John Collinson Nesfield - Manual of English Grammar and Composition () - ronaldweinland.info - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. Nesfield. J. C., Outline of English Grammar. The Macmillan Company of Canada. Revised, (A good author opposed to new terminology.) reference book. Manual of English grammar and composition by John Collinson Nesfield, , Macmillan edition, in English.
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ronaldweinland.info Keto Comfort Foods Maria Emmerich. English Grammar Reference Book: Grammar and Error Correction Guide. EN GLISH GRAMMAR AN D COMPOSITION t HA P. PAGE. 1 9. PRO PRIETY O F DICT IO N. Sec tion 1. Common Errors in the Use O f Common Words. 2. We may think of vocabulary as the word-stock, and grammar as the set of devices for Published in , Nesfield's grammar influenced prescriptive and.
Lowth sought to remedy the dearth of simple grammar textbooks, but he earned criticism for judging the language as well as describing it. His pedantic approach led to such oft-quoted prescriptions as the inappropriateness of ending a sentence with a preposition. Certainly these would appear dull and tedious to most modern students, but they do, nevertheless, provide excellent detailed explanations for those of more linguistic bent. For example, take the concept of a syllable. Eventually you put it all together to give an accurate definition: a unit of speech consisting of a word, or part of a word, containing one sounded vowel.
Confident language mastery Developing confident language skills is arguably the most important outcome of our teaching procedure. Certain principles govern the use of every language and relate to such things as word meaning and accuracy , the arrangement of words or word groups in a sentence syntax , stress given to certain parts of a word and, in most languages, the use of punctuation.
Most modern languages have systems that indicate number singular or plural and tense when something takes place, i. Another important distinction denotes the purpose of a statement, i. Intonation It is important, too, to be aware of some of the principles, or at least guidelines for the way we use our voices and thereby convey the purpose of our utterance.
Test the following passage by reading it in monotone. Oh no! Get out. Get a rope. How did you manage to fall in? Ambiguity As teachers, we need to be highly conscious of the potential for ambiguity that exists in a language like English, which depends heavily on word order for meaning.
The human brain actually encompasses infinite memory but the secret of retrieval lies in how we record information. And use the words in both oral and written sentences. Animating teaching strategies for all learning styles Often the mistake is made of assuming that what seems to be a purely academic subject such as grammar can be taught only in a dry unimaginative way.
But this is far from true. Awareness of the need for more active involvement in learning has come about with the greater understanding of how the brain works, and the accompanying recognition that people vary considerably in their learning modes. In addition, the importance of teaching to the whole brain through multisensory activities cannot be over-emphasised.
We know then that people learn in a variety of ways. Even within one family we often see that what works with one child may be useless for another.
So, while the more sedentary skills of reading and writing are an essential component of grammar education, active learning with kinetic exercises can play a vital part in reinforcement, especially with younger age groups. By delivering instruction in a variety of creative ways, using all the channels to the brain, we are ensuring not only that all students can benefit, but also that they will enjoy their lessons.
Gender differences Though it was probably never in doubt, research techniques show that boys, in general, are less inclined to sit at tasks for lengthy periods. They prefer, and need, more physical activity.
Confident language mastery Developing confident language skills is arguably the most important outcome of our teaching procedure. Our soldiers over. Compound-complex declarative. Our soldiers went to Europe, Principal. Sentence 4: Complex interrogative, shall we not be happy? The noun clause which is subject of a principal clause, should be stated both with the latter and separately, as in the following example: What they have accomplished is very important.
Principal declarative. What they have accomplished. Likewise, when a substantive clause is a complement, or the object of a verb or preposition, it should first a. This book is what we want. We know that they are sincere. But, sir, I wish to tell you that the noblest prospect which a Scotchman ever sees, is the high road that leads him to England.
Then he went on, till he came to the house of the interpreter, where he knocked over and over at last one came to the door and asked who was there. Never love unless you can 3. Bear with all the faults of man ;! Men sometimes Though but be cause they will jealous little see, And hang the head in discontent, And speak what straight they will repent. Augustine had, by order of Pope Gregory, taken interpreters of the nation of the Franks, and, sending to King Ethelbert of Kent, announced that he was come from Rome, and brought a joyful message, which most undoubtedly assured to all that took advantage of it, everlasting joys in Heaven, and a kingdom that would never BEDE, end.
Ecclesiastical History. His antagonists, though inferior in strength, had both swiftness and daring, and above all they had settled how to attack him. When he reared his axe, they flew at him like cats, and both together.
If he struck a full blow with his weapon, he would most he saw this, likely kill one, but the other would certainly kill him and understanding the danger, he thrust the handle fiercely in Denys's face, and, turning, jabbed with the steel at Gerard.
Denys went staggering back, covered with blood. Gerard had rushed in like lightning, and, just as the axe turned to descend on him, drove his sword so fiercely through the giant's body that the very hilt sounded on his ribs like the blow of a pugilist, and Denys, staggering back to help his friend, saw a steel point come out of the Abbot's ; back.
Although she had sunk twice, I was so overcome by my sensations that I was unable to attempt her rescue. She must have certainly perished, had not my companion, perceiving her danger, instantly plunged in to her relief, and with some difficulty brought her in safely to the opposite shore.
By taking the current a little further up, the rest of the family got safely over, where we had an opportunity of joining our Her gratitude may be more readily acknowledgments to hers. My wife also expressed the hope that she might have the pleasure of returnO.
Fagin's character. Whenever the Dodger or Charley Bates came home at night, emptyhanded, he would expatiate with great vehemence on the misery of idle and lazy habits and that he might enforce upon them the necessity of an active life, he would send them supperless to bed. On one occasion, indeed, when they had returned with nothing, he was so righteously indignant, that he even knocked them both down a flight of stairs but this was carrying out his virtuous precepts to 7.
Oliver ; ; an unusual extent. If they attack the centre, which is covered by the principal battery, we can concentrate the left flank on this height and retire in good order to the reserve. O good old man how well in thee appears 9. The constant service of the antique world, When service sweat for duty, not for meed Thou art not for the fashion of these times, 8. Where none will sweat but for promotion, And having that, do choke their service up Even with the having it is not so with thee,: But, poor old man, thou prun'st a rotten tree, much as a blossom yield thy pains and husbandry.
But come thy ways we'll go along together, And ere we have thy youthful wages spent, We'll light upon some settled low content. The Portuguese in the Brazils would have At last, our never-failing friend, William the Quaker, helped us out again.
His proposal was this, that he should go as master of the ship, taking a few men whom we could best trust, and attempt to trade privately, upon the coast of Brazil, with the planters, not at the principal ports, since that would not be admitted.
The village all declared how much he knew. But past is all his fame. The very spot, Where many a time he triumph'd, is forgot. She wishes to know, by an early post, where he expects to go if he and with what feelings he could turn up quarrels with his victuals his nose at the broth, after his good master had asked a blessing on it. This was not told to her by Mr. Squeers, since he is too kind and good to make trouble for anyone, and it has vexed her more than Mobbs can imagine. She is sorry to find he is discontented, and Mr.
Squeers will flog him into a happier state of mind. Cheerfulness and contentment must be kept up. Mobbs, " Alas, alas for Hamelin! The Mayor sent East, West, North, and South, To offer the Piper, by word of mouth, Wherever it was men's lot to find him, Silver and gold to his heart's content, he'd only return the way he went, bring the children behind him.
But when they saw 'twas a lost endeavour, And Piper and dancers were gone forever, They made a decree that lawyers never Should think their records dated duly If, after the day of the month and year, These words did not as well appear, " And so long after what happened here, On the twenty-second of July, Thirteen hundred and seventy-six. If And Now Nature, 'tis said, is a comical jade, And among the fantastical tricks she has play'd, Was the making our good Father Richard a brother, As like him in form as one pea's like another ; He was tall and upright, about six feet in height, His complexion was what you'd denominate light, And, though he had not shorn his ringlets of brown, He'd a little bald patch on the top of his crown.
But here, it's pretended, the parallel ended no doubt his life might have been mended, And people who spoke of the Prior with delight, Shook their heads if you mentioned his brother, the Knight. And he thought it but just, since the owner had changed his profession, that the horse should also change his title and be dignified with another it must be a sonorous word such a one as should fill the mouth, and seem ; ; ENGLISH GRAMMAR 32 consonant with the quality and profession of his master.
And thus, after many names which he devised, rejected, changed, liked, disliked, and pitched upon again, he concluded to call him Rozinante, a word composed of two parts, Rozin meaning an ordinary horse, and ante meaning formerly a name, lofty sounding, and significant of what he had been before, and also of what he was now in a word, a horse before or above all the vulgar breed of horses in the world.
You, merchant, have you anything to say? But little I am arm'd and well prepar'd. Give me your hand, Bassanio fare you well Portia. Commend me to your honourable wife Tell her the process of Antonio's end Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death; And when the tale is told, bid her be judge Whether Bassanio had not once a love. Repent not you that you shall lose your friend, And he repents not that he pays your debt For, if the Jew do cut but deep enough, I'll pay it instantly with all my heart.
Her heart melted, I suppose, at the notion that she should do for, when she reanything unkind to any mortal, great or small turned, she had sent away the housekeeper upon an errand by the door at the farther end of the gallery and, coming back to the lad, with a look of infinite pity and tenderness in her eyes, she took his hand again, placing her other fair hand on his head, and saying some words to him, which were so kind, and said in a voice so sweet, that this boy, who had never looked upon such a beauty before, felt as if the touch of a superior being or angel smote him down to the ground, and kissed the fair protecting hand as he knelt on one knee.
Other extracts for analysis will be found in Appendix E. A NOUN For instance, the word city in the sentence, Montreal is a great city, a common noun, because it may be used to name any one of the class of things we call cities. A common noun is significant, i. A proper noun is not significant. The word city has a definite meaning, and is used to name only places of a certain size and character.
The word Montreal, on the other hand, has now no meaning, and is used to name a city, an island, and a river. The proper noun begins with a capital letter common noun usually begins with a small letter. A common noun becomes a proper noun when used Proper city.
The Tower of London has held 6. D A many notable prisoners. There are two Titians in this gallery. Several budding Miltons are in this class. When some lifeless thing, some lower animal, some quality, or some emotion is personified, a common noun becomes a proper noun, and is written with a capital.
A concrete noun is the name of something that has a material existence outside of our minds. And here is a story of a Brigade Headquarters that lived in a house surrounded by a moat over which there was only one road.
On Thursday, the enemy's artillery found the house, and later on, as the rush came, their rifle fire found it also. The staff went on with its work till the end of the week, when The shells set the place alight, and they were forced to move.
Captain Scrimger, medical officer attached to the Royal Montreal Regiment, protected the wounded man with his own body against the shrapnel that was coming through the naked rafters, and carried him out of the 1 "It is recommended that the term collective be not used except when needed in explaining the occasional use of a plural verb with a singular noun.
Two of the staff, Brigadier-General Hughes then Brigade-Major of the 3rd Infantry Brigade and Lieutenant Thompson then Assistant Adjutant, Royal Montreal Regiment re-swam the moat, and, waiting for a lull in the shell fire, got the wounded man across the road on to a stretcher and into a dressing-station, after which they went on with their official duties. Within the lists, in knightly pride, Prize of the 2.
An High Home and haughty Dacre ride ; Their leading staffs of steel they wield, As marshals of the mortal field While to each knight their care assigned Like vantage of the sun and wind.
Then heralds hoarse did loud proclaim, In king and queen and warden's name, That none, while lasts the strife, Should dare, by look, or sign, or word, Aid to a champion to afford. A noun denoting a male being is of the masculine gender. A noun denoting a female being is of the feminine gender.
All other nouns are of the neuter gender. They are two kinds, a the names of things without sex, b the names that are given indifferently to beings of both sexes. Gender in Modern English is a distinction in words, corresponding to the distinction of sex in the objects Modern English is said, therefore, to they represent. Latin, French, and German, on the other hand, have grammatical gender, because the gender of nouns in these languages has been determined For largely by the forms and derivations of words.
The distinction of gender in nouns is of importance Modern English only in connection with the use of personal pronouns and possessive adjectives. Except in such connection, the gender of a noun may be ignored.
Russian Dutch: Spanish 3. One feminine noun is belle. Gender is sometimes indicated by adding or prefixing a noun or a pronoun 4. Some ; names are applied Christian proper only, others to women William, Thomas, only Henry: But cliff, cliffs muff, muffs ; ; b Most nouns ending in change y to i and add -es chief, chiefs. But nouns ending add -s monkey, monkeys in y preceded by a vowel simply: It will be noticed that many of the nouns in list b are used more frequently in familiar speech than are those in list c.
A few nouns change the vowel sound of the stem. This method of forming plurals is used with a large number of nouns in German, as Mann, Manner The mark: One noun adds 39 -en to the singular; ox, oxen. Three words have double plurals, a form already plural - e n being added to: A number of words taken from foreign languages form their plurals according to the rules of those languages. Many of these words have both foreign and English plurals, sometimes with different meanings for the phenomenon nebula two: Armstrong man-servant mother-in-law Dutchman footstool Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural, either generally, or in certain cases: In a large class of Old English neuter nouns, such as swine, deer, and sheep, one case-form was used for the nominative and accusative cases, singular and plural, and in Middle-English times many other nouns came to have the same peculiarity through analogy.
Although the words mentioned above generally have the same forms for singular and plural, they sometimes have plurals in - e s. There are several fishes kinds of fish in this lake. We have six dozen eggs. Dozens of eggs are for sale. The people of 2. Europe are are tired of war. Some nouns, especially The peoples names of nationalities material, are seldom or never used in the plural, on account of their meaning tin,: But a ship's coppers, tins kinds of tin, or, tin dishes, or cans , the clays varieties of clay of Quebec, earths kinds of earth , the beauties of the St.
Lawrence valley. Some nouns are used ordinarily in the plural only: A few nouns are plural in form but singular in meaning, unless specially used in the plural. Several 5. Mathematics is are studied with delight by most girls. The ashes was were carried out by the janitor. News of the victory is are sent far and wide. How much did you pay for this these spectacles?
The United States has have taken part in the war against Germany. Checkers is are a favourite game with Mrs. The seventh innings is are decisive. Riches does do not bring happiness. The eaves of the house is are thirty feet above the ground. Alms is are given to the needy. The people of Canada is are proud of the Canadian soldiers. The mob demands demand the release of the The committee is are now in session, and its their report is brought in, it they will go home.
All should be interested in it them. Statistics is are said to be dull. These men are heathen heathens. The archives of Canada is are preserved at Ottawa.
By this these means he was able to accomplish his ends. The brothers brethren of this society are to attend church in a body. CASE You have already learned that English nouns have nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative, and two case-forms, the common and the genitive. The Singular nouns not ending in to form the genitive case-form. Singular nouns ending in an s sound, add an apostrophe, or -'s, according to the sound of the word.
Sometimes both forms are used. When in doubt add -'s, or avoid the use of the genitive case. Plural nouns ending in s add an apostrophe only: Plural nouns not ending in an s sound, add women's hats, the policemen's union.
Compound nouns and noun -'s: John Workman's house, her sister-in-law's carriage, the Prince of Wales' palace. The same method is followed when a noun is preceded by a title, or descriptive or limiting words: When a thing belongs to two or more joint owners, only the last proper name has the sign of the genitive case Noden, Hallit and Johnston's store.
This is William and Henry's chance a joint chance to have a holiday. But when the ownership is not joint, each proper name should have the genitive form Noden's, Hallit's, and Johnston's stores. Each has a: In most cases the genitive case-form may be replaced by a phrase with of: Hindenburg's defeat: When the ravages of the disease, the top of the is hill. We sometimes avoid ambiguity by using a phrase: Sometimes euphony decides our choice.
The case-forms Common Genitive: Give list, This should be a written exercise. Funeral Oration of Pericles. The commonest use of the nominative case of a verb is as subject: The enemy having yielded, our soldiers came home. They the enemy having yielded, our soldiers came home. Because the enemy had yielded, our soldiers came home. You will notice that the italicised phrases in the first and second sentences, and the subordinate clause in the third sentence, are all adverbial, since they tell why our soldiers came home.
In the clause, the noun enemy is in the nominative case, because it is the subject of the clause ; in the phrases, the noun enemy and the pronoun they are in the nominative case because of settled usage, not because of their grammatical relations with other words. Because of this lack of dependence on other words for enemy in No. In German the accusative is used. In Milton are found examples of the accusative case used ab" him destroyed.
A phrase containing a substantive in the nominative absolute can usually be changed into an adverbial clause. The snow coming very late, we had no sleighing for Christmas.
Because the snow came very late, we had no sleighing for Christmas. The task being finished, we went home. EXERCISE 32 In each of the following sentences select the noun or proin the nominative absolute, and change each adverbial phrase containing a nominative absolute into an adverbial noun clause.
The labours of the day being ended, you may now go to rest. My friend having failed to be can without her. The weather and the tide being favourable, Caesar set sail present, I shall I for Britain. My story being done, my pains a world of sighs. This duty performed, 6. The 7. King lay down, his heart heavy with sorrow. All things forgotten besides, they gave themselves To the maddening whirl of the dizzy dance. Whoso The up ask'd her for his wife, riddle told not, lost his life.
O O Judge me, 1. But Thou, 3. Sir, I entreat God, and plead my cause. Lord, be merciful unto me. In these sentences the italicised words are used to name In or indicate the persons addressed by the speaker. Cur, amice, patriam love your country? Immortal gods I how much does one man excel another Fools whole. Ye gods they know not!
Must I endure how much all this! Substantives used in exclamations like above, differ in function from those used only because they are used in exclamations, persons named or indicated by them are addressed. When Herod,, the King, had heard these things, he was troubled. Foch, the French general, defeated the Germans. Good health, your greatest asset, is of supreme importance. She, my best friend, will surely help me.
In each of the other sentences the second In the first noun Herod and named used similarly, in apposition with next first the italicised substantive, in order i. That the second substantive, the one in apposition, is in each instance in the same case as the first substantive, is shown in sentence 5, where the pronoun he has the nominative case-form. Since the second substantive named of a or indicated noun by the in apposition is is first used to describe the thing substantive, the function manifestly adjectival.
I doubt not thou art heard, my son. The Niobe 3. Childless of nations there she stands,! The ships being built according to the General's instructions, nothing remained but to wait for suitable weather. Morning of Christ's Nativity. Harry Lauder, the Scottish comedian, is now visiting Canada. Beautiful soup, so rich and green, for a hot tureen Who for such dainties would not stoop?
But 9. Hail, divinest Rats They fought the dogs and And I hand. Poor old Molly! LAMB, C. Construct ten sentences, each one containing a nomin- ative of address. Construct ten sentences, each one containing a nominative in exclamation. Construct ten sentences, each containing a nominative in apposition. This is she. It is he. He became my friend. She seems a goddess. She seems generous. In each of the first four sentences the italicised substantive completes the verb and modifies the subject.
This use of the substantive is like that of the adjective generous in No. The case-forms of she and he in sentences i and 2, show that the italicised words are in the nominative case. A substantive used in this way to modify a subject in the nominative case, and to complete a verb, is said to be in the predicate nominative ease. Church has remained mayor for five years. A part of France became a desert during the war.
Clarke was president of the Literary Society. This cloth will become a good coat. England became a democracy many years ago. This hat becomes the lady. What you have done is a proof of your kindness of heart.
Ah then, if mine had been the painter's hand. Elegiac Stanzas. E Construct ten sentences containing predicate nominatives. Construct ten sentences containing nominative absolutes.
Sometimes the subject clearness, or emphasis, or in repeated for the sake of is summing up a series. There as I passed with careless steps and slow, The mingled notes came softened from below The swain, responsive as the milkmaid sung, The sober herd that lowed to meet their young, The noisy geese that gabbled o'er the pool, The playful children just let loose from school, The watch-dog's voice that bayed the whispering wind, And the loud laugh that spoke the vacant mind, These all in sweet confusion sought the shade, And filled each pause the nightingale had made.
Was there one flinched? Not a boy, not a boy of them Straight on they marched to the dread battle's brunt. Sometimes, after a sentence is begun, the writer or speaker changes the construction, and the substantive which was to have been the subject of the sentence is left without grammatical connection. He whom When was royal eyes disown, his form to courtiers known? Caesar was declared Emperor. The 4. There never was knight skipper, he blew a whiff from his pipe, And a scornful laugh laughed he.
At the foot of thy crags, O 51 Sea! In full-blown dignity see Wolsey stand, Law in his voice, and fortune in his hand. Sweet bird thy bower is ever green. These nations, which were once our enemies, have now become our friends.
Our masters then 1 1 g. Were How in the castle yard, it screams to the lightning, with its Jagged plumes overhanging the parapet E. Isobel's Child. The commonest use of the accusative case is as direct object of a verb or a preposition.
General Foch saved Paris. Give assistance to your friends. A few verbs take two direct objects, one of the person, the other of the thing affected or produced by the act. They asked him many questions. The warrior struck me a blow. Occasionally a verb that is regularly intransitive, takes noun whose meaning resembles its own. The boys The allies have fought a good fight. The children ran errands. Our 2. We were given 4. They asked me three questions.
Notice that the direct object of the active verb becomes Sentences i of turning way Sentence 3 represents an unusual and illogical method of turning an active sentence into a passive one. The indirect object, us, of sentence i the subject of the passive verb. Such sentences as No.
One of them becomes the subject of the verb in No. The premier was given a hearty reception on Thou For 4. His friend asked Antonio the reason of his sadness. His eyes looked daggers at his The cowardly man struck the boy a heavy blow.
I would fain die a dry death. Longboat ran his fastest. A small boy asks his parents many difficult questions. Fight the good fight with all thy might. For instance, the French equivalents of the examples given above would be: Nos amis nous ont donne un cadeau. Un cadeau nous a ete donne par nos amis. Mother makes the tea sweet.
Mother sweetens the tea. The adjective sweet in the first sentence has two functions: This last it the sense the completes 2 point is shown clearly by the fact that sweetens in sentence 2 expresses the same idea as makes sweet in sentence i. I call 2. The 3. We him is my friend. In each of these sentences the italicised noun completes the sense of the verb, and modifies the direct object. If the infinitive to be were supplied in the third sentence, We consider them to be our benefactors.
We may, therefore, consider all the italicised nouns in sentences to be in the accusative case. Nouns used in the predicate of the sentence to complete the sense of the verb, and to modify the direct object of the verb, are said to be in the Adjunct Accusative Case. Adjunct means joined Latin ad, to, and jungo, join.
I consider I consider In sentence that he is our friend. The pronoun him has the accusative case-form, and friend, as the complement of to be, and the modifier of him, must also be in the accusative case. Both subject and complement of an infinitive are, therefore, in the accusative case. They declared him The crowd saw her 3. The people elected Washington President of the United: I judged him to be a foreigner.
Gladstone lived a long and useful life. He frankly avowed himself to be Wilfred of Ivanhoe. And the gods of Greek tradition 5.
Make the earth their dwelling-place. This worthy 6. I do call him a slanderous coward and a villain.
Sometimes a-dropping from the sky 8. I heard the sky-lark sing. I am sure that indolence is the true state of man. LAMB, Letters. Chiefs, By 1 2. So he commanded his man to light the candle. Jesse expected his eldest son to be king.
The boys walked ten 2. My string is 3. The noun The noun The noun distance miles modifies the verb walked. In Old English, nouns used in this way modifies the adverb away. Since the nominative case is also used in exclamations see section 54 , nouns used in this same way are treated as being in the nominative case, since they have no special Alas the day form for the accusative: The landlord consented to allow me a pound a week.
This place LAMB, 5. Spencer mentioned a page or two before. French to be splendid fighters. Under the keel nine fathom deep, From the land of mist and snow, poor! We know the The spirit slid. Talbot was given a grant of land in Upper Canada. But on the preceding night, my landlord having behaved very rudely to me, I had resolved not to remain another night in his house. As I walked home last night, I saw a shooting star rush across the sky. Before their eyes the wizard lay, if he had not been dead a day, His hoary beard in silver rolled, He seemed some seventy winters old.