the sad state in which Islam had fallen in India, and reminding them of their duty. Emphasis on Islamic Values: Sheikh Ahmad persuaded the Muslims to adopt simple habits in life and to strictly adhere to Namaz.
He also explained the utility of Fasting and declared that fasting protects the mankind from many sins. His efforts contributed a great deal towards the popularity of Islam in the sub-continent. Two Nation Theory: Sheikh Ahmad was a staunch advocate of the separateness of the Muslims and desired to maintain the distinctive image of the Muslim Nationalism. He laid great emphasis on the separate identity of the Muslims and adopted a very stern attitude against the Hindus.
Sheikh Ahmad firmly believed in Two-Nation Theory. He was in favour of maintaining the differences between Hindus and Muslims. He wanted Jizya to be re-imposed on Hindus and demanded the destruction of Hindu temples. They believed that the entire Universe is the symbol of Almighty God and a source of revelation of Gods sovereignty. The advocates of Wahdat-ul-Wajud believed that there was no living difference between the Man and his creator God and both individual and God are not separated from each other.
They also believed that every particle of the universe represented the presence of God and, therefore, the worship of Gods creature amounted to the worship of God. Sheikh Ahmad openly negated this philosophy and declared it as ultra vires to the principles of Islam. He presented his philosophy of Wahdat-ul-Shahud which meant that the creator and creatures were two different and separate entitles. Struggle Against Jehangir's Policies: Sheikh Ahmad also dealt with matters, other than religious revival in his letters.
This policy drew him into serious difficulties. Asif Jah, the Prime Minister of Jehangirs court alerted Jehangir of the mounting popularity of Sheikh Ahmad by inciting the Emperor that Sheikh Ahmads anti-Hindu views were creating unrest in the country. Jehangir summoned Sheikh Ahmad to his court and asked him to explain his statements. Sheikh Ahmad appeared in the royal court in a highly dignified manner and explained his statements in a courageous style.
Someone pointed out to Jehangir that Sheikh had not performed that act of Prostrations. Jehangir, infuriated over this blunt reply ordered the Sheikh to be imprisoned in the Fort of Gawaliar. Struggle during Imprisonment: Sheikh Ahmad did not shirk his preaching of Islam during his imprisonment. After two years, Jehangir feeling repentful, released him from the fort and venerated him with a dress of Honour and rupees for his expenses. He was given the option of going back to Sirhind or remains in the royal court.
Sheikh Ahmad preferred to stay in the royal court. In order to popularize Islam a number of Muslim reformers and revivers adopted a liberal point of view in their preaching so that a large number of people could be attracted toward Islam.
They, however, were successful to a great extent, but at the same time this liberal approach gave rise to the concept of joint nationalism. This trend proved injurious to the separate and distinct national image of the Muslims. Allama Iqbal poetphilosopher of the East has paid rich tributes to Sheikh Ahmad in one of his poems for refusing to perform the act of prostration before the emperor.
Allama Iqbal considers him as the spiritual guardian of the Muslims of India. His movement for the cause of Islam gave a new life to the Muslims and is regarded as the call back of Muhammad, which left far-reaching impact in religious and practical fields. Death After living for three years with the emperor Jehangir, Hazrat Mujadid sought permission to leave for Sirhind. He passed away on December 10, A. Conclusion: Sheikh Ahmad, till the last breath of his life continued with the propagation of Islam.
He drew a distinction between Islam and atheism. He considerably prevailed upon Jehangir to alter his religious view and abandon his fathers religious policies. Jehangir under the influence of Mujadis preaching, order Khutaba holy sermon to be recited and cow slaughter to be carried out as required by Islamic principles, Jehangir also agreed to the construction of a big mosque on the advice of Mujadid.
Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani was the most powerful religious personality in the history of India. He was a widely read scholar and a magnetic orator. He got an opportunity in a liberal atmosphere in Jehangirs reign to use his powerful pen to denounce Akbars religious innovations. Mujadid Alf Sani was the only individual in the history of India who opposed Akbar and thereby invited his wrath.
He is considered as the pioneer of Muslim Self-assertion by denouncing un-Islamic practices. In short Hazrat Mujadid-e-Alafsani checked the pressure of non Islamic customs, converted a great number of Hindus to Islam, provided pure Islamic teachings and eradicated the wrong ideas of so called Mystics. We can say that he was the first person who understood the Hindu amalgamation in Islam and purified it.
Write down the services of Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah. After the death of Aurangzeb the Muslim society faced some serious problems. The Mughal Empire had fallen into the hands of most incapable successors of Aurangzeb who could not withhold the supremacy of the Muslim rule because they indulged into luxurious life. With the weakness of the Muslim Empire, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, faced serious problems. His real name was Qutub-ud-Din and later on came to be known as Wali Ullah for his pious habits.
His father Shah Abdur Rahim was well-known for his piety and profound knowledge of Islam.