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TAREEKH IBN KHALDUN PDF

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Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Urdu 13 Volumes Pdf Free Download Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in. Jan 7, Tareekh Ibn Khaldun, tarikh ibn khaldun in urdu, tareekh ibn Rasoolullah Ki Nasihatein Muhammad, Book Lists, Islamic, Pdf, Reading Lists. Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon-5 (This file is too large to preview). Tareekh Ibne KhaldoonPreview ebook · Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon 07Preview.


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COMPLETE SET OF 13 VOLUMES OF TAREEKH IBN E KHALDUN WITH ITS AMAZING WORLD RENOWNED MUQADDIMAH THAT LAID. 2 Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon(Part 12) · 3 Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon(Part 3) 8 Tareekh Ibne Khalidoon-(Part 2) · 9 Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon Tareekh Ibn Khaldun Written by Allamah Abdur Raḥman Bin Muhammad Bin Khaldun. Translated in to Urdu by Hakeem Ahmd Hussain Elahabadi. Complete .

Tareekh Ibne Khalidoon Part 1 Preview ebook. Tareekh Ibne Khalidoon- Part 2 Preview ebook. Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon Part 3 Preview ebook. Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon Preview ebook. Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon-5 This file is too large to preview. Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon 07 Preview ebook. Tareekh Ibne Khuldoon 08 Preview ebook.

The ruler or Caliph, also had the duty to protect to non-Muslim inside his country, because they had submitted the taxation to the country, and they had given some socio-economic 24 M. This leader also needed to guarantee the legislative justice according to the constitution. If some foreign tribes or country wanted to invade, he should participate to the war in order to protect the subjects The key to guarantee the stability of the country or the state, was to gain the support from the people Ibn Khaldun thought that the method to prolong the regime were to strengthen the religion and social solidarity, in order to strengthen the social cohesion.

In his concept, solidarity is a material method, and religion is a spiritual method, the ruler needed to understand the importance of balancing the religion and social solidarity. This point is similar to the political theory in ancient China, they thought that the combination of Confucianism and the concern to the common people should be combined and used on political administration, especially the king.

The first was the stage of establishment, in this stage, he suggested the founder would establish his state or regime by connecting his family, or the dominant religion or could be regarded as an ideology They were performed as a nomadic character, they did not forget the living style and difficulties in desert, and thus they were stronger, braver and rapacious Capability of the leader during the stage of establishment, in eyes of Ibn Khaldun, needed to balance the importance of religious and political propaganda too The second was the stage of development, in this stage the ruler would try to maximize the ruling power and its consolidation by enhancing the administrative methods, such as the elimination of his potential threats inside and outside the court.

On the other hands, the ruler might try his best to gain support from the officials and peasants, these might be achieved by nomination of some important positions in the court, or to introduce some favorable and friendly socio-economic policies, in order to perform a positive image in front of his subject—the citizen in his empire. In other words, Ibn Khaldun thought that the rise or the fall of the dynasties depended on whether the rulers would like to share some powers with his subjects or not.

Becoming a leader, the regime did not only represent to his family and tribal supporters, but also the religion, here he stood for the Islamic law. Ibn Khaldun also suggested the potential occurrence of the traitors, whom might provide a bad advice to the ruler in order to gain political interest.

Actually he implied the leaders during the second and third stage in his Cyclical Theory needed to pay attention on the regional administration as it implied more of population would be under the management of these leaders, once the leaders failed to it, the dynasty would face with the risk of collapse.

He added the length of the dynasty and the coverage of population existed positive proportional relation with the duration of the dynastic collapse The rulers were able to rule their countries with effective systems and the stable trustworthy between the rulers, tribes and the foreign countries, and the state was able to collect wealth from taxation, which could also be able to fulfill with the personal desire of the king or ruler, it was exactly the palace life, these king or ruler, might not have experience on the stage of establishment, and came to the throne from their father, grandfather or ancestors, then tried to maximize the personal desire on gaining wealth from his subject.

Increasing numbers of the infrastructure projects would be appeared in order to beautify the city, the wedding party by the rulers became more and more luxurious These kind of the ruler thought their subjects should have obligation to follow with his order, because the subject had enjoy some privileges from the previous ruler.

Additionally, some traitors might be appeared since the previous ruler, or appeared in this stage, the negative political and socio-economic consequence might be occurred in this stage and the subjects of this kingdom would start to decide whether they would like to overthrow this regime or not.

Without an effective system on balancing the power of the ruler or the king, the state or civilization began to decline. In the forth stage, it could be regarded as a stage of decline, or degradation of the state or kingdom, even though it could be regarded as a stage of contentment and peacefulness Because the rulers were trying to maximize their desires by abnormal methods, the subjects, including the peasants, the slavery or the foreign tribes or countries, felt discontented with this regime.

The ruler had chance to declare the war on foreign tribes or countries in order to fulfill with his personal interest or desires. To the peasants, it could be regarded as tyranny, and they felt discontented with the ruler. Generally speaking, the ruler was facing with internal uprising and foreign invasion, they might be incapable to solve the problem at that time.

They only tried to imitate the ruling method from his predecessors in order to reduce the chance of making mistakes and to prolong their regime. Ibn Khaldun seems had basic understanding on the history of Spain, India and China while he took these examples to explain the disintegration of a dynasty The final stage, according to the Cyclical Theory suggested by Ibn Khaldun, could be regarded as the collapse of the regime. The ruler lost support from the people and followers of his predecessors The final stage always characterized with social disorder may be by peasants or the victims under this regime , a lot of disloyal traitors, heavy taxation levied by the ruler in order to fulfill with endless luxurious life, unfair treatments and judicial cases, natural hazards such as famine or pestilences, and rebellions occurred at that time.

The rulers would spend more money on dealing with the rebels, rivals and seceders, his income would be lower, and then levied more tax from his subjects to solve his financial problems, he was losing his supporters at that time.

But because he was living in backward period, and the abnormal desertification resulted by overdeveloped in North Africa, and his families died in Black Death while he was young, he linked the causation relation between the overpopulation and the pestilences, with reference to the similar cases in Cairo and Fez, he then concluded those hazards could become the source of the collapse of dynasty.

It is also noticed that Ibn Khaldun existed a little bit of democracy, as he thought that the people would have chance or the right to call for the rebellion or uprising if they thought that the king or ruler was incapable to rule the country, or perform immoral in daily life, or if the basic necessary could not be fulfilled in daily life.

That could also explain why the instabilities among different sects and the nobles frequently occurred in early stage of Islam. He also supposed the dynasty invaded by the foreign power or tribe, if these tribes were living in the desert, due to the cultural gap between them, the invading tribes would destroy the cities and towns, and a lot of cities and towns ruined and till to the collapse of dynasty.

Sometimes the dynasty would be divided into many separated regimes or kingdoms, like the latter stage of Abbasid dynasty. Similar writing style could also been seen in another example, for instance, he used Bedouin people to explain his historical theory, but sometimes Bedouin people could be interchanged as another founder of the empire, he just to mention the importance of the political spirit in understanding the role of the rise of another dynasties or regimes.

To increase his persuasion, he also gave some historical examples, especially the usage of reliable and authenticated examples, including the account on Umayyad, Abbasid, Fatimid, this is a basic work of the historians while they were writing an essay.

He claimed that the ruler in the earlier stage would balance more on the sword, because they were grown up under harsh desert environment, and the role of sword was to protect their families, life and the people. It is noticed that the applicability of the Cyclical Theory in real world, would face with some challenge or limitations. It could be said that he was familiar with the Islamic history, but sometimes the reality could not be happened exactly as his description.

Ibn Khaldun: His Life and Works - IslamiCity

We need to understand one important thing, the relation between his suggestion and his real experience during his lifetime. Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunisia, tribal factor still dominated the society, and sometimes it could affect to the development of history. Marinid, Hafsid and Zayyanid established by the foundation of tribal factors in early stage, they were Berber people, nomadic lifestyle dominated in Berber people.

As mentioned before, Sahara Desert covered a large percentage of the land in North Africa, people would be hopeless if they missed the route inside Sahara Desert, it is exactly an endless desert with extreme hot and dry climate and people are always facing with permanent drought and potential famine.

Here we need to talk about the social structure of the people living in Sahara desert and Arabian desert before the coming of Islam, the people needed to live in extreme hot and dry desert climate, according to the research of palaeo-arthopoligists and palaeo-environmentalists, plenty of grasslands had been rooted on both Sahara Desert and Arabian Peninsula in pre-historic period, but the abnormal climatic change and the overdevelopment by the human activities directly resulted to the desertification, as we see from the satellite maps nowadays.

Endless desert covers on the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, and people do not have much more choice on the selection of settlements, particularly with backward of technology in ancient time, people only chose to settle down in oasis, or along the coastal region, or luckily could find a river but sparsely distributed, i.

Tareekh Ibne Khaldoon - (13 Volumes) - with Muqaddimah - [URDU]

So how did they adapt with the extreme climate in daily life? The answer is clear, they relied on the tribes, which is easy to be explained by the biological needs. In 23 ancient time, people were inevitably to rely on their tribal settlements and tribal leader, in order to gain the protection and the equipment of daily life. Without the help of kinship and the tribal leader, they could not live solely under extreme climate, including the people in north Africa, the desertification were more serious than in Arabian Peninsula, according to the research done by scientists, the coverage area of Sahara Desert equal to the total area of America.

This can explain the reason of the importance of tribal life, they needed to gain a sense of security. Facing with the harsh living environment, they always spent time on the fulfillment of biological needs, such as food, water, safety, marriage and the funeral. Sometimes they should struggle a better living life with other tribes, or combined the nomadic lifestyle with unwillingly farming activities, or even mobilized the tribal members to declare a war.

To guarantee the future of tribe, they needed to have more birth of babies to increase the productivity of the tribal economic, and also the collective security. Once they obtained a chance of golden age, they would be able to have higher birth rate in order to secure their desert life.

This could explain why Ibn Khaldun always emphasized the tribal factor on discussing the rise and the fall of dynasty, and specified the causation between overpopulation, famine and the collapse of dynasty. This was exactly his personal experience in North Africa, despite we are living in the 21st century, and some Africans are living in urban area, the tribal culture still deeply rooted on their daily life.

In pre-Islamic period, North Africa, except ancient Egypt, always ruled by other stronger powers, Roman empire and the latter Byzantine empire were strong commanders regionally, and they left invaluable historical artifacts. The experts tried hard on constructing the historical sources before the coming of Islam in both of North Africa, West Africa and East Africa, because it was too difficult to find out the sources, and as mentioned before, Africans could start a basic concept of history since 24 15th century, usually the historians narrated the African history shortly regarded to history before the coming of Islam, even the sources were fitful after the coming of Islam until to the arrival of European powers.

In western world, democracy is not only for the collective democracy, unlike Ibn Khaldun, the leaders responded not only to the collective demands, but also needed to guarantee every individual could enjoy the right of democracy. In other words, the common people have the right and duty to the living place, but the king or leader also need to pay the compulsory duty while they enjoy some rights which are far more than the common people, nonetheless Ibn Khaldun had suggested the duty of leader in his book.

First, because his theory was exactly applicable in case of Dervish Movement in Somalia, they existed very similar characteristics.

Meteorologically, it also suffered from the endless of desertification, resulted extreme hot and dry climate, except coastal region, thus the population densely distributed along the coastal region. According to the archaeologists and palaeo-environmentalists, a certain extent of farming activities had been existed before the desertification.

After the overdevelopment by human and the abnormal climatic change, western part of Somalia, near to the frontier of Ethiopia nowadays, directly caused to the appearance of desert and drought problem. They also needed to strive for a secured life under this variable climate and unknown challenge from the animals, and relied on their closest tribal members to gain a support for life and the protection of families.

The earliest historical record about Somali history, perhaps was written by Periplus during Roman Empire, he emphasized the foreign contact with ancient Greek, Persia, Egypt and other small peripheral countries. At least in 7th century, some Muslims resided in Somalia, the first tribe to accept Islam was Dir tribe42, who are residing around the boundary between Somalia and Djibouti until now.

The coming of Islam altered the culture in Somalia, the Islamization finished around 11th to 13th century These Muslim dynasties also depended on the tribal factors, theoretically Somali populated in the whole part of the horn of Africa, not only inside Somalia but also in eastern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Kenya. Islamic tribal politics in Somalia Since the coming of Islam, theology was dominated by Ashari same as Ibn Khaldun , and the jurisprudence was dominated by Syafii, with tiny population of the followers of Sufism mainly Qadiriyyah, Ahmadiyyah and Salihiyyah , and Shia tiny percentages.

They did not give up their pre-Islamic law of custom calls Xeer, but pronounced as Heer , because some customs did not contradict with Islamic principles.

The tribal factors continued the domination on their social culture, no one can escape the influence of tribal culture, they needed to express their loyalties inside the belonged tribe, or they would face with the expulsion by their tribal leaders.

Living in this harsh environment, all of the people strived with a better living standard, they sometimes needed to go out by the ship for fishing to ease the burden of living cost if they lived along the coastal area. Unplanned birth control might be explained by the consolidation of their tribal continuity in order to increase the productivity for their tribal economy, no matter they were rich or poor.

They were, not only to preserve their tribal spirits, but also to defense themselves against the confronted tribes. An example can show the importance of social solidarity in Somalia, in ancient time, Somalia did not have a better judicial system or institute, but they usually called out the tribal members and tribal leaders to decide the judicial controversies under the tree45 or specific place, due to the shortage of natural resources on infrastructure in this extreme environment.

In this case, tree has a specific significance in the communities. In this case, it was quite similar to the discussion on the group feeling or Asabiyah, or tribalism, suggested by Ibn Khaldun. The rise of Dervish Movement The rise of Dervish Movement was the result of the cohesion of tribal society and the religion, and of the foreign invasion.

His great-grandfather was Sheikh Ismaan, a member of Baghari tribe which this tribe generated from Ogaden, a famous and large tribe in Somalia.

His father Abdullah Hassan, married with Timiro Sade, whom was a daughter of Sade Mogan from Dulbahante tribe49—the sub-clan of Darod tribe50, whom was one of the wives of Abdullah Hassan.

Muhammad Abdullah Hassan had at least 29 siblings. His maternal grandfather Sade Mogan, was a warrior in the villege, and Muhammad Abdullah Hassan admired with him. He was Sunni Muslim, but his Dervish Movement composed with Sufi order—Salihiyyah, it was normal political phenomenon in Africa at that time.

It is noticed that Sufi orders in Africa were quite popular and welcomed by the Muslims, especially they were facing with the cultural and racial crises during the western Brill, , pp. Possibly they wanted to import more adaptive ideologies inside their Islamic faith to attract more teenagers to join with them and fight against the imperialists, or essentially it was due to serve for the real politics.

For instance, Usman dan Fodio, the founder of Sokoto Caliphate in northern Nigeria, also composed with some Sufism element in order to call for more helpers on their regime establishment to fight against the invasion of British, French and German. Those Sufi orders connected with the other famous Islamic cities or countries such as Makkah, Egypt, Yemen, Zanzibar, Oman, or Somalia at that time due to the improvement of the transportation and the frequent religious exchange after the 16th century The spread of Sufi Orders, also benefited from the Islamic education in Masjids and tribal villages, as these two places, or could be regarded as a semi public space52 opened and freely accessible to every one and no matter with the socio-economic status, played an important role in strengthening the continuity and the succession of the Islamic faith from their elders and scholars.

In Somalia, two important Sufi orders played influential role in enhancing the striving of nation-state establishment in modern Somali history. Sufi introduced in Somalia since 15th century, and penetrated in Somalia almost 6 centuries until now. They suggested the importance of Zikir, or collevtive denotions in Arabic language.

Qadiriyyah was influential in southern part of Somalia, particularly Brava and Mogadishu. Similar concepts could be seen in Arabs and Chinese, especially some villages dominated by specific clan or family. Ahmadiyyah then separated into two branches, Salihiyyah was one of them, founded by Muhammad ibn Salih, a grand student of Ahmad Idris Al-Fasi.

So Salihiyyah had close relationship with Makkah, and due to the rise of Wahhabism in 18th century in Arabian Peninsula, Muhammad Abdullah Hassan influenced by Wahhabism, an ideology suggested by Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab, during Haji in Makkah in , particularly the religious purification. Muhammad Abdullah Hassan discovered the deterioration of the Islamic faith in Somalia, including the visiting of the graves of Saints, he thought that it was unislamic way. He hoped to borrow Salihiyyah from Arabian Peninsula to start a comprehensive political and religious reform, or could be regarded as a comprehensive Wahhabi jihadism.

He aimed at establishing a regime to confront with foreign invaders and the theocratic regime. With the advancement of the transportation and the geographical exploration, the European imperialists fully used their advanced technology to conquest and 54 J. At the same time, he reveals deeper values, connected with the very functioning of society, whose reproduction occurs independently of individual wills.

Figure 6: Front cover of the French translation by Vincent Monteil of the Muqaddima: Discours sur l'histoire universelle.

Tareekh Ibn Khaldun (Urdu: 8 Vol set)

Paris: Sindbad, 3rd edition, , pp. Lastly, it is important to note that Ibn Khaldun brings up twice, although both times in an incidental manner, the matter of the inculcation of religious values.

He approves, at least in theory, of the reforms proposed by Abu Bakr Ibn al-Arabi, whereby the child would first be taught language and the rules of calculation, but he finds that such ideas clash with habits too deeply ingrained to allow those ideas to be implemented [19] , thereby confirming one of the structural features of the Islamic education system, namely that of the basically religious nature of the instruction given to children and of the discontinuity between that instruction and the training of scholars.

The essential task of the religious institution is to lead the individual towards such a realization. Ibn Khaldun leaves it up to men of religion to determine and describe the exact practical rules and procedures. It is not certain that he would agree with our reconciliation of the two, since he sees technology as a field of knowledge and of thought linked to action and consequently inferior to science, which is pure speculation.

In Ibn Khaldun's theory of society the development of the arts i. Rural society, being satisfied with the necessary, cultivates only the simplest of the arts, such as agriculture and weaving; it has no knowledge of writing and the sciences, and though at times some of its members may take an interest in such matters they can never reach perfection [21].

In the cities, the arts and sciences develop as production expands and diversifies, as wealth increases and as a taste for the superfluous and luxury comes into being [22]. The term art sina'a is used by Ibn Khaldun in a very wide acceptation, covering even the vocational and practical aspects of scientific activities.

Learning the Arts Ibn Khaldun limits himself here to two remarks: the arts must necessarily be learned from a master; they are highly specialized, and a person who masters one art cannot generally master a second. He does not conceive of technology as a body of knowledge independent of those who possess it. He uses this concept, which for philosophers [24] had an essentially moral and intellectual meaning, very widely to cover a vast field going from language to faith, the arts and the sciences.

Once the soul acquires a given aptitude it loses its primary simplicity, its readiness weakens and its capacity to assimilate a second aptitude diminishes. We shall return to this important concept later. The Teaching of the Sciences The ideas developed by Ibn Khaldun on teaching belong to his encyclopedic presentation of the sciences.

This opens with a theory of knowledge and a general presentation of the socio-historical and epistemological bases of scientific development. Teaching is approached at the end of this enumeration and before the sections on language, the learning of language and the various forms of literary production. Two sides can be distinguished to Ibn Khaldun's presentation, one covering the principles of teaching, the other its methods and content.

The learning of language is dealt with separately.

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Essentially ignorant, we fulfil ourselves as human beings only through knowledge. Only this last type of knowledge, the subject of the sciences, gives us the possibility of reaching perfection of soul [28]. The teaching of the sciences is necessary for two reasons: firstly, thorough knowledge of them requires a lengthy period of learning that can be carried out only with the help of teachers [29] ; secondly, their very development requires them to be communicated to others. Pedagogical Principles Ibn Khaldun's pedagogical conception is based on the central concept of the habitus, mentioned earlier in connection with the learning of the arts.

Whether it concerns the child or the adult, the practical arts or the sciences, moral or religious values, the aim of all pedagogical action is the formation in the soul of a stable disposition. Once it has been acquired, this disposition will not disappear.

Ibn Khaldun often compares it to a dye that lasts until the cloth to which it has been applied is destroyed. All habitus, says Ibn Khaldun, are necessarily corporal. He understands the habitus as something the soul can acquire only through the senses, as opposed to another type of knowledge proper to the prophets and mystics, which can be obtained only through the contemplation by the soul of its own essence.

This concerns both the physical and the intellectual aptitudes, starting with the very fact of thinking [30]. The formation of a habitus initially requires continuous repetition until the form is fixed. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, it must be a practice bi-'l-mubashara and modelled on the most perfect exemplars with the help of the best teachers, preferably following methods of direct observation bi-'l-mu'ayana.

Ibn Khaldun thinks that the soul has but fairly limited receptivity isti'dad. Accordingly, the choice of content in the earliest instruction is of decisive importance. Moreover, in the field of the arts as well as in that of the sciences, Ibn Khaldun advises strictly against the teaching of more than one subject at a time. Ibn Khaldun calls attention to another important factor in the formation of habitus, namely that of authority.

An overly severe attitude on the part of the teacher leads to the most harmful consequences, particularly for young children.

In this connection, he cites the situation of slaves, servants and oppressed nations. Finally, habitus can be either good or bad; they may take the form of either virtue or vice, good or evil, good taste or bad, refinement or crudeness, clarity and exactness or confusion. They also differ in degree, depending on the quality of teaching and of the models imitated and on the general level of development of the civilization.

Methods and contents The question of the teaching of the sciences Ibn Khaldun approaches from his concept of the habitus. Ibn Khaldun considers that the process must take place in three progressive stages, whose object and means he is careful to explain [36]. The first of these is a preparatory stage. Its object is to familiarize the student with the subject being taught and to prepare him or her to grasp its problems. This stage is limited to giving an overall view of the subject and emphasizing its main points.

Explanations must be kept simple and general and allow for the student's capacity for understanding and assimilating. The second stage goes deeper. Now the subject must be looked at from every angle and generalizations transcended. Explanations and commentaries must be exhaustive and all divergent points of view examined.

The third stage is that of consolidation and mastery. The subject is again studied, in extenso, from the beginning, but this time the most complex and obscure points are gone into. Ibn Khaldun lays great emphasis on the principle of the progressive approach. He says it is a serious error to begin by the most abstruse problems, as do many teachers who take no account of the student's state of preparation.

Such a practice is most harmful, as the student tires rapidly and becomes discouraged. Worse still, in the belief that the difficulties encountered are intrinsic to the subject, he or she turns away from and abandons it.

Going further into the matter, Ibn Khaldun perceives clearly that the inculcation of a body of knowledge is inseparable from the development of the mental aptitudes necessary for that knowledge to be assimilated.

Then the student's readiness gradually develops: the problems of the subject become more familiar with every repetition, and he or she then goes from approximate knowledge to an ever deeper assimilation' [37]. Ibn Khaldun supplements these general principles with a number of practical recommendations. He recommends to teachers that they present their students with consistent teaching material suited to their capacities, keeping to the works selected for the course and seeing to it that they are completely assimilated before passing on to others; not teaching two subjects at the same time, not stretching out the study of a subject over too long a period, in order not to break the interdependence between its different facets.

Logic is nothing more than a description of the act of thinking and in most cases follows it' [38]. On the question of the content of science teaching, Ibn Khaldun limits himself to a few remarks inspired by the actual state of education in his time.

The sciences, particularly religious and literary science, had undergone considerable development under Islam, and Ibn Khaldun describes it in detail. In agreement with his contemporaries, he judges this development to have reached its apogee and its term [39]. How and in what form should the enormous accumulated corpus be transmitted? For each subject there was a plethora of works available. Each school of thought or trend had its own collection, often with methods and terminologies that were peculiar to it.

Ibn Khaldun wondered how the average student could be required to assimilate it all. Teachers, he suggests, should limit themselves to teaching their students the subject-matter of their own schools. These are theoretically only means to be placed at the service of the fundamental sciences that are sought for their own sakes.

Thus, philology and arithmetic should serve the religious sciences, while logic and philosophy should be similarly available to theology. Too much time spent on the religious sciences is only further weighing down the burden borne by students and distracting them from the essential [41].

This view of education is not seen by Ibn Khaldun as being linked to institutions or places. It appears rather as a private, individual matter at the level of each of its three components: science, teachers and students. The individual soul fulfils itself in and through knowledge. The invention and development of the sciences meets a spiritual necessity above all. Though perfectible, the sciences are conceived as constituting a closed universe, or at least one tending towards a certain completion.

The greater part of scientific activity must be devoted to the task of organizing the various fields of knowledge into individualized subjects capable of being transmitted. With the progress of civilization, science became professionalized, organizing itself according to principles and rules, making use of a specialized methodology and terminology; it was practised as a trade. When Ibn Khaldun attempts to trace out a history of education, he concentrates on the sanad, i.

Moreover, the history of the sciences is essentially epitomized for him in that of the basic works that have been composed within each subject, with their main commentaries and abstracts. Thus on the one hand, and within each subject, there are a number of established works; on the other, chains of authorities to transmit them: this sums up the institution of education. Ibn Khaldun barely mentions such places as colleges madrasas or convents khanqas, rubut , which he considers only in the role of material assistance to students and teachers board and lodging [43].

Thus indirectly, and several centuries in advance, he confirms one of the invariable structural features of the education system in Muslim societies, namely the precarious nature of its institutions.

Notes and references 9. Translator of the autobiography of Ibn Khaldun under the title Le voyage d'occident et d'orient [The Journey to West and East] , extracts from the Kitab al-Ibar, under the title Peuples et nations du monde [The World's Peoples and Nations] 2 vols.

Makdisi, op. Gellner, op. II, pp.

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I, pp. Rosenthal, Vol. All quotations from the Muqaddima given in the present essay were translated from Arabic to French by the author. II, p. III, p. Cairo, Bulaq, H. Cairo, Abd a-Wahid Wafi,