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Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and translation A Progressive Grammar of Telugu ronaldweinland.info - Learning. Learn Telugu in 30 Days Through English - Learning Telugu. 21 Pages·· A Progressive Grammar of the Telugu Language - Learning Telugu. Format and scheme of all books will be the same as that of this book and each book will be prepared in close consultation with the topmost linguists.
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Layout[ edit ] The 'traditional' language laboratory consisted of a teacher console networked to multiple stations for individual students. The teacher console typically included a tape recorder to play the instructional recording, a headset and system of switches to enable the teacher to monitor either the audio being played or an individual student, and a microphone for communicating with students.
Each student station generally included a student tape recorder, headset , and microphone. The tape recorder both enabled recording of students' spoken responses and allowed them to record instructional content for later independent study . All but the most simple or first generation laboratories allow the teacher to remotely control the tape transport controls of the student booths record, stop, rewind etc.
This allows for easy distribution of the master programme material, which is often copied at high speed onto the student positions for later use by the students at their own pace.
Better tape laboratories housed the tape machine behind a protective plate leaving only a control panel accessible to the students or locked the cassette door. This kept the expensive and sensitive decks free from student misuse and dust etc. This section does not cite any sources.
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message Once the master program had been transferred onto the student recorders, the teacher would then hand over control of the decks to the students. By pressing the record key in the booth, the student would simultaneously hear the playback of the program whilst being able to record his or her voice in the pauses, using the microphone.
This is known as an audio active-comparative system. From a technological point of view, this overdubbing was made possible by use of a two-channel tape recorder This section does not cite any sources.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message Russian language class in an East German language laboratory Language laboratories in the s and s received a bad reputation due to breakdowns. Common problems stem from the limitations and relative complexity of the reel to reel tape system in use at that time.
Design played a part too; the simplest language laboratories had no electronic systems in place for the teacher to remotely control the tape decks, relying on the students to operate the decks correctly. Many had no way to stop the tape running off the reel in fast rewind or forward wind, which meant time wasting and greater chances of failure through misuse.
The tape recorders in use after the early s in the language laboratory were more complex than those in the home, being capable of multitracking and electronic remote control.
As a result, they often had several motors and relays , complex transistorised circuitry and needed a variety of voltages to run.
They had lots of rubber parts such as idlers and drive belts which would perish and wear out. Bulbs in the control panels were also in continual need of replacement.
Since the student booth tapes were not normally changed from one class to the next but were recorded over each time, these would eventually wear, and shed their oxide on the tape heads leading to poor sound and tangling. The installations were usually maintained under contract by service engineers, but these often served a county or similar wide area, and would only call at 3-monthly intervals[ citation needed ].
This meant that if several booths malfunctioned, then for much of that time the laboratory was out of action. Change of media[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message A modern language laboratory control center Starting in the s, many schools transformed their old language labs into computer suites. However, the advent of affordable multimedia capable PCs in the late s led to a resurgence and transformation of the language laboratory with software and hard drives in place of reels of analogue tape.
Media is 'managed' on these hybrid systems by language lab providers creating a supplementary network over and above the existing PC network for audio connections and communications in fixed locations. These hybrid systems are not without problems, mainly associated with hardware issues as the manufacturers of these hybrid systems have to replace parts and separate cabling.
However, in many cases they still rely on proprietary networks or expensive sound cards to successfully deliver their media.