Introduction, Introducing the Course on Basic Electrical, PDF, kb. Introduction, Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electric Power an Overview. Course Objectives: BEE (Basic Electric Engineering) is common to first year UNIT 1: Basic Laws: Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's voltage and current laws, Nodes-. Download Basic Electrical Engineering By C L Wadhwa – Basic Electrical Engineering has been written as a core course for all engineering students viz.
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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, A Textbook of Electrical Technology Volume I – Basic Electrical Engineering. Fundamentals of Electrical. Engineering I .. Electric Circuits and Interconnection Laws Kirchhof's Current Law. PDF | An exhaustive treatise on principles of electrical engineering for under graduate engineering and diploma students. Includes inputs from.
Course Co-ordinated by: IIT Kharagpur. Course Available from: OR Delta. C Machines PDF 0. C Generators PDF 0.
Current Flow. Electromotive force is caused by a difference in electrical potential and is measured in volts, also referred to as voltage.
Current Flow When electrons begin to flow, the effect is felt instantly all along the surface of the conductor, very much as force can be felt all the way through a row of billiard balls. Current Flow Some older cars and heavy equipment had their positive battery terminal connected to the chassis or frame and the negative side of the circuit was switched.
Practically no production vehicle uses this configuration today.
Current Flow Thus, the current in automotive circuits is usually traced from the source battery to the load bulb, motor, etc. Sources of Electricity A battery is a chemical source of electricity. It contains a number of positive plates and an equal number of negative plates.
Sources of Electricity The positive and negative plates are immersed in an electrolyte solution composed of water and sulphuric acid.
Sources of Electricity.
When the battery is charged, a chemical reaction of the acid on the plates results in an excess of electrons collecting on the negative plates. Sources of Electricity If a conductor is connected between the plates, current electrons will flow through the conductor from one plate to the other.
Electromagnetic Induction When a conductor connected to a closed circuit is passed through a magnetic field, current is produced in the conductor. Electromagnetic Induction Alternators, generators, and various inductive sensors use this principle to do their work. Static Electricity Electrons can move from one body of matter to another by friction.
Scuffing your shoes on carpet on a cold, dry day can cause a nice zap! Lightning is another form of static electricity discharging from the atmosphere to the earth. An electrical circuit is a complete path for current flow… basically defined as being froma power source to a load component that has resistance and uses electricity to do its work, and finally a ground path back to the negative terminal of the power source.
Circuit Components. In an automobile, the power source is the battery when the engine is switched off and the alternator when the engine is running.. Circuit Components Conductors are wires and cables, usually protected from each other and ground by insulation, and they carry the current in an electrical circuit. In an automotive circuit, the vehicle chassis and the engine block are actually conductors in the circuit. Controls switches are necessary to turn the circuit on and off.
Circuit Components The Load is a device that uses up electricity and turns it into work. Current Will Flow IF Current times Resistance.
Okay, how many amps will 12 volts push through 6 ohms? Increasing voltage in a given circuit always increases current draw. Current is the flow of electrons between two points in a closed circuit that have a difference in potential. Current One ampere is defined as the movement of one coulomb of electrons past a given point in one second. A coulomb is one billion billion electrons. Current Current is thus a measure of the rate of electrical flow.
It can also be known as amperage or draw, and is measured with an ammeter. Current When two loads are connected parallel, as in the illustration on the left, each draws current independently of the other. Current In the picture, bulb A draws 2 amps, while bulb B draws 1 amp.
The total current flow in the circuit is 3 amps. Current Important: The total current draw in a parallel circuit equals the sum of the individual current draws.
Current If the same two bulbs are connected in series instead of parallel, their combined resistance will be 18 ohms.
Resistance Even conductors have some resistance; for example, a piece of 22 gauge copper wire 60 feet long has one ohm of resistance. Larger diameter wires have less resistance. Heat generally causes resistance to increase in a conductor or connection. When resistors are in parallel, the total resistance equals the source voltage divided by the combined current draw. With a 12 volt supply, how much amperage would each of these resistors pull?
So each 6 ohm resistor will pull 2 amps. Okay, if the total circuit pulls 4 amps, how many ohms of resistance would the total circuit have, based on a 12 volt supply? With a 12 volt source, how much total resistance would this parallel circuit have?
Voltage Drop The voltmeter at point A will measure the source voltage. If the voltage measurement is taken at point B, what will the voltage be? Voltage Drop Did you say zero volts? The voltage drop is equal to 12 times zero, which comes to zero volts. Voltage Drop When two or more loads are in series: The voltage drop of each load is equal to current draw times resistance.
The sum of all voltage drops equals the source voltage. Voltage Drop. That is, the closer you move your probe to the ground side of a circuit Thus in the example shown here: The voltage drop at the brightness control is 2 amps x 3 ohms, which equals 6 volts.
Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example,. Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula If there are only two resistances, multiply their values and divide by the sum of their values. Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula. In this example: Computing Parallel Resistances by Formula In this example: Power Sources The generator maintains the charge in the battery after the engine is started and supplies electrical current to all electrically powered equipment.
Case Grounds are used where the component itself is securely attached to a well-grounded part of the vehicle. Grounds Remote Grounds are used where the component itself is not grounded Examples are reversible motors power windows, door locks and instrument panel warning indicator lamps. Power is fed to the fuse Where is Through circuit Connector C? How do you find it?
The male side of the connector is CM, while the femaile side is CF. Most wiring books have a location view like this. Find circuit What is the pin number? What color is the wire?
Write down both pieces of information. Locate the wire where it passes through a connector. Now we not only …we also know know where C what the connector is No matter how the charge is created, chemically like in batteries or physically friction from socks and carpet , the movement of the discharge is electricity.
Understanding Current This flow of electrical charge is referred to as electric current. There are two types of current, direct current DC and alternating current AC. DC is current that flows in one direction with a constant voltage polarity while AC is current that changes direction periodically along with its voltage polarity.
But as societies grew the use of DC over long transmission distances became too inefficient. Nikola Tesla changed all that with the invention of alternating current electrical systems. With AC it is possible to produce the high voltages needed for long transmissions. Therefore today, most portable devices use DC power while power plants produce AC.
The V is for voltage, which means the potential difference between two charges. In other words, it is a measurement of the work required to move a unit charge between two points. When we see a value such as 10 Volts, it is a measurement of the potential difference between two reference points. As mentioned previously, current is the measurement of the flow of charge in a circuit. This leaves us with the letter R which represents Resistance.
Electrical resistance, measured in Ohms, is the measure of the amount of current repulsion in a circuit. Simply, resistance resists current flow. When electrons flow against the opposition offered by resistance in the circuit, friction occurs and heat is produced. The most common application for resistance in a circuit is the light bulb. The light bulb introduces enough resistance in a circuit to heat up the filament inside, causing light to be emitted.
Resistance in a circuit can also be helpful when needing to alter voltage levels, current paths, etc. Resistors are self-contained packages of resistance that can be added to a circuit and are commonly used to divide voltage levels. First, we need to understand what Series and Parallel circuits mean. Series circuits are those which are connected in-line with the power source.
The current in series circuits is constant throughout but the voltage may vary. Parallel circuits are those which branch off from the power supply. The total current supplied from the power source is divided among each of the branches but voltage is common throughout. You have probably experienced the pain involved with installing Christmas lights only to realize none of them work. Cue Clark Griswold! There is probably one bulb out somewhere in the hundreds that you hung up. More than likely it is because one of the lights decided to break or burn out and because they are wired in series the rest are now out as well.
Since all of the lights are in-line with each other, if one goes out it causes an open circuit at that point. No current will flow to the other lights because of the open circuit path.
Fortunately, a lot of the new light strands are wired in parallel. Therefore if one light goes out, then only that branch of the circuit will be out. The open will be isolated to that branch and current will continue to the other lights in the strand, Joy…to… the…World!
R1 represents the resistance value of the speaker and R2 shows the resistance value of the LEDs. What is the voltage supplied to the LEDs and to the speaker? First, we need to find the current in the loop once the belly is pressed and switch 1 S1 closes.