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Ulasan Islam Indonesia kerap dilukiskan dalam relasi dan kontestasi antara Islam tradisionalis dan modernis. Reformasi 98 membuka horizon pemahaman baru. Inilah struktur peluang politik baru yang memberi panggung bagi umat Islam untuk memainkan peran sosial-politik yang makin besar di ruang publik Indonesia. Dalam memainkan peran baru ini, umat Islam ternyata bukanlah kubu yang seragam, melainkan beragam, di mana kelompok-kelompok intra-Islam mengajukan agenda dan wacananya sendiri-sendiri. Kontestasi wacana ini bukan hanya menyangkut peran sosial-politik Islam di ruang publik, tetapi lebih jauh lagi menyangkut hakikat Islam itu sendiri sebagai agama. Spektrum kontestasinya juga amat luas, merentang dari sekadar persoalan perbedaan fikih hingga perbedaan akidah, yang bahkan berujung pada kekerasan fisik.
Analisis lama Islam modernis vs tradisional yang biasanya diwakili oleh Muhammadiyah dan NU menjadi terlalu simplistis, bahkan misleading.
Peran dan pemikiran tokoh-tokoh tua yang karismatis tidak lagi menjadi ide mainstream ketika kaum intelektual Islam muda mengkritisi mereka dan menggeluti ide-ide Islam secara baru yang bersifat lintas-batas, lintas-mazhab, lintas-disiplin. Jejaring internasional membuat pertarungan wacana Islam di Indonesia mesti dibaca juga dalam konteks global.
Buku ini mencoba menggambarkan fenomena pertarungan wacana umat Islam di era Reformasi secara segar dan sangat menarik. Patut dibaca oleh siapa saja yang meminati perkembangan pemikiran Islam di Indonesia di era demokrasi pasca-Orde Baru. Mendapat gelar M. Keunggulan Buku Dari buku ini kita dapat belajar tentang pemetaan pemikiran keislaman yang mendukung keragaman dan kemajuan dan para reaksioner yang menanggapinya, tetapi juga kita tahu pemikiran mereka satu demi satu, dan bagaimana juga semua itu dikritisi dari argumen demi argumen, ide demi ide, untuk melihat pemikiran-pemikiran mereka terutama pada akhir era Oder Baru hingga Reformasi.
Buku ini pantas dijadikan rujukan sekaligus untuk dikembangkan lebih lanjut, apa dan bagaimana perdebatan pemikiran Islam Indonesia berkembang dan berbentur satu sama lain. Kersten berhasil pula melihat kesinambungan dan kenirsinambungannya dalam sejarah pemikiran Islam Indonesia dan antarbangsa dengan melacak akar dan inspirasinya pada pemikiran klasik, modern, dan kontemporer Islam.
Siapa pun yang mengkaji atau ingin mengetahui perkembangan intelektual Islam Indonesia kontemporer harus membaca buku ini. Kekayaan dan arti-pentingnya di Indonesia--salah satu negara yang paling memberi harapan dalam transisi politik di dunia Muslim kontemporer--menarik untuk ditelaah. Terbit pada momen yang tepat dan ditulis dengan sangat baik, buku Carool Kersten membentangkan sejarah intelektual menyangkut ide-ide dan perdebatan-perdebatan di antara para pemikir Muslim pada masa transisi demokrasi yang belum tuntas di Indonesia.
In , barely two years before her death, she set upon sponsoring a series of pious Islamic works, including the Carita Sultan Iskandar and the Kitab Usulbiyah. There is a strongly contextualized flavour to the former work, with the Islamic tale firmly set within a Javanese context Ricklefs Another important figure in this period was Raden Ngabehi Yasadipura I Born in Surakarta, Central Java, in , he was one of the most famous writers and thinkers to emerge from Central Java.
Among the works usually ascribed to Yasadipura I is the Serat Cabolek. This story encapsulates a debate which took place throughout the Muslim world over many centuries regarding the respective place of the exoteric and esoteric sciences.
Haji Mutamakin, the chief protagonist of this story, paid little attention to the outward ritualistic requirements of his faith, preferring to engage in a quest to unite with God.
One of his most important works for our purposes was the Sasana Sunu, written in The author calls for adherence to the five pillars, obedience to the dietary laws, and abstinence from alcohol and other standard Islamic prohibitions Kumar Another key Javanese figure of the period is Ranggawarsita , the last of the great Court poets in the city of Surakarta. One of the most interesting among his many works is Wirid Hidayat Jati. There are certain elements in this work designed to please those Muslims more concerned with the exterior zahir sciences: God is Creator, God is omnipotent, God is One.
However, the mystical flavour of this work is still paramount. The framework of the seven grades of being appears; the sequence of created things are presented as seven stages, with the number seven allocated the importance found in much mystical thought.
His works were to be promoted by reformist minded Malay Muslims over years after his death though publishing and distribution. Another window into Malay world Islam from the colonial period is provided by Leiden Cod.
This manuscript belonged to Sultan Mahmud Shah, who assumed the Acehnese throne in It provides valuable data on the activities and theological interests of Acehnese religious scholars connected with the court just prior to the commencement of the Aceh War.
The work attributes its theological basis to the teachings of Ahmad al-Qushashi It portrays a monistic view of the Creator and his creation, and makes repeated references to the seven grades. This text provides evidence of a continuing tension between monist thought and reformed Sufism, which was to make a further upsurge of reformist thinking likely.
Discussion of the eighteenth and nineteenth century Malay world would not be complete without considering the work of Raja Ali Haji of Riau , best known for his historical writings.
In early adulthood, Raja Ali Haji came to be regarded as a religious authority, deriving from his extensive early education in the Islamic sciences and Arabic language Osman, He was instrumental in recruiting many teachers of Islam from outside the region to Draft Only — Not for Citation 6 teach in Riau, and as a result of his efforts and those of his colleagues, Riau gained a reputation as a place where orthodox Islam flourished Andaya and Matheson Raja Ali Haji became a very prominent member of the Riau branch of the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order, and much of the focus within his writings was designed to urge pious living according to the precepts of Islam, and thus to promote reformed Sufism.
Raja Ali Haji was an arch conservative in his views. He portrayed his society as in an advanced state of decay, and presented the society of the prophet Muhammad as an ideal which individuals should strive to attain. Furthermore, the century witnessed a surge in immigration to Southeast Asia from the Arab world, particularly from the Hadhramaut. Finally, Arab scholars in Arabia issued increasing numbers of long-distance legal opinions, or fatawa, on wide-ranging topics in response to enquiries received from the Malay world Cf.
Kaptein and Such developments made a significant contribution to a gradual restructuring of Malay Islamic thinking. We have seen how Sufi thinking, both in radical monist and reformed varieties, dominated the Malay Islamic arena during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
The challenge to this status quo was to pick up momentum in the late nineteenth century, and assert itself in the twentieth century. Muhammad al-Nawawi al-Jawi was born in Banten in West Java, the son of a village religious official penghulu.
He spent his early years on the island of Java studying in various locations. In his late teens, he undertook the pilgrimage to Arabia, and stayed there initially for three years before returning to Java. He returned to Mecca to settle there permanently around He undertook further studies in Mecca, Egypt and Syria, then established himself there as a teacher Snouck Hurgronje While he does not appear to have shared the strong anti-Sufi views of some of his contemporaries, neither did he present Sufi approaches to the faith as normative, as did earlier teachers in the region such as Ahmad al-Qushashi.
For example, he did not actively urge his students to join Sufi orders. Though his lessons included selections from the great Sufi masters, especially al-Ghazali, he avoided those writings which were inclined to attract accusations of heterodoxy, such as the writings of the leading monists. He was thus paying due respect to the Wahhabite Arabian environment in which he found himself.
A change was taking place in terms of Malay Islamic education. Draft Only — Not for Citation 7 Al-Nawawi wrote exclusively in Arabic, and is reputed to have produced at least ninety-nine works Nasution Many are still included in the reading materials of reformist pesantrens in Indonesia Aboebakar He also issued many fatawa, or legal judgements, for his Malay audience both in Mecca and in Southeast Asia.
This work was completed in and, after receiving the sanction of scholars in Mecca and Cairo, was first published in the latter city. The fact that official sanction was obtained from religious authorities in Mecca and Cairo provides some insight into the character of this work. Both of these cities in the late nineteenth century had become dominated by reformist thinking which was taking an increasingly anti-Sufi hue.
Al-Nawawi contributed to a breaking of the Southeast Asian Sufi mould, as it were. His influence on Malay scholars returning to Southeast Asia contributed to the momentous changes which were about to take place in Southeast Asian Islam. He was born in Patani, and spent around thirty- five years studying and teaching in Mecca and Medina Nasution He was a prolific writer, and many of his works, which altogether numbered at least fifty-seven Azra , are still widely printed and used in Southeast Asia.
His writings covered wide ranging topics. Ahmad Patani was another Meccan based Patani scholar.
He studied in both Cairo and Mecca, where by the mids he had risen to become supervisor of the Malay Printing Press under the Turkish authorities Matheson and Hooker He taught many Malay students in Mecca, the most famous of whom was Muhammad Yusuf , later known as Tok Kenali. Of considerable significance was his letter-based dialogue with Malay Muslims on important issues relating to the faith, a medium of communication which was to play a vital role in the spread of reformist thinking from Arabia to the Malay world.
Also worthy of note at this juncture is the significant contribution made by Arab immigrants to the Malay world. Yahya Sayyid Uthman encountered opposition from some Malay Muslims as a result of his vehement criticism of Sufi practice in the Malay world. He launched a highly polemical attack on the Naqshbandiyya Sufi order. His view brought him into conflict with mystics among the local group of religious scholars who regarded his attacks as a threat to their position.
The various societies in the Malay world were conservative, and ruling structures and paradigms were firmly entrenched during the periods examined thus far in this paper. In the Islamic theological arena, Sufis continued to hold centre stage during most of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, as had been the case during the previous two centuries. Old debates continued to be played out, especially the tension between a reformed Sufism and radical theosophical doctrines.
However, the old world familiar to Southeast Asian Muslims underwent rapid change during the nineteenth century. Colonial powers gained varying degrees of control over the daily lives of Malay Muslims, with dramatic results. Old dogmas came to be increasingly put to the test and were found wanting.
As the nineteenth century closed, new solutions were sought for the new problem of external colonial domination. Furthermore, new theological approaches were explored as the dominance of a culture of continuity gave way to a new culture of change. These dramatic changes resulting from colonialism heralded the end of the dominance of Sufism and the onset of a mood for theological reform. The process was still in its infancy in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
In a sense, this period represents a bridge between two eras. Increasing contacts occurred between local rulers and the Ottoman Caliphate authorities in Turkey. Indonesian Muslims looked increasingly to the religious authorities in the world- wide Islamic community for guidance in their developing struggle against Dutch rule.
Modernist ideas were increasingly implanting themselves in the Malay- Indonesian world around this time.
There is considerable evidence for this, and indeed the transmission was not merely to be a transferral of ideas which then developed in isolation in Southeast Asia, but rather it was to take the form of a Draft Only — Not for Citation 9 continuing dialogue between Malay Muslims and those of the Middle East where the modernist ideas had originated.
Bluhm-Warn ff has tracked the dialogue between Malay Muslims and the editors of the reformist periodical al-Manar in Egypt.
The Malay individuals in question wrote seeking advice and legal judgements on a range of theological issues, economic and environmental matters, technological advances, issues of current political concern such as patriotism and nationalism, and a range of other matters. Kaptein has devoted attention to a similar phenomenon between the Malay world and Mecca.
The concern of the Southeast Asian writers in addressing these issues for resolution to the Middle East demonstrates two things: firstly, the perception from Southeast Asia of authority lying in the Arab world, and secondly a confidence in seeking and obtaining support from fellow Muslims in the face of conflict with non-Muslim authorities as well as with traditional Muslim leaders.
The ongoing Middle Eastern influence upon reformist developments in Southeast Asia was reinforced by the arrival in the Malay world of Ahmad Surkati, a Sudanese who had studied in both Mecca and Medina and who came to Java in as the inspector of Islamic schools as part a scholarship program sponsored by the Ottoman authorities and available for Indonesian Muslims to study in the Middle East. Surkati had a major impact upon the developments within the modernist movement in Indonesia.
He was a close associate of Ahmad Dachlan, who founded the Muhammadiyah in , and indeed Surkati had a great influence upon the Muhammadiyah during its early period. The traditional leaders of Malay society, the Sultans, were not the only group to be targeted for criticism by the young modernists, who termed themselves the Kaum Muda Young Generation.
They also directed strong and sustained criticism towards the Kaum Tua Old Generation traditionalists who appeared to them to protect and defend unquestioningly the domination of conservative religious scholars in the sphere of Islamic worship and belief. This region had long served as a channel for new ideas coming from the Middle East into the Malay world.
A number of leading Minang scholars based themselves in Mecca, such as Shaykh Ahmad Khatib , and exerted the kind of influence on visiting Malay students as we saw earlier with Muhammad al-Nawawi. He also attacked features of Minang customary law which he considered as unislamic, such as the inheritance law within the matrilineal structure of Minang society Djamal ff. The pre-independence nationalist movements were then faced with the task of translating ideologies into structures of state, and several features are worthy of note at this juncture.
First, in contrast with efforts to break the link between ethnicity and religion by earlier modernist thinkers, Malaya, then Malaysia, enshrined this link in its constitution.
Second, the post-independence period witnessed ongoing rivalry between traditionalists and modernists in seeking to hold the centre of the Islamic stage. Furthermore, the second half of the twentieth century witnessed the evolution of neo-modernist Islamic thinking in Malaysia and Indonesia.
Early signs of this were reflected in the struggle by some Indonesian Muslims, supported by Indonesian non-Muslim leaders, in favour of establishing the principle of an officially multi-religious state, arguing against the priority of Islam. This is most clearly seen in the Pancasila concept developed by Sukarno in and established as the philosophy of the Indonesian State. Thus the old world was gradually being swept away by the new modes of Islamic thinking. Traditional authority structures were being challenged, as was the right of Sufi approaches to hold centre stage on the Malay theological arena.
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