Using the book Universal Principles of Design, prepare a short report with the information William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler. Then PDF etc. Universal principles of design pdf. Universal Principles of Design - William Lidwell - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Get this from a library! Universal principles of design. [William Lidwell; Kritina Holden; Jill Butler].
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Universal Principles of Design. Ways to Enhance Usability,. William Lidwell. Kritina -Holden. Jill Butler. Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better. Universal Principles of Design. William Lidwell. Kritina Holden. Jill Butler. Ways to Enhance Usability,. Influence Perception, Increase Appeal, Make Better. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Universal principles of design / William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler | " ways to enhance usability, influence perception.
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And can be continuous, implied, or broken. On top of that, there are different types of line, aside from the ones previously mentioned. For example, you could have a line that is horizontal and zigzagged or a line that is vertical and zigzagged. Different lines create different moods, it all depends on what mood you are using a line to create. It forces the mind to think upon its position and gives something to build upon in both imagination and space.
Some abstract points in a group can provoke humanagination to link it with familiar shapes or forms Main article: Shape and form visual arts A shape is defined as a two or more dimensional area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of differences of value, color, or texture.
It is created with a series of lines which serve as a boundary that shapes the square and separates it from the space around it that is not part of the square. They give off a more natural feeling to the shape. Basically I could do anything, and it was about raising money for a school in Kosovo to get it built, and they just wanted a poster. I just thought of a strap line anyway, because I could do anything I wanted.
I think copy in that respect has got a massive relationship to design. Paul : Yeah I know, lipsum, yeah. I only had a short slot, and if I had more time I would have gone into why I felt it can be the basis for your site, not just something you add to it.
Your site can grow from your photographs and illustrations rather than putting them into your site. Paul : Right, okay. You mean start with the detail or something? Mike : Well start with something on the middle of the page.
Do you like that, or do you like having constraints? Where does your heart lie? Sometimes I hate having no restrictions. Sometimes, no restrictions is the worst thing in the whole world, I hate it. I spent three days getting to that, just getting to the beginning of that idea. I literally produced nothing for three days.
You had to carry on with his style. Mike : Yeah sort of. I mean it did progress from that, but it had a logo and a colour scheme and a nice, tidy, neat… you know I just had to follow it through and it was nice, I enjoyed doing it. Mike : Much harder actually.
I used to do music quite a lot, and in a way what was always helpful was restricting our instruments completely, and not having much to work with.
Paul : Which I thought was brilliant, but he had problems with that did he? It would be the same as projecting it huge on a wall or sketching it out in chalk, or whatever. You have to ask yourself, why are you doing that. Paul : In the same way as in the talk, which I thought was really nice, was you had these amazing set of slides that had a very distinct look, and that was being projected massive on a wall, and yet you transposed that into a poster you gave away to people. So you were crossing those mediums and using inspiration from both which I thought was excellent; it was good.
Mike : It was good, yeah I was pleased. Paul : Excellent. Well thank you so much for your time Mike, that was really useful, and I think it will be very helpful for people. Especially freelancers that are stuck by themselves, and stuck in their own routine of working.
Mike : Cool. Cheers, thanks a lot. Thanks goes to Gareth James for transcribing this interview. Listeners feedback: APIs, source control and Ryan Carson On show Ryan Carson shared some more advice on running and building web applications as part of his ongoing series for Boagworld.
Hi Paul and Marcus, this is Glen Bennett from small business hosting. I was excited when you had Ryan Carson on the show talking about web application building, finally someone on the show who knew what they were talking about, however he cave out some information that was a bit misleading and I wanted to clear it up for your listeners, first of all he talked about spreedly.
So there is some building cost at your end.
I agree that building a processing engine is pretty substantial and something that you want to get help with if you possibly can there are packages out there anywhere from a few hundred dollars to a few thousand dollars that are actually pre-written source code that you put into you payment package, you have to do that pretty early in the process so that you can make sure that your user registration matches up with the processing system. Thank you very much.
They The Psychology of Meaningful Verbal Learning, Grune and Stratton, ; and Educationalare distinct from overviews and summaries in that they are presented on a more Psychology: A Cognitive View 2nd ed. Ausubel, Review of Educational Research, vol.
The just present the key points on how to controldecision to use one or the other depends on whether the information is new to a forklift. For example, prior to presenting information on how to control a forklift on Advance Organizers: Mayer, Instructional Science, , vol.
Comparative advance organizers are useful when audiences have existingknowledge similar to the information being presented. For example, in teachingexperienced forklift operators about how to control a new type of forklift, anadvance comparative organizer would compare and contrast features andoperations between the familiar forklift and the new forklift.
Use advance organizers in learning situationsthat begin with an introduction and present information in a linear sequence. When presenting novel information, use expository advance organizers. Whenpresenting information that is similar to what people know, use comparativeadvance organizers.
At A forklift is a small industrial vehicle with a power-operated pronged platform that canan abstract level, it illustrates that be raised and lowered for insertion under aadvance organizers are a kind of load to be lifted and moved.
How a forklift works forklift operation. How to inspect a forklift 3. How to operate a forklift How a forklift works How to inspect a forklift How to operate a forklift Comparative Advance Organizers A comparative advance organizer Familiar Knowledge New Information leverages familiarity with the A model forklift to introduce the A model. Aesthetic-Usability EffectAesthetic designs are perceived as easier to use thanless-aesthetic designs.
The effect has been observed in several experiments, and has significant subsequent research. Inherentwhether or not they actually are easier to use.
More usable but less-aesthetic Usability: Experimental Analysis on thedesigns may suffer a lack of acceptance that renders issues of usability moot. Asch, Journal of Abnormal andimpressions of people influence attitude formation and measurably affect how Social Psychology, , vol.
Attractive Things WorkAesthetics play an important role in the way a design is used. For example, it is common for peopleto name and develop feelings toward designs that have fostered positive attitudes e. Such personal and positive relationships with a designevoke feelings of affection, loyalty, and patience—all significant factors in the long-term usability and overall success of a design.
These positive relationships haveimplications for how effectively people interact with designs. Positive relationshipswith a design result in an interaction that helps catalyze creative thinking andproblem solving.
Negative relationships result in an interaction that narrowsthinking and stifles creativity. This is especially important in stressful environments,since stress increases fatigue and reduces cognitive performance. Aesthetic designs are perceived aseasier to use, are more readily accepted and used over time, and promote creativethinking and problem solving.
Aesthetic designs also foster positive relationshipswith people, making them more tolerant of problems with a design.
Nokia was one of the first companiesto realize that adoption of cellularphones required more than basiccommunication features. Cellularphones need to be rechargedfrequently, carried around, and oftensuffer from signal loss or interference;they are not trouble-free devices.
Aesthetic elements like color coversand customizable rings are more thanornaments; the aesthetic elementscreate a positive relationship withusers that, in turn, make suchtroubles more tolerable and thedevices more successful.
Aesthetic-Usability Effect 21 AffordanceA property in which the physical characteristics of anobject or environment influence its function. Objects and environments are better suited for some functions than others. Stairs are better suited than fences for climbing; E. Bransford Eds , Lawrencetherefore, stairs are said to better afford climbing. This is not to say that square Erlbaum Associates, ; and The Ecologicalwheels cannot be rolled or fences climbed, rather that the physical characteristics Approach to Visual Perception by Jamesof round wheels and stairs better afford the functions of rolling and climbing.
A popular treatment of affordances can be found in The Design of Everyday Things by Donald Norman,When the affordance of an object or environment corresponds with its intended Doubleday, Conversely, when the affordance of an object or environment conflicts with its 2 Note that the term affordance refers to theintended function, the design will perform less efficiently and be more difficult to properties of a physical object or environmentuse. For example, a door with a handle affords pulling.
Sometimes, doors with only. When images of physical objects orhandles are designed to open only by pushing—the affordance of the handle environments are used e. Replace the handle with a flat plate, and it now button , the images, themselves, do not afford anything. The knowledge of button affordancesaffords pushing—the affordance of the flat plate corresponds to the way in which exists in the mind of the perceiver basedthe door can be used.
The design is improved. Therefore, theImages of common physical objects and environments can enhance the usability affordance is said to be perceived.
See, forof a design. For example, stackablechairs should only stack one way. Mimic familiar objects and environments inabstract contexts e. When affordances are successfully employed in a design, it willseem inconceivable that the design could function or be used otherwise. OXO is well known for the handle designs of their products; shape, color, and texture combine to create irresistible gripping affordances.
Outdoor lighting structures often With opposing male and femaleafford landing and perching for birds. This Legos naturally afford plugging intoanti-perch fixture is designed to attach one another. Door affordances frequently conflict,as shown in the door on the left.
Byreplacing the handle with a flat plate,the conflict is eliminated and the signis superfluous.
The recessed footplates and handlebar orientation of the Segway Human Transporter afford one mounting position for the user—the correct one.
PUSH Affordance 23 AlignmentThe placement of elements such that edges line upalong common rows or columns, or their bodies along acommon center. Elements in a design should be aligned with one or more other elements.
Kosslyn, W. Alignment can also be a powerful means ofleading a person through a design. For example, the rows and columns of agrid or table make explicit the relatedness of elements sharing those rows andcolumns, and lead the eyes left-right and top-bottom accordingly.
Edges of thedesign medium e. In paragraph text, left-aligned and right-aligned text blocks provide more powerfulalignment cues than do center-aligned text blocks. The invisible column createdby left-aligned and right-aligned text blocks presents a clear, visual cue againstwhich other elements of the design can be aligned.
Center-aligned text blocks,conversely, provide more visually ambiguous alignment cues, and can be difficultto connect with other elements. Justified text provides more alignment cues thanunjustified text, and should be used in complex compositions with many elements. Although alignment is generally defined in terms of rows and columns, morecomplex forms of alignment exist. In aligning elements along diagonals, forexample, the relative angles between the invisible alignment paths should be 30degrees or greater; separation of less than 30 degrees is too subtle and difficultto detect.
As with all suchprinciples of this type, there are exceptions e. However, these exceptions are rare, andalignment should be considered the general rule. For most designs, align elements into rows and columns or along a centerline. Use left- or right-justified text to create the best alignment cues,and consider justified text for complex compositions. Although there are a number of This conclusion is supported by adjacent on the ballot. A simpleproblems with the design of the the improbable number of votes for adjustment to the ballot designbutterfly ballot, most of the confusion Patrick Buchanan in Palm Beach would have dramatically reducedresulted from the misalignment County, and the number of double the error rate.
Anthropomorphic FormA tendency to find forms that appear humanoid or exhibithumanlike characteristics appealing. Humans are predisposed to perceive certain forms and patterns as 1 Empirical literature on anthropomorphic design is surprisingly nascent. The Use ofproportions. To explore how of the International Conferenceanthropomorphic form can be applied, consider the design of three bottles. In addition to its novelty, however, the bottlebenefited from a number of anthropomorphic projections such as health, vitality,sexiness, and femininity, attributes that appealed to the predominantly femaledownloaders of the time.
The Mae West comparison is apt, because like the actress,the Coke bottle demanded and got the attention of all passersby. Anthropomorphic forms do not necessarily need to look like a face or body to becompelling. Consider the Adiri Natural Nurser baby bottle. The bottle is designedto look and feel like a female breast, and not surprisingly it elicits the positiveassociations people have with breastfeeding. The affective tone set by the bottle isone of naturalness and caring.
What parent would choose a traditional, inorganic-looking bottle when such a supple, natural-looking substitute for the real thingwas available? This, of course, does not mean the bottle performs better thannonanthropomorphic bottle designs, but it does mean the general inference ofmost people, based on its appearance, is that it does perform better.
The bottle transforms the perception ofdish soap bottles from utilitarian containers to be hidden beneath counters tosculptural pieces to be displayed proudly atop counters. The large bulbous headtriggers baby-face bias cognitive wiring, reinforcing its aesthetic appeal as well asassociations such as safety, honesty, and purity.
Labeling is applied in what wouldbe the chest region, with a round logo on top, giving it the appearance of a kindof superhero costume. It is more than a dish soap bottle — it is a helper, an artpiece, and a symbol of sophistication and cleanliness.
Consider anthropomorphic forms to attract attention and establish emotionalconnections. Favor more abstract versus realistic anthropomorphic forms, asrealistic depictions often decrease, not increase, aesthetic appeal. Use femininebody proportions to elicit associations of sexuality and vitality. Use roundanthropomorphic forms to elicit babylike associations, and more angular forms toelicit masculine, aggressive associations. Thoughnot free of functional deficiencies e.
Contrast it with its disappointingreplacement right.
Anthropomorphic Form 27 ArchetypesUniversal patterns of theme and form resulting from innatebiases or dispositions. Archetypes are found in the themes of myths e. Jung, in the Collected Works of C.
They are believed to be a product of unconscious biases and dispositions that G. Jung, Vol. Since Hull , Princeton University Press, Identifying 2 See The Hero and the Outlaw: Buildingand aligning appropriate archetypes with a design will increase its probability of Extraordinary Brands through the Power ofsuccess. Pearson, McGraw-Hill Trade, Harley-Davidson aligns its product design and branding with the outlaw archetype,emphasizing freedom and living outside the rules of society.
Products have a 3 The seminal work on archetypes in storytelling is The Hero with a Thousand Faces by Josephcertain look and feel e.
Nike named after the Greek goddess of victory , by contrast, aligns its brand withthe Hero archetype, using heroic sports figures to promote its product. MichaelJordan, Tiger Woods, and Lance Armstrong are all shown wearing Nike productswhile typically striking a heroic pose. It does meanthat the probability of success would be lower because the archetypes do not alignwith the design.
This archetypal theme has been successfullyemployed by filmmakers like George Lucas and George Miller, and is also evidentin the works of Steven Spielberg, John Boorman, Francis Coppola, and a numberof Disney animated films. Since archetypes influence perception onan unconscious and primarily affective level, they are especially useful whentraditional modes of communication e.
Note thatreactions to specific archetypes may vary across cultures and, therefore, shouldbe tested on target populations prior to use. These are proposed designs for years , clearly warn people to stay brilliant application of archetypala marker system to warn future away from the area, and assume theme and form—parched earth,generations of the presence of a that future civilizations will not be snakelike earthworks, and claws andnuclear- waste disposal site.
The knowledgeable of radioactive hazards thorns—to warn future humans of thedesign specification required the or speak any language known today.
Area AlignmentAlignment based on the area of elements versus theedges of elements. With the advent of professional design and engineering software, elements in adesign can be aligned with exacting precision. However, the alignment supportedby software is based on the edges of elements — including center alignment,which calculates a center based on the edges.
This method works well whenelements are relatively uniform and symmetrical, but less well when the elementsare nonuniform and asymmetrical.