G E O R G E R U S S E L L ' S Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization VOLUME ONE: The Art and Science FOURTH EDITION: The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is a jazz music theory book written by George Russell. The book is the founding text of the Lydian Chromatic Concept (LCC), or Lydian Chromatic Theory (LCT). Russell's work postulates that all music is based on the tonal gravity of the . Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. Reconceptualizing the Lydian Chromatic Concept: George Russell as Historical Theorist Michael Unduh sebagai PDF, TXT atau baca online dari Scribd Lydian Chromatic Concept • Chord/scale equivalence • Lydian tonal organization .
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Download the Brochure in PDF Format. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization. George Russell's book, The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal. Chromatic Concept: George Russell as Historical Theorist – Lydian Chromatic Concept, 4th ed. theoretical basis for tonal organization within the Lydian . ronaldweinland.info Bishop . The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is a jazz music theory book written by George Russell. The book is the founding text.
Posts 1, Oh-oh, hang on for a bumpy ride. I'm going to start the roller coaster with this kick from Ed Byrne, one of my jazz heroes: Jazz Bulletin Board - View Single Post - Maj7b5 you may need to read the rest of the thread for context, and there's more where that came from. From my own perspective, I've only read short excerpts from the book it's insanely expensive , and from the dedicated website. It's a hard concept to warm to, as the jargon is deliberately neologistic, and from a distance it looks like one of those religious cults. I also found a dubious premise in the book that lydian is a "natural" scale, or words to that effect ; and I've seen some specious attempts by followers to analyse harmonic progressions using LCC terminology. It's not so much using a hammer to crack a nut, as using a wrench to drill a hole in the wall.
The interval of a fifth occurs first, followed by the interval of a fourth. The tonic of an interval of a fifth is the lower tone; that of a fourth is its upper tone. The C Lydian Scale: The real tonic of both intervals is the tone on the fourth degree ofthe major scale, the Lydian do Fq in this example.
The C major scale: II I 8 t Interval Tonic Justification for the Lydian Scale The twelve denominations of intervals are all contained in both the Lydian and major scales The whole notes represent the tonic of each interval.
In the Lydian Scale, it is possible to form all twelve types of intervals with the Lydian Tonic also being the tonic of the interval. However, it is impossible to produce an inter- val of a tritone augmented 4th in the major scale on its tonic Ionian do. IO, the tonic tones of the intervals formed with the do of both the Lyhan and major scale are represented bywhole notes. This is not quite the case with the major scale: As explained previously, the tonic of an interval of a fourth is the upper tone, therefore the tonic of this interval is I?.
The nature of the Major Scale Octave m a y be defined as: It defines the very nature of resolution as a state of fluctuation between tension and relaxation, non-final and final, occurring necessarily within a lin- ear horizontal sequential time continuum. This is confirnled by the major scale's primary harmonic progression: The tension between these two tones accounts for the basic qualities ofthe major scale.
These are: The nature of the Lydian Scale Octave may be defined as: Its unified tonal gravity field, ordained by the ladder of fifths, serves as a theoretical basis for tonal organization within the Lydian Chromatic Scale and, ultimately, for the entire Lydian Chromatic Concept. There is no "goal pressure" within the tonal gravity field of a Lydian Scale.
The Lydian Scale exists as a self-organ- ized Unity in relation to its tonic tone and tonic major chord. The Lydian Scale implies an evolution to higher levels oftonal organization. The Lydian Scale is the true scale of tonal unity and the scale which clearly represents the phenomenon of tonal gravity itself.
A Lydian Tonic may be a clearly audible do, or its presence may be camouflaged deliberately, as in twelve-tone "serial" music. Nevertheless, there is always a tone which functions in the capacity of a real do, or Lydian Tonic, for any segment of music manifesting within the compass of equal temperament. This tone is the Lydian Tonic, or real do of the music, whose tonical authority may or may not be immediately audible.
As originally stated, the Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organira- tion suggests that there is always a scale which sounds in closest unity with the harmonic genre of any chord. After dwelling on his state- ment for some months, I became mindful that Miles's answer may have implied the need to relate to chords in a new way.
This motivated my quest to expand the tonal environment of the chord beyond the immediate tones of its basic structure, leadmg to the irrevocable conclusion that every tradi- tionally definable chord of Western music theory has its origin in a PARENT SCALE. In revealing the basic tonal organization of the Lydian Chromatic Scale, the fundamental scale on which the Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is based, Chapter I1 proves that Tonal Gravity is the central author, authority, governing force, and foundation of that tonal organiza- tion.
The principle of Tonal Gravity produces its fundamental manifestation within a twelve-tone order that spans all of equal temperament i. This tonal order is referred to as a I. See Chapter A ladder of six consecutive intervals of fifths' ascending from the Lydian Tonic forms a Lydian Scale, the seminal scale of the Principle of Tonal Gravity and there- fore of the Lydian Chromatic Scale.
Augmented and diminished chord colors serve together with ascending intervals of fifths to dictate the position of the remaining five tones of the Lydian Chromatic Scale. This will be discussed later in this chapter. Whether viewed as an assemblage of the twelve individual steps of the Lydian Chromatic Scale or in relation to the Lydian Chromatic Scale's Seven Principal Scales, the creative force of tonal gravity-an all-encompassing framework of mag- netically attracted tonal elements connected to a central base tone Lydian Tonic -is clearly apparent as the raison d'etre.
Chapter I1 is aimed at familiarizing the musician with the most important chord producing scales of the Western harmonic spectrum. Chapter I11 shows how chords are created by a harmonic link of unity between chord and scale-a phenomenon that Western music theory has apparently neglected to include as an aspect of its harmonic theory, obviously overlooking or ignoring that the essential nature of harmony is unity; as in the oneness between a chord and its parent scale.
See Example I I: Member scales are not arbitrarily selected because they "sound good"; their identity is deter- mined by compliance to specific criteria. These criteria, which justify a scale's classification as a member scale, are: The eleven member scales of a Lydian Chromatic Scale are divided into two groups: Example Descending order as listed on Chart A. Example I I: These two aspects of the Lydian Chromatic Scale exist in complete conformity.
It may be said that the Seven Principal Scales are the unified products of their respective tonal orders within a Lydian Chromatic Scale, naturally inheriting the fundamental tonal color of their particular order.
The arrows pointing downward symbolize the phenomena and magnetic "pull" of Tonal Gravity always being directed to fall on the Lydian Tonic.
As the embodiment of the Lydian, Lydian Augmented and Lydian Dimin- ished Scales, the nine-tone order houses the fundamental chord types of the Western harmonic spectrum: As the strongest of the Lydian Chromatic Scale's vertical tones, the raised fourth degree has a neutralizing effect upon the strongest of its horizontal tones, the fourth degree.
In Examples 1 1 3 and I I: In this way, the major and minor chords found on modal tonics I and VI of member scales of the Lydian Chromatic Scale may function as cadence centers tonic stations for chord progres- sions.
Major and minor genres are strongest in their capacity to finalize preceeding non- finals. However, major and minor chords may be used simply as passing chords within a chord progression. Therefore, they may or may not function as Tonic Station Chords.
A definitive feature of a functioning Tonic Station Chord major or minor would very likely be a noticeably longer pause on that chord's harmonic rhythm. See types of major chords listed over the roman numeral I column on Chart A. This structure does not alter the essential qualities of a tonal gravity field created by the sequential series of fifths.
The Lydian Chromatic Scale retains these qualities of its Pythagorean prototype while at the same time being in accord with the development of Western harmony. Each of the twelve tones of the traditional chromatic scale functions as the Lydian Tonic of its respective Lydian Chromatic Scale. In addition, any of the twelve Lydian Chromatic Scales may function as the Lydian Chromatic Scale of current reference i.
As previously explained, the interval from do to fa is the strongest horizontal interval; whenever one relates to a tonical do the Lydian Tonic, in the case of the eleven member scales and the fourth degree is present, the tonal environment of the scale will have a quality of resolution, striving to become a unity with the I major or VI minor tonic station.
Existing in an eternal state of "becoming" and recurring tension, the duality and resolving tendency of the following four scales qualify their status as horizontal: All eleven member scales may eventually be used in both vertical and horizontal tonal gravity environments.
This will be discussed later in the text. The chief feature of a horizontal scale is its tendency to resolve to its mode I major or VI minor tonic station chords.
It is for this reason that they are used principally as tonic station modalities. Vertical scales represent a union with the chords they produce. Mode I of the four horizontal scales of the F Lydian Chromatic Scale sounds an active tendency to resolve to the F major modal tonic.
The four horizontal scales of F Lydian Chromatic sound an active tendency to resolve to the D minor modal tonic.
These two forces-the passive vertical force and the active horizontal force are two of the three "modes of behavior" of tonal gravity. Their derivation is consistent with the tonal order of the LC Scale itself, endowing them with the quality of existing in the state of unity with the pre- vailing Lydian Tonic. The chord and its parent scale are an inseparable entity-the reciprocal sound of one another.
The actual sound ofthe chord is that mode of theparent scale which begins on the chord S modal tonic: Chapter I11 is a continuation of the theoretical foundation of the Lydian Chromatic Concept. Those who are eager to begin worhng may at this point proceed directly to Chapter IV,which introduces the student to the Lydian Chromatic Concept's methodology. The interval between a chordmode's modal tonic degree and parent Lydian Tonic is called the Lydian Tonic Interval. In Concept terms, they can be understood as the parent scales-scales of origin and unity-for all traditionally definable chords.
The first ofthese seven is the seminal scale on which the Lydian Chromatic Concept is founded and the most ingoing of Principal Scales-the Lydian Scale. The Lydian Scale has seven modes, each rooted on a different degree of the seven Lydian Scale tones modal tonic degrees. Each mode follows the natural stepwise sequence of the Lydian Scale octave from a given modal tonic degree to its equivalent one octave higher.
Additionally, each of the seven Lydian Scale modes projects its own unique harmonic genre or verti- cal color when sounded either monophonically, homophonically, contra- puntally, or polyphonically.
The chordal or homophonic form of a mode is referred to as its Principal Chord or Principal Chordmode. The following examples feature the seven modes of the Lydian Scale and their Principal Chords.
Each Principal Chord is an arrangement ofthe tones of a mode into the mode's most "harmonically evolved" complete chordal genre. The Principal Chord, more than any other, exists as the essential vertical harmonic genre chord color of its relative mode within a shared parent scale, i. The Principal Chord and its parent mode within their mutual parent scale are the reciprocal sound of one another: It is for this reason that the musician should substitute the term chordmode for 'chord' when indicating the broader tonal environment of a chord.
Sometimes to be referred to hereafter in its abbreviated fashion as the Parent LC Scale. These chords carry the same essential harmonic identity as the Principal Chord, but are "less evolved" i.
Although a Sub-principal Chord doesn't contain all the tones of its relative Principal Chordmode, it still exists in a state ofunitywith its parent Principal Scale. These are listed above roman numeral I1 of their corresponding parent principal scale on Chart A.
Included in this category are chords produced by the auxiliary diminished blues scale, a scale which, although lacking PMT 11, produces highly altered chords of the seventh type when its Principal Chord is superimposed on PMT I1 of the LC Scale. This will be explained in detail later in this chapter. These are listed above roman numeral VI of their parent principal scales on Chart A. The five fundamental chord families of traditional Western harmony are: Augmented and diminished chords are regarded as belonging primarily to the I major and VI minor chord categories of the Lydian Chromatic Scale.
Augmented fourth degree of the Lydian Scale in the bass. Try sounding the C Lydian Scale over each of its seven modal tonic degrees to experience the complete sound har- monic genre of these seven distinct chord families. The major seventh degree ofthe Lydian I major chord and parent scale in the bass. As you look down this column of PMT degree roman numerals, you can see that the first seven represent the structure of the Lydian Scale.
These are the basis for the first seven chord categories or 1. First in order of development: See Example I I I: They represent the Primary ChordIParent Scale unities vertical colors of the equal tempered tonal spectrum.
The left side of Chart A is its brain; the right side is its body of Principal Scales. The smaller. See Example These two remaining Principal Chord Families are listed under that scale's heading in the right column of Chart A.
As you know, the acknowledged primary modal tonic degrees of the Lyhan Chromatic Scale are the first eight tones of the Lydian Chromatic Order of Tonal Gravity represented by the descendmg order of large roman numerals on Chart A.
For example, w i within the C Lydian Diminished Scale. In this way, the LC Scale actually prioritizes tonality, while not exclud- ing even the most radical twelve-tone atonal music, Also specifically demonstrated by its eight PMG is the immense degree to which they expand the Western chordal spectrum. However, the tonical authority of these four remote modal tonic degrees of the LC Scale grows progressively more oblique in the company of equally remote principal chords of the Prevailing LC Scale.
Major, minor, seventh, augmented, and diminished. Alternate modal genre are more remote in relation to those with Primary status. As Principal chords descend into the semi-outgoing and outgoing territory of Chart A, chord duplications may occur as natural manifestations of the LC Scale.
Auxiliary Scales Three scales, more obliquely related to the Lydian Scale in structure, are included in the body of Principal Scales of the LC Scale because of their unique harmonic polarity. Two of these scales, the Auxiliary Augmented and the Auxiliary Diminished, represent opposite tonal colors within the Western chordal spectrum.
The Auxiliary Augmented Scale is also known as the "whole tone scale. This scale is the source of the "pure" augmented scale color, due essen- tially to the absence of a pure I major or VI minor chord within its structure.
However, it is freely available to be used as a tonal color with most chords produced by the LC Scale's eight Primary Modal Genres. The Auxiliary Augmented Scale raises augments the chords introduced by the four scales of Lydian derivation.
This makes it most closely associated to the Lydian Augmented Scale in sound and function. Neither scale is capable of providing an unal- tered I major or VI minor triad. Nevertheless, both scales can be used in their own way to color virtually any Principal Chord of their parent Lydian Chromatic Scale.
The presence of the sharp fourth neutralizes the horizontal power of Western harmony's "natural" fourth degree allowing it to blend into the verticality of a chord. However, its ability to produce I major and VI minor chords ties it to the group of five Lydian Scale structures and therefore makes it a versatile and interesting scale. The Lydian Tonic interval connects you immediatelywith the chord's Lydian Tonic, the fundamental center of tonal organization for any and all chordmodes.
For example, the fundamental interval in relating to chordmodes ofthe I1 seventh Primary Modal Genre is that interval of a minor seventh connecting the chord's primary modal tonic with its Lydian Tonic. Any principal or member scale of the parent Lydian Chromatic Scale may be used to impose its particular sound along with that seventh chord, as is the case with a C Auxiliary Diminished Blues Scale sounding over Primary Modal Tonic degree I1 in the above example.
The Principal Chord is the most harmonically evolved chord a mode can produce on its modal tonic, and the term "Primary" refers here to an aspect of the LC Concept as being first and most ingoing in order of development and consequently causing or influencing later development.
Each PMG contains not only all the important chords of its general type, but also indicates the natu- ral parent Lydian Chromatic Scale tonal environment for the chord, and within that, the natural parent scale from which the chord arises initially. It is therefore of strategic importance, when trying to locate the Parent LC Scale for a chord, to first associate the chord with its proper Primary Modal Genre on Chart A.
As the chief facilitator in connecting chords with their parent LC Scale, Chart A first directs the musician to a given chord's Primary Modal Genre; that is, it points you to the chord's proper chord mansion its natural and most ingo- ing tonal habitat within the parent LC Scale wherein lies its primary parent scale.
The primary parent scale is the chord's birth chamber, its place of arising as well as that of its immediate chord family. The chord and its pri- maryparent scale exist in the state of absolute chorUscale unity-they exist as a chordmode. However, a Primary Modal Genre cultivates a number of diverse chord families of its own essential harmonic genre. These chord families exist side by side within the Primary Modal Genre mansion while retaining their own indigenous shade of that PMG's basic harmonic type.
The Seven Principal Scales represent the most ingoing tonal melodic and harmonic resources of the Lydian Chromatic Scale. Beyond this, the Lyhan Chromatic Concept offers gradually more outgoing tonal resources extending to the most radical type.
The broad range of freedom within the Lydian Chromatic Concept and its Lydian Chromatic Scale is a direct result of their genesis and development being founded on a single and powerful objective idea-the principle oftonal gravity.
Tonal gravity transcends the subjective rules of "good" and " b a d propelled by traditional Western theory. Gravity, as a function of physics, manifests itself in music as in all else of nature. The relationship of the twelve tones of the chromatic scale to a funda- mental tone center of tonal gravity or Lydian Tonic ranges from close to distant also referred to as ingoing and outgoing respectively not from good to bad.
As an objective-oriented principle, tonal gravity, in this manner, frees music from the subjective notions of right and wrong tones-clearing the path for the reunification of music with physics.
In fact, music may well be a higher language of the science of physics, revealing the why of things, as well as the how and having the capacity to influence the physical, emo- tional, and intellectual states as well as the spiritual. The higher the law, the fewer number of smaller subjective laws; hence the greater degree of freedom.
Freedom is not the absence of law, but rather the prevalence of a higher objective law superseding the existence of a plethora of lower, more subjective ones.
The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization is under the Law of Tonal Gravity, which provides the maximum freedom afforded within the scope of equal temperament. The Lydian Chromatic Scale and the Lydian Chromatic Concept are based hndamentally upon the law of tonal gravity which exists within a lad- der of intervals of fifths.
The interval of a fifth yields tonical authority to its lower tone. Likewise, a ladder of fifths confers ultimate tonical authority upon its lowermost tone. The Pythagorean ladder of twelve intervals of a fifth is the prototype for the tonal gravity field of a Lydian Chromatic Scale. However, in order to accommodate the evolution of the five main Western chord types major, minor, seventh, augmented and diminished , the Lydian Chromatic Scale skips the seventh fifth i.
It should be mentioned again that certain Sub-principal Chords of the auxiliary scales listed in the preceding examples are also Sub-principal Chords ofmore ingoing Lydian-based Principal Scales as well. See Example I: The "River Trip" chart on the opposite page illustrates three ways the musician might relate melodi- cally in navigating the chord-stream of a song.
The level ofvertical Tonal Gravity VTG requires the musician to project the harmonic identity of virtually each chord town with a melody that sounds that chord's harmonic genre as it occurs within the harmonic stream ofthe music. This is the chief mission of the musician on level of VTG: The vertical melodic approach is one ofthree ways to which early jazz mu- sicians intuitively tended to gravitate when negotiating a chord stream. The vertical approach was considered a more sophisticated style of play- ing because it required a knowledge of chords.
Musicians of the Coleman Hawkins vertical school of improvisation were, first of all, familiar with traditional chord nomenclature, which indicates the root followed by the harmonic type: Descends by the force ofvertical Tonal Gravity.
However, their har- monic genre sound distinctly different. And as we know, a chord is actually a mode a chordmode of its parent scale. These musicians created their vertical melodies by taking what they could from trahtional music theory. For the most part, this amounted to knowledge of a chord's intervalic structure, essentially built in thirds and based on the root of the chord. The "vertical" jazz musician discovered by experimentation that tones other than those within the structure of a chord could be used to imply more extended or altered versions of a chord.
Improvisers would sometimes choose to touch on these extended or altered tones, sounding the broader implication of not simply a chord, but rather the larger chord category to which a chord belongs.
This basic condition of Vertical Tonal Gravity was most forcefully evi- denced in the playing of Coleman Hawkins, Dick Wilson tenor soloist with the Andy Kirk Orchestra , Ben Webster, Herschel Evans, and certainly the greatest of all jazz piano geniuses, Art Tatum, whose brilliant execution of sophisticated harmonies and melodies will always sound ahead of its time. The vertical approach to navigating the chord river was, for the most part, identified geographically with the Northeast and central metropolitan areas of the United States.
Chapter I11 presented in detail the way in which chords are derived from their parent scales. The Lydian Chromatic Concept considers the underly- ing principle of harmony to be unity. The Lydian Scale, as the archetype of a unified tonal gravity field, certainly substantiates this claim. Relating Melody to the Parent Scale Designated by a Chord As the River Trip analogy illustrates, the jazz musician is frequently required to improvise with written chord symbols.
This chapter deals with converting a chord symbol into the scale which most purely conveys the sound harmonic genre of the chord. In vertical tonal gravity, the melody is dic- tated bv the chord. How are chords converted into their parent scales? Examine the Eb7chord for example: Over the roman numerals of the scales of Chart A are listed different chord families.
For example, over roman numeral I1 of the Lydian Scale are listed 7th, gth, iith, and 13th chords. They belong to the same family: The Lydian Scale is therefore the parent scale of the Eb7 chord. Place the root ofthe Eb7on roman numeral 11, and Eb becomes the second degree of that chord's parent scale. Think down a major 2nd interval; if Ebis the second degree of the parent scale, Db is the first degree.
This tonic is called the Lydian Tonic. Being able to immediately locate the parent Lydian Tonic for a chord is critical on the Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity, for this is where the chord's primary organization originates. In this instance, one could also think of the Lydian Tonic as existing on the flat or minor seventh degree of the Eb7 chord. Whether one calcu- lates down a major and or up a minor 7th, the result is the same. The instruction beneath each Pri- mary Modal Genre on the left side ofthe chart yields the degree ofthe chord on which rests its parent Lydian Tonic.
Keep in mind it is a chord's parent Lydian Tonic on which rests the tonal organization that represents the ultimate universe of the chord. The chord is born into this universe and evolves in its most natural tonal environment. The modal tonic of a chord functions only in de5ning the chord's harmonic genre within the con- text of its parent Lydian Chromatic Scale.
Once Dbis determined to be the Lydian Tonic of the Eb7chord, the next step is to fill in the rest of the tones roman numerals indicated by the scale: Try playing the Db Lydian Scale over the modal tonic root ofthe Eb7chord Eb to hear this complete p h chord family. Put the root ofthe C min7 chord on roman numeral VI, and C now becomes the sixth degree of its parent scale. In other words, C min7 as a complete minor chord genre is cre- ated by sounding the Eb Lydian Scale over its sixth degree modal tonic: Now fill in the rest of the tones roman numerals to complete the scale: This means that the modal tonic root of the chord G is located on the augmented fourth degree of its parent Lydian Scale.
Place Db on roman numeral I, and build the scale dic- tated by the remaining roman numerals: For example, the parent scale prime color ofthe Eb7chord is Db Lydian. However, the other six related scales on Chart A may be used to add color to the Eb7chord at the discretion ofthe improviser. The scales for the first chord F7 have been completed for you. Write the tones of the scales listed for the other ten chords in the same fashion by filling in the blank staves.
Experiment in cre- ating vertical melodies using these scales along with the basic unaltered chordmode-or simply play the scales superimposed over the root modal tonic degree of the chord.
They show how a parent or associate principal scale ofthe parent LC Scale dictated by each chord is used to derive a melody that colors the chord with the tonal quality of that scale. The examples are based upon an identical eight-bar chord progression for the purpose of demon- strating the tonal quality of each of the Seven Principal Scales of the LC Scale.
Each pair of variations features each of the seven types of principal scales. Variation l a has been completed for you. Continue by following this format and filling in the area above each bar in the remaining thir- teen variation examples.
I n the parenthesis to the right ofthe chord, fill in the roman numeral indi- cating the position occupied by the chord's root primary modal tonic degree within its parent [LC] scale, as indicated by Chart A.
Identify the exact parent Lydian Tonic and principal scale from which the vertical melody for a chord is being derived, and write it in the bracketed box above the chord and PMT.
Each pair of variations indicates the type of principal scale used. Each of these abbreviations is to be preceded by the capital letter representing the Lydian Tonic of the prevailing parent Lydian Chromatic Scale.
The parent Lydian Tonic's capital letter and Primary Modal Tonic's roman numeral of a chord adequately identifies its parent [LC] Scale and harmonic genre. This produces a G minor chord. Lyd L or Ly Lydian Augmented: LA Lyd aug Lydian Diminished: LD Lyd dim Lydian Flat 7th: AA aux aug Auxiliary diminished: AD aux dim Auxiliary diminished blues: Variations 3a and 3b: Create your own vertical melody for the eight-bar chord progression used in Test 8.
However, instead offeaturing only one particular principal scale color, you may use your aesthetic judgment in choosing a se- quence of varied principal scale types t o be sounded sequentially along with the chords occurring in the progression. Here are the first four bars as one possible example: Continue creating your vertical melody in the same manner for the remainder of the entire tune.
Test D In the bracket above each chord, note the proper parent scale indicated by the PMT degree roman numeral as well as by the tones of the melody in that bar Bar 1 is completed for you. Also note the initials CE for "chromatic enhancement" in those bars featuring the occasional non-scale tone in the parent scale mix. The tonal order of such bars i. Ingoing vertical melodies constitute the chief way in which melody behaves on the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity.
Within each VTG alliance a several note melody is derived from a principal scale, associate member scale or tonal order of the Parent LC Scale dictated by the prevailing chord chord of momentary reference.
This vertical melody imposes the tonal color of its relative Principal Scale on the prevailing chord, that is, the melody colors the chord of the moment with the desig- nated parent or member scale derived from its parent LC Scale.
Chromatic enhancement is a method of extending a scale-derived melody by mixing scale tones with non-scale tones traditionally referred to as passing tones. The Lydian Chromatic Concept insists on identifying the tonal order of a scale-related melody if one or more non-scale tones appears in its structure. This is determined by the tonal order of the most outgoing non-scale tone if several occur in the structure of a melody.
Not only Db Lydian, but also any of the other scales listed on Chart A may be built on the Db Lydian Tonic and used as a source of melodic vertical color with the chord. Avertical melody for an Eb7chord may therefore be derived from any one or more of the following seven scales: Db Lydian parent scale 2.
Db Lydian Diminished 4. Db auxiliary augmented 6. Db auxiliary diminished blues These seven scales represent the primary vertical colors of music. Each scale contributes its own melodic color to the sound of the chord. As mentioned at the end of Chapter 11, these seven scales combine to complete a chromatic twelve-tone scale. This chromatic scale, with its inherent tonal orders and tonal levels, is called the Lydian Chromatic Scale, and is created when the four Lydian Scales Lydian, Lydian Augmented, Lydian Diminished and Lydian Flat Seventh are combined with the three auxiliary scales auxiliary augmented, auxiliary diminished, and auxiliary diminished blues.
A different Lydian Chromatic Scale exists on each tone of the chromatic scale. As this book continues, it will explain how the Lydian Chromatic Scale is the scale from which all musical ideas may be derived. This is no small claim, but then, tonal gravity has never formally figured into Western music theory until introduced by the edition of this book.
It showed how tonal gravity is the governing force ofharmony, objectively explaining the relationship which any group of tones has to a Lydian Tonic as its center of tonal gravity. Each Lydian Chromatic Scale contains the seven vertical chord-produc- ing Principal Scales listed on Chart A, and four additional scales which are not listed on the chart: Their broader role in melody is discussed in later lessons.
A chord converted into its parent scale is converted into its parent Lydian 5.
Chromatic Scale as well. It might be said that the parent scale of a chord is 1i" actually a "smaller" parent scale within the "bigger" parent scale: Example v: See John Coltrane's Giant Steps solo, bar 3. Db Lydian Parent Scale 2. Db Lydian Flat Seventh 5. Dbauxiliary diminished 7.
Dbmajor 9. The fact that mode I1 of the Lydian Scale creates a 7th chord family establishes the broader relationship that 7th chords in general are found primarilv on the second degree of the LC Scale. On the left side ofthe brain' of Chart A are listed eight chord categories referred to as Primary Modal Genres. All definable chords in Western music can be reconciled with one of these eight chord categories.
To the left of each category is a large roman numeral. This is the scale degree or Primary Modal Tonic , indicating the root position of the chord within its parent scale. One should begin the search for a chord's Primary Parent Scale with the "brain" first. Identify the prevailing chord by its name: Classify the chord with its proper PMG: Follow the instructions beneath the chord category in order to find the parent scale of the chord.
G Lydian 2. G auxiliary diminished 7. G auxiliary diminished blues 8. G major 9. G major sharp 5th G major flat 7th Committing to memory the Lydian Tonic interval for each of the eight PMG of the LC Scale facilitates the most necessary vertical tonal gravity procedure ofrelating the prevailing chord to its parent LC Scale. The first chord has been completed for you.
Ab13 - 9. C1l - - This is, in essence, the law for the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity see: Law ofVTG, this chapter. The parent scale of each chord sounds the harmonic i t genre of the chord so faithfully, and with such a degree of unity, that it only i requires the presence inference of a chord's root to convey its harmonic A genre precisely. The principal feature of the Law ofvertical Tonal Gravity requires the presence of a melody related to the Parent LC Scale dictated by virtually each chord of a chord progression.
From the Parent LCScale of each Prevailing Chord,l one or more member scales are used to derive a several note melody two or more tones structured to convey the harmonic genre of that chord for all or the greaterpart of its duration. Focusing on each chord of a progression in order to "melodize" the chord establishes a type of melodic behavior termed an ingoing vertical melody, that is, a melody behaving in the manner prescribed by this principal feature of the Law of the Level ofvertical Tonal Gravity.
The Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity is validated by the existence of this ingoing vertical melody, derived from any of the eleven member scales2 of the Parent [LC] Scale dictated by virtually each chord within a chord pro- gression.
Chromatically enhanced vertical melodies have already been explained in Test D, Chapter IV as a way to extend vertical parent scale melodies by bor- rowing one or more non-parent scale tones from any of the Prevailing LC Scale's five tonal orders. However, even though such melodies may, to some degree, bend the Principal Feature of the Law of VTG, it still must be com- mitted to it, and consequently must-to a convincing degree-convey the harmonic genre of the Prevailing Chord.
Secondary feature: More outgoing melodic resources3 may occur on the level of VTG, as long as the chief feature of its law is maintained.
This requires the musician to continue to derive the melody from the parent LC Scale indicated by each chord ofthe chordstream; avertical melody designed ultimately to convey each chord's harmonic genre for the greater part of its period of duration.
Chart A serves as the most practical tool in helping the conveying its harmonic genre. See Chapter VI 3. The late Barry Galbraith was a guitarist for all seasons. He worked all the great jazz clubs in New York. On all of my RCA smalltet recordings, Barry was my orchestra. You could write anything and Barrywould not just play it, he would blend it in with the other instruments and make it sound like a big orchestra.
He was a giant among musicians and one of the best friends I and music ever had. The first 3. Test B requires the student to analyze the second 3. You simply need to note, in the bracket above the chord, your choice of the principal scale within the chord's Parent LC Scale that is most compatible with the tones of the melody sounding with that chord.
Use Chart A to help you in locating the proper parent scale if need be. Test B The second chorus of the Not Me solo by Barry Galbraith requires the stu- dent to note the parent scale of each chord in the bracket above it. As you know, on the level ofVTG, any ofthe eleven member scales ofthe prevailing LC Scale may be used to color the chord of the moment. In bar 4, two member scales of the C [LC] Scale are used. The first instance of chromatic enhancement occurs in bar 8 with the tone Ah representing the twelve-tone order of the Ab LC Scale being used to chromatically enhance an Ab Lydian Scale melody.
Chromatic enhancement occurs again in bars 13 and The first example of Horizontal Tonal Grav- ity in this solo as well as the text of this book occurs in bars 17 and In bar 17 and the two beats of bar 18, Coltrane's melody shifts from vertical to hor- izontal behavior. In the span ofthis small six-beat area, Coltrane establishes a tonic station area on the Level of Horizontal Tonal Gravity.
The two chords in bar 17, B major and D7 resolve to G major as a sub- tonic station. From the G [LC] Scale, the G major scale a fining horizontal member scale is chosen to sound over the two chords of bar 17 and the G major chord in bar The tone D h sustained over the two chords in bar 17 of Giant Steps is a reliable signal that Coltrane's melodic focus has shifted from vertical to the horizontal level of tonal gravity.
A single tone of the melody sustained over one or more chords is always an alert that the melodic basis for the music may have changed from the Level of Vertical Tonal Gravity to the broader based Level of Horizontal Tonal Gravity or still broader level of Supra- Vertical Tonal Gravity SVTG.
The ear always needs to link the melody with a tonal center. A pause in 1. A semi-final but not the ultimately final tonic station within a phrase. However, the resolving tendency of the chords in bar 17 B maj and D7 directs the ear to the G major tonic station chord ofbar The G major scale melody sounding within this six-beat tonic station area reflects Coltrane's split-second reaction to this resolving tendency of non-finals B maj and D7 to a final G major.
The second instance of horizontal tonal gravity occurs in bars 28 and 29 when the two notes of the B major scale melody1 in bar 28 naturally sound in strongest accord with the B major tonic station to which the Cfl7 and F'N7 chords resolve in bar The chosen member or "official" scale melody signals the identity of the approaching tonic station to the listener.
Giant Steps is a masterful legacy to Coltrane's intellectual brilliance, intuitive perception, emotional fire and spiritual depth. Whether Coltrane was or was not influenced by the Lydian Chromatic Concept is not the reason for including the Giant Steps analysis in this book. Showing how completely. I Tonic station modality is the official term for the dominant melody on the level of HTG.
There can be no doubt that the Lydian Concept "put modes in the air" andwas the theoretical foundation for what is commonly referred to as jazz's "modal era," l which, contrary to present myth, is not over. Modes are woven into the fabric of music. They are intrinsically connected to both chords and scales-an essential part of the nature of music.
Coltrane visited my home on Bank Street in Greenwich Village at some point back around We spoke about the Concept at length. Coltrane played with Miles, and I think that anyone who played with Miles was influ- enced by Miles and, through osmosis, by what had influenced Miles.
The point is that the Concept was a product of a time when the drive for artistic excellence and innovation, in all the arts, was furious, exhilarating and all- consuming. Giant Steps, Milestones, Ornette, Cecil Taylor, and the Concept were on the cutting edge of that artistic renaissance.
We still had to struggle to say our say, but it was possible for individual essences who wouldn't be denied to evolve in an environment that, however tough, stayed reasonably receptive to new impulses. Additional information may be found in the following books, all by Eric Nisenson b St. Martin's Press, New York: Round Midnight: A Portrait of Miles Davis; Ascension: Robert b E Palmer's liner notes to the recording Kind of Blue are both profound and factual. Analyze the following ingoing vertical melody based on the chords of Autumn Leaves.
In the bracket above the chord, note the principal or associate member scale you believe the improviser to be using. Within the parenthesis next to each chord, note the PMT indicating the position of the chord's root in its primary parent LC Scale. As you know, a chord's primary parent LC Scale has the most ingoing relationship to it. When finished, check your analysis with the correct one on page of the Technical Appendix.
Now create your own interesting melody based on the Autumn Leaves chord sequence. Derive your melody from the principal scale or associ- ate member scale of the parent LC Scale dictated by each chord.
The result should be an exciting ingoing vertical melody on the level of VTG. Observe the principal features of the Level ofVTG. Note each chord's PMTdegree roman numeral in the parenthesis next to it and identify the parent or associate member scale used in the bracket above the chord, as you've been doing so far in the text. Write music that is vibrant and fresh, with the same intensity as i f you're performing it live for an audience.
Try to avoid having your work on these Concept tests sound like dry and pedantic exercises. The present discussion will cen- ter first on alternate modal tonic degrees. Conceptual Modal Tonic degrees will be the focus of attention later in this chapter. Consequently, the status of the prevailing chord as such is maintained within the context of the newly created VTG alliance between the prevailing chord and its Alternate Parent [LC] Scale.
Exceptions to this will be discussed in due course. These possible changes are as follows: The consequence of these conversions is that, while its fundamental tones remain intact, the prevailing chord is placed in an interesting, though more remote, tonal environment. This includes all melodic and harmonic exposition. Three of these are listed on the next page. This qualifies the Db LC Scale and any ofits member scales to be employed as an alternate 2. Chart A Lists certain Principal Scales which produce tonical majodaltered major chords containing a b7 degree.
The chord progression in the following study see example on the top of the next page is called a "cycle of fifths"; each chord resolves to a chord an interval of a 5th below. The following Principal Scales produce a type of seventh chord on their augmented fourth degree: Lydian, Lydian Augmented, Lydian Flat 7th, auxiliary augmented and auxil- iary diminished blues.
Notice that the chords in bars 1 and 2, although employing different scale I colors, have quite the same Lydian Chromatic Scale. One may form a general rule about this: This is also the case when the VI scale degree is assigned to the minor chord, and the I1 scale degree to the following 7th chord a 5th below. Finish choosing primary or alternate parent scales for bars 5 through 8 of Example v1: List your chosen scale above the chord, and place the alternate or primary modal tonic scale degree which dictated the choice to the right of the chord as shown in Example v1: Then improvise or compose vertical melodies using your choices in the entire 8 bar progression.
Fill in primary or alternate parent [LC] Scales for the "cycle of fifths" progres- sion in Example v1: The parent LC Scale for each chord is dictated by the scale degree listed next to the chord.
This example uses the following Primary Modal Genre: Compose or improvise a vertical melody along with the chord progression. When playing a scale against a minor chord, it is only nec- essary to play the tonic and minor p h or minor 6th degrees ofthe chord in the left hand.
Allow the scales of the solo in the right hand to express the vertical coloring of chords. They are the foundation of its tonal organization and rep- resent the fundamental harmonic colors of its tonal spectrum. Coltrane sounds secondary modal genres within VTG alliances prevailing in bars 2 , 6 , 14,16,26,28,29,30 and 35 of his solo. These are discussed later in this chapter. In bar 10,C7 is the prevailing chord. These are in addition to its I major triad and VI minor triad. The manifestation of these four sharp-related major and minor triads within a flat-lying Lydian Scale is responsible for the horizontal state in which they and their corresponding modes V, , 11, or VII exist within the Lydian Scale.
They represent horizontal states of the Lydian Scale, the sem- inal vertical scale of the Lydian Chromatic Concept. The fact that the four sharp-lying triads exist as horizontal chordmodes within the Lydian Scale accounts for the essential contribution made by these triads to the tonal organization of the LC Scale, and consequently for their being termed Conceptual Modal Genre of the LC Scale.
One might perceive modes , V, I1 and VII of the Lydian Scale to have a split personality- a vertical state noted by the letter v and a horizontal state noted by the letter h. In this horizontal state, the tonical quality of the mode V major triad is stressed, C major, in this example. F maior 38 FIIIh: In its horizontal state, the tonical quality of the mode minor triad is stressed A minor, in this example.
F major 76 FVIIh: In this horizontal state, the tonical quality of the mode VII minor triad is stressed, E minor, in this example. Naturally, in this latter state, the tonical quality of the mode I1 G major triad is stressed. This applies to any horizontal scale used in a VTG context. The Parent [LC] Scale will remain the same. Abbreviations for terms: The musician is therefore fi-ee to relate to any p h chord in the manner of a IIh majb7 chordmode, placing the plain I1 seventh chord in the conceptual mode IIh context of its Parent [LC] Scale, EbLydian in this case.
The aesthetic judgment of the musician must prevail in choosing which scales to relate to chords on the level of vertical tonal gravity; the Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization simply shows the possibilities.
This is the most ingoing and natural tonal envi- ronment for minor chords. However, in order to accommodate the melody in bar g of the Coltrane solo, the Bb major scale-a horizontal member of the Bb LC Scale-would have to be used.
EbLydian is Bb major and vice versa. The sharp lying major or minor triads situated within a flat-lying Lydian Scale when used to support a melody derived from that LC Scale are referred to as conceptual modal genre of the prevailing LC Scale.
In other words, a condition exists in which a LC Scale may function as the prevailing parent LC Scale for any one of its sharp positioned major or minor triads. Alternate and conceptual modal genre application brings about a certain degree of scale duplication. So why bother to make conceptual computa- tions? Because even with duplication, many more scale possibilities are revealed. More importantly, these possibilities are unveiled in their true and natural relationship.
For instance, the most natural position for the Ionian mode i. This was its original, pre-fifteenth century position in the church modal system before the church fathers relented and permitted the major scale the scale of duality to exist on what was to become the common key center of a system of seven modes.
See Technical Appendix, Reed Gratz article. Of course, any principal, member or official scale1 of the conceptual parent scale Bb LC Scale in this instance may be used with the C major triad or C majb7 chord. They function both vertically and horizontally.
Test C Compose an interesting, imaginative solo derived from parent [LC] Scales established by the modal tonic degrees primary, alternate or conceptual that you have assigned to the chords in the following pro- gression.
Always note the chosen modal tonic degree roman numeral t o the right o f the prevailing chord. Be sure t o note in a bracket above the chord the scale you've selected from the parent LC Scale indicated by your designated modal tonic degree. The nomenclature shown in the two bar break preceding the first cho- rus is the correct one to follow throughout this test. Simply complete it by deriving an ingoing vertical melody of your own from the F LC Scale.
A certain amount of chromatic enhancement of a scale may be used judi- ciously. When you've completed this test, compare your ingoing vertical melody solo with that of Miles Davis's solo on page of this chapter.
The general class of Secondary Modal Genres includes any and all princi- pal or Sub-principal Chordmodes of any LC Scale, except for those of the prevailing LC Scale in which they currently are manifesting, in a manner suggesting the expansion of that LC Scale's tonal environment.
However, when used in the context of the general class of SMG as defined above , Alternate and Conceptual Modal Genres lose their sub-prime status and therefore no longer have authority to convert prevailing LC Scales. We should not underestimate the extent of Russell's enterprise. His work stands head-to-head with Arnold Schoenberg's "liberation" of the twelve-tone scale, the polytonal work of Stravinsky, and the ethnic scale explorations of Bartok and Kodaly.
If you've listened to jazz during the last fifty years, you've heard a good deal of George Russell's ideas; he is one of the 20th century's great originals and one of its bravest innovators. Having finished this work, Russell is completing another volume on related elements which he has been simultaneously developing over the last several decades. The Lydian Chromatic Concept of Tonal Organization was expanded several times over the years, and has grown greatly since its first appearance in It is with pride and pleasure that we present this fourth and final edition.
Click here to visit www. If you could sit down and write stuff like that out He wrote stuff like that and it was incredible. George Russell who at the time was working on his Lydian Chromatic Concept