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Methodology To categorise euphemism, dysphemism and the mixed processes or x-phemism, I have used Taboada and Grieve's , pp.
This is, at the same time, based on Martin's Appraisal and Martin and White's Appraisal Theory , which is a linguistic classification of subjectivity. Taboada and Grieve's method does not only use the positive or negative semantic orientation of the word to classify the excerpted examples but also takes into account text structure; thus, in case of ambiguity, context and pragmatic elements are considered to assign one category or the other.
These polarities are important within the analysis since they help determine if a unit is a euphemism, dysphemism or x-phemism by evaluating the opinions expressed and attitudes of the characters in relation to their context, personality and characteristics. This methodology is implemented in two phases: the first step is to determine whether a word or phrase is of positive or negative orientation; and then, to establish the degree to which a word or phrase expresses appreciation a comment on a thing , judgement a comment on a person and affect a comment on one's self.
In order to understand the framework in which Taboada and Grieve's approach is embedded, the Appraisal Theory proposed by Martin , , and Martin and White must be explained. This is a particular approach employed to explore, describe and explain the way language is used to evaluate, to adopt stances, to construct textual personas and to manage interpersonal positioning and relationships.
It explores how attitudes, judgements and emotive responses are explicitly presented in texts and how they may be more indirectly implied, presupposed or assumed. As well, it explores how the expression of such attitudes and judgements is, in many instances, carefully managed so as to take into account the ever-present possibility of challenge or contradiction from those who hold differing views.
White, This theory assists in the interpretation and understanding of linguistic resources, since it enables us to investigate the linguistic basis of differences in the writer's or speaker's style by which they may present themselves e. In the current study, I focus on one particular domain of this theory: attitude or attitudinal positioning. This domain is concerned with feelings —including emotional reactions—, judgements of behaviour and meanings by which writers or speakers indicate either a positive or negative assessment of people, places, things, happenings and states of affairs White, Moreover, this theory permits drawing conclusions about the usage of language regarding male and female roles in terms of attitude.
For the cases when euphemistic, dysphemistic and x-phemistic phenomena merged with metaphor or metonymy I have employed the Conceptual Metaphor Theory, originated by Lakoff and Johnson and later modified in Johnson , Lakoff , , , Lakoff and Johnson and Lakoff and Turner The main aim of this theory is to reveal the intentions of metaphor and metonymy, their meaning and ideologies underlying language use through their analysis, since conceptual metaphors are normally initiated in human bodily experiences of any kind —as thought evolves out of the sensory and motor systems to create metaphorical expressions Johnson, and to conceptualise abstract concepts— and in knowledge of the value attached to source domains in particular cultural practices Charteris-Black, , p.
As for the methodology employed in these cases, this approach divides the metaphor —and, by extension, metonymy— analysis into three stages: first, metaphors are identified; second, they are interpreted; and finally, they are explained. This enables us to identify which metaphors or metonymies were chosen and to explain why these were chosen by illustrating how they contribute to their purpose Charteris-Black, , pp.
However, metaphor and metonymy are not the main focus of this paper. Before presenting the analysis, there are two factors that must be considered. First, the problem that arises when analysing language in use; that is, due to the fuzzy boundaries between the devices studied, sometimes it was difficult to decide how to classify them since more than one device merged in the same example.
When this happened, if their main intention was to mitigate the potential dangers of certain taboo words or expressions or, on the contrary, highlight them, they were classified as euphemism and dysphemism respectively, or their mixed processes. Second, as Gibbs , p. Gibbs, The author and the books In her books, Erika Leonard James is described as a TV executive, wife, and mother of two, based in West London, who, since early childhood, dreamt of writing stories that readers would fall in love with, but put those dreams on hold to focus on her family and her career.
She finally plucked up the courage to write her first novel, Fifty Shades of Grey James, a and the other two sequels completing her adult romance Fifty Shades trilogy. The trilogy consists of three books —Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker James, b and Fifty Shades Freed James, — and was developed from a Twilight fan fiction series originally titled Master of the Universe and published episodically on fan-fiction websites under the pen name "Snowqueen's Icedragon".
The series begins with the story of a college student, Anastasia Steel, who starts a relationship with a year-old, successful, powerful and wealthy businessman, Christian Grey, after interviewing him for the WSU newspaper. Despite Anastasia's inexperience, Christian wants her to sign a contract permitting him enter a purely sexual relationship of dominance and submission.
The first novel plays tension over the nature of their relationship, showing Anastasia's reticence to it, and the possibility of romance and love while her exploring the newly discovered world of sex. The second novel deepens the process of knowing each other, especially when revealing Christian's background, as their relationship begins to turn serious and ends with his proposal. In the third novel, after becoming Mrs Grey and a wonderful honeymoon, Anastasia has to both adapt to her new lifestyle and return to work.
As Christian tries to overprotect Anastasia by taking over the company where she works and offering the position of lead editor and owner, she starts feeling suffocated, which eventually affects their personal relationship.
After overcoming three major obstacles the attempt on Christian's life, Anastasia's getting unexpectedly pregnant and being blackmailed, kidnapped and beaten by her former boss , they strengthen their relationship by trusting each other as they open up to each other, especially when Christian goes deeper into his past.
Finally and as mentioned in the introduction, despite the great popularity of James's novels, the critical reception of the trilogy has been mixed to negative, since most reviews noted poor literary qualities of her work Irvine, ; Kornbluth, However, it has also been praised for being more enjoyable than other literary erotic books Colgan, and has garnered some accolades in different categories in the UK National Book Awards.
Analysis Prior to explaining the cases in detail, it must be noted that all euphemistic, dysphemistic and x-phemistic examples from the three books of the trilogy were excerpted and considered.
However, due to the limited scope of the paper and the logical space limitations, I have selected the most representative cases; therefore, the analysis is mainly qualitative. Euphemism Positive euphemism is the ground where most of the expressions are classified, because all the sexual scenes happen between a couple in love even though the male partner does not recognise it at first.
Thus, the negative intention of the characters is not latent or frequent on purpose. This positively oriented type of euphemism offers alternatives to mitigate the potential danger of taboo words or expressions employed for bodily parts, desire and excitation, fluids, masturbation, orgasm, relationships, sexual play and sexual variants.
Thus, bodily parts are usually substituted by another lexical choice, as examples 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 and 7 show: 1 He pulls me up and into his arms so I can feel the length 2 of his body against mine, this swift action taking me by surprise. James, a, p. By way of illustration take example 11 : 11 I reach forward and place one of my hands around him, mirroring how he's holding himself.
James, , p. On the one hand, sexual desire is represented by the verb 'want', which avoids mentioning 'having sex' James, a, p. This last expression is also mitigated by phrases like wanting "to be in Christian's bed" James, a, p.
On the other hand, desire —and its climax— materialises in the form of human fluids produced by the body lexicalised euphemism ; thus, 'warm, salty liquid' is employed instead of 'sperm' and "being wet", "soaking" or "damp" is the female equivalent of 'being sexually aroused or excited', as shown in examples 13 , 14 , 15 and 16 : 13 He cries out and stills, and I can feel warm, salty liquid oozing down my throat.
James, b, p. This leads to polysemy whereby the taboo and non-taboo senses coexist. Masturbation and orgasm are also two areas were taboos are mitigated by other lexical alternatives.
The latter case is metaphorical too, since having an orgasm is compared to "convulsing and shattering into a thousand pieces" James, a, p. In this way, expressions like exploding and its synonyms to refer to the act of having an orgasm offer an alternative way of comprehending reality by virtue of the conceptualization sex is fire.
Therefore, having an orgasm is euphemistically represented with expressions such as "a merciless assault" or "conceding defeat", as shown in 19 and 20 : 19 My body is singing, singing from his merciless assault.
While, Anastasia always speaks about love and making love —even when Christian makes it clear and explicitly that he fucks—, Christian always talks about sex and separates from his life anything to do with love by using euphemistic expressions applied to romantic relationships such as "I don't do the girlfriend thing" James, a, p.
Regarding sexual play, the act itself is named by Christian as 'to mess with her' James, b, p. Finally, with respect to sexual variants, when Christian tries to persuade Anastasia to offer her virginity to him, he clearly uses euphemistic expressions to avoid "having sex" or "fuck", as he usually refers to these actions; thus, he employs sentences like "making love" James, a, p.
He also resorts to euphemistic expressions when he wants to try something new in order to prevent her from being afraid; therefore, he talks about "oral skills", i. BDSM scenarios. However, Anastasia also employs euphemistic expressions especially when she wants to know about his sexual "predilection" James, a, p.
Gibbs , p. Then, more broadly, darkness is often associated with evil and death, whereas light is often associated with goodness and life.
In this regard, the most outstanding euphemistic metaphor is the one after which the books are named: Fifty Shades of Grey, which clearly represents the twofold character of the protagonist and deals with his internal struggle between either choosing light or the world Anastasia brings to him or darkness or his sadomasochism lifestyle.
Thus, due to its pragmatic nature, this euphemistic expression can be considered either positively or negatively oriented. On the contrary, negative euphemism is employed by Christian in one of the clauses of the contract to express that he would not perform any "acts involving urination or defecation and the products thereof" James, a, p.
Dysphemism As the main aim of dysphemism —as I understand it in this paper— is offending, it is odd that it occurs with a positive intention 3. However, I consider a positive expression the way Christian defines his brother, "Elliot Manwhore Grey" James, , p. The same happens with Anastasia's first vision about Christian's sexual preferences, which she describes as "a shit load of ideas", as in example 21 : 21 He's just given me a shit load of ideas to process and now this.
Lincoln, who she calls the "evil bitch", "the bitch-troll" and "Mrs. Elena Bitch Troll Robinson", examples 24 , 25 and 26 : 24 I am away for two days, and he runs off to that evil bitch. Elena Bitch Troll Robinson. That's where he went. Then, regarding the first one, it only applies to Christian, considered "a good-looking son of a bitch" James, a, p. At the beginning, after seeing Christian's playroom —a euphemistic term for it employed by himself—, Anastasia refers to it as the "Red Room of Pain" James, a, p.
Regarding their sexual status, they are completely opposite; while Anastasia is a virgin, a word that Christian considers really dirty at first by their own admission James, a, p. Descargar Los Bandoleros. Here you In project management, a schedule is a listing of a project's milestones, activities, and deliverables, usually with intended start and finish dates.
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