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Sociolinguistics and Language Education/Edited by Nancy H. Hornberger and Sandra. Lee McKay. 11 Sociolinguistics, Language Teaching and New Literacy. Part I - LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY. pp · ronaldweinland.info CBO Access. PDF; Export citation. 1 - Language attitudes, motivation. Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching looks at the relationship between language and society and the pivotal part teachers play in shaping student.
Hornberger and S. The book stands out from the crowd in that it eloquently combines sociolinguistics with language teaching in one volume, something that is without antecedent. The book comes with added significance with respect to the increasing support for socially embedded views of language and language pedagogy. Very few books ever embark on such a daunting task and the majority treat these two subjects safely separately. Well-balanced in its focus, line of convergence and comprehensiveness, Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching fills a gap in the fields of sociolinguistics, applied linguistics, and language teaching. This collection capitalizes on the social aspect within and toward language classroom interaction, be the language at issue an FL or an L2. Chapter 1, Part I — Language and society This chapter deals with three heavy-weight issues in language pedagogy: language attitudes, motivation, and standards.
Research by Labov , Rickford , Eckert and other is illuminating in the respect. The chapter proceeds with suggesting teachers make use of available resources, audio and video, to acquaint themselves and their students with regional and social varieties, and for enhancement of individual and social identity. Chapter 6, Part II — Pidgins and Creoles Nicholas introduces the sociolinguistic phenomena of pidgins and creoles and the consequences for education and for teachers should these varieties be ignored.
Attitudes to these varieties are different, and not often quite favorable. Nicholas quotes Harris who summarizes three conditions for the emergence of a pidgin language: 1 lack of effective bilingualism, 2 need to communicate, and 3 restricted access to target language. Creole, 8 Page on the other hand, develops when pidgin is nativized and the children of pidgin-speaking parents hear it as their most important language.
Hugo Schuchardt s was one of the pioneers of research on pidgins and creoles. However, Turner made significant comparative studies between varieties of Creole spoken in Georgia and California and some languages of West Africa. As with language varieties, teachers must be able to recognize and understand pidgin and creoles even if they are not officially used in the classroom.
Vasquez, Pease-Alvarez, and Shannon see such acquaintance necessary for development of curricula. Use of videos can be helpful to show to the children how their peers speak in different geographical settings. Chapter 7, Part II — Language and gender Rebecca Freeman and Bonnie McElhinny take on a consciousness-raising task in this chapter beginning with an introductory section on feminist movements in the United States during the later s and s.
Attention is drawn to a number of sexist practices and alternatives in English discourse with examples given from forms of address — Mr. But sexual racism, they argue, goes beyond lexical and syntactic choices we make in language use.
They way women are portrayed in the press and in medical texts is equally sexist. While Lakoff portrays a helpless picture of women, Kalcik believes that women are more nurturing and cooperative than men. Thorne suggests that rather than comparing men with women, each group should be studies separately in their own right.
Gender discussion has implications for schools which as the writers discuss are sites where gender-based inequities can be challenged through careful selection of materials and syllabi. Schools themselves are not immune to gender differentiation, and studies show a number of biased practices in mainstream English-speaking classrooms Swan, Part III — Language and Interaction Chapter 8, Part III — Ethnographic microanalysis This chapter looks at the microlevel of both social and linguistic analysis, touching upon the role and linguistic realization of such phenomena as situated co-membership, contextualized cues, sociolinguistic transfer, interpretive mismatch, and oppositional discourse in face-to-face interaction.
This chapter begins with an overview of the perspective method and findings of the ethnographic microanalysis of social interaction also known as microethnography. Erickson identifies two emphases that have a significant bearing on language teaching. One is the situated character of communication in social interaction as observed by Goffman who described the social situation as the basic unit in which everyday life finds substance. The other emphasis in the microethnographic perspective involves the immediate ecology of relations between participants in a given situation.
Being eclectic in its origins, ethnographic microanalysis combines five types of work, i. The first approach, context analysis, takes an ecological or system approach to the study of interaction. Ethnographic microanalysis developed by linguistics anthropologists lays the emphasis on variation in language form and in language function, the purpose of speaking and the implicit meaning of stylistics choices speakers make. The third approach comes from the work of Goffman who viewed interaction in terms of strategy and rituals, emphasizing the importance of situation.
The fourth contributor to ethnographic microanalysis comes from conversation analysis in sociology known as ethno-methodology as a reaction to the theoretical assumptions of structure-functionalism.
The fifth emphasis takes roots in continental discourse analysis as carried out by Hebermas and Fauclt It studies paths of habitual practice in everyday life while emphasizing power relations. With respect to the behavioral organization of verbal and nonverbal activity in interaction and symbolic or political construction of situation, four issues are discussed. One reason why we constantly adjust our speech with respect to the milieu is the multidimensionality of our identity as shown by Goffman.
Key concepts of interactional 12 P a g e sociolinguistics are explored here such frame and footing and contextualized cues, contextual presuppositions, and situated inference. Interactional sociolinguistics offers a theoretical and methodological perspective on studying language use in everyday life interactions.
Goffman also was inspired by George Simmel and his analysis of form and meaning in small social groups. The unique focus of Goffman is on the relationship between self and society at a microlevel of analysis. Gumperz on the other hand, as he mentions in the introduction to his collection of essays, seeks to develop interpretive sociolinguistic approaches to the analysis of real time processes in face-to-face encounters.
His research is grounded in the assumption that the meaning, structure, and use of language are socially and culturally relative. Gumperz defines two types of code switching — situational code switching and metaphorical code switching. Gumperz also develops connections between culture, society, individual, and code a which is a framework built upon his earlier ideas about culture, society, language, and self. Contextualized cues can affect the basic meaning of a message and are almost never consciously observed or given conventional meanings.
Gumperz believes that when listeners share such cues interactions develop smoothly. Interactional sociolinguistics can introduce a new perspective to the understanding of classroom interactions which can also positively affect our teaching. Evidently, there is more to leaning a language than taking in a list of vocabulary and grammar rules.
As the chapter demonstrates language is a system of norms and rules that are embeddd in the culture. Hence re- affirmation of the emphasis on teaching students to develop communicative competence. Lessons, therefore, should include discussion of the possible social meanings of different forms of interaction, and how different words, intonation, systactic forms, and so on help define meaning in any interaction.
In addition to providing guidelines for materials developers and currilculum designers, interactional sociolinguistics will help studens and teachers better understand the interactional dynamics of their classroom, which will in trun do its share it helping students to develop the required level of communicative competence in the arget language.
Chapter 10, Part III — Intercultural communication Int his chapter Keith Chick constructs a bridge extending between the previous two chapters on ethnographic microanalysis and intercultural sociolinguistics and the following two chapters on the ethnography of cimmuication and speech acts. Here he provides a contrastive review of the speech act approach which extracts paticualr linguistic feature froma lalarge corpus for subsequent catergorization and counting with the approach of interactional sociolinguistics which analyzes a limited number 14 P a g e of whole interactions in a bid to uncover the interpretative or inferential proessess of the interlocutors.
He uses his research in South Africa to illustriate his ideas an show how sociolinguistic transfer as well as other kinds of interpretative mismatch iclduing mismatches in interpreting contextualiztion cues, frames of reference, and face needs, produce intercultural miscommunication. In the end he calls for awareness training, in particular critical awareness training, so that language learners will be able to make profound and reflective choices.
This chapter is mainly concerned with three research questions: 1. What are the sources of intercultural miscommunication?
What are the social factors of such miscomuunication? What can be done to improve intercutlrual miscommunication? As Chick explains the souces of intercultural miscommunication can be traced back to the distinictive nature of the value systems, pervasive configuarion of social relations, and dominanat ideologies of cultural groups.
Chick provides examples of sociolinguistic research that addresses the three questions listed above. Another potetialsoruc of intercultural miscommunication as suggested by the results of different studies is the differecen in the frqunecy of choice of the compliment response strategy of no acknowledgement.
This is of 15 P a g e particular use to SLA and with respect to the generally observed phenomenon among languge learners who opt to remain silent when they believe their lainguistic resources are not adequate to form a response suitable to the situation they are in.
Interactional sociolinguistics and intercultural communication studies allow to trace connections between patterns of sociolinguistic behavior and ideologies and societal structures. Because they rely on limited number of interactions and examples, they do not show the cumulative effect of multiple sources of intercultural miscommunication.
In this approach idealization of the source is limited and data is analyzed in fine detail. Citing the example from a post-examination interview between a native South African English-speaking professor and his ethnically diverse students, Chick identifies several sources of intercultural miscommunication, one of which involves a mismatch of interpretative frames of reference.
Another source of miscommunication has to do with the fact that one language is tone while the other is not. Chick however refers tot doubts about the significance of sociolinguistic studies of intercultural miscommunication and whether the findings may lead to psotive social change or whether they reinforce the status quo.
In addition, the deterministic interpretations offered by sociolinguists on some occasions and of their failure to take into account the economic and political factors sufficiently cast further doubts on the outcome of these studies. As a result, it is suggested that if sociolinguists wish their studies to be used for emancipatory rather hegemonic purposes, the need to put more emphasis on the relationships between sociolinguistic conventions and the social order.
Fairclough too insists tht it is not enough to foster awareness but also critical awareness.
Learners need to know there is a cost involved in being unaware of sociolinguistic conventions that may lead to their being assigned to social identities with which they are not comfortable. Part IV — Language and culture Chapter 11, Part IV — The ethnography of communication In this chapter Murriel STroike reviews the basic concepts, methods, and language teaching applications of the ethnography of communication as introduced by Dell Hymes in Seville identifies the principle concerns of this approach, to be 1 the relationship of language form and use of patterns and functions of communication, 2 to world view and social organization, 3 to linguistic and social universals and inequalities.
Servill maintains that the significance of the ethnography of communication goes beyond cataloging of human communication behavior, and may unltimately lead to formulating a truly adequate universal theory of language and human behavior.
The concern for patterns and functions of communication is basic to linguistics in that it has also been discovered that much of linguistics behavior is rule-govrned which means it can descriptively formulated Dittman In such a study the goal is to discover and formulate context-spcific rules which can be desecriptive, statements of recurring regularity, or prescriptive, metagonitive statements of how people should act.
Together such rules form expectations that are shared by members of a speech community. Research on rules for language use, ethnomethodology, has traditionally focused on small units of communication such a telephone conversations, service encounters, etc. In contrast, an ethnography of communication 17 P a g e approach has a larger view of language and looks for strategies and conventions that affect larger units of communication through a more holistic approach.
In other words, the ethnography of communication is interested in communicative conventions which operate at a societal level. Interestingly enough, even within a society in which rules of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary are shared, strategies language use can be employed to demonstrate power relations as well as socioenconomic strata.
Another dimension on the ethnography of communication is the speech community which is deined as sharing the same language Lyons , sharing rules of speeking and interpretation of speech performance Hymes , and sharing sociological understanding and presumptions with regard to speech. Any community in a complex society might be part of a larger one or, conversely, subdivided into smaller groups.
It will include a communicative repertoire or range of languages, language varieties, and cultureal dimensions. On the other hand, individuals may simultanesouly seek membership of more than one community be it discrete or overlapping. The definition of speech community becomes more complex when it is expanded from first to second language situation.
Thus distinction is inevitable regarding learning a standard language or leanring a foreign language. For speakers of nonstandard varieties, learning involves adding a schooled variety to their communicative repertoire.
Unlike standard lae learners, students of a foreign language within the context of their mother culture, have little opportunity to interact and as a result to develop a communicative repertoire.
Students of a second language, however, will not be learning it automatically as apart of enculturation, but of acculturation or 18 P a g e second culture learning and adaptation. Except for those who begin as children, few of these second language learners become fully-fledged members of the second language speech community. Having recognized the intrinsic relationship of language and culture and the ways patterns of communicative behavior and cultural systems interact, it is interesting to see how the vocabulary of a language catalogs the things that are important to a society, an index of the way experience is categorized and a record of past contacts and borrowings.
Examples of thes can be seen in how NNSs and NSs assign colors names to different segment of the spectrum. This has the potential for a big number of misunderstandings when languages are intepereted differently. The grammar of a language reveals how time and speace are segmented and organized. For instance, in Classical Greek future was regarded an event behind us since we cannot see it but the past is in front of us since we see it.
Within the ethnography of communication the notion of communicative competence Hymes plays a central role. Communicative competence involves leaning not only the language code but alsowhat to say and to whom.
This concept has important implications for selection and sequencing in language teaching curricula. To this, we should add paralinguistic or non-verbal phenomena, and knowledge of variants.
Another dimesion of communicative competence involves interaction skills.
For example, knowing who may or may not speak in a certain settings, what rounines should be taken in turn taking, how requests should be made, etc. To this dimension we need to add cultural competence, the total set of knowledge and skills which speakers being into a situation. Such research specially benefits from comparative studies. Dtra is collected in a naturalistic setting.
Data can be collected through several modes such as observation, library research, archalogical and sociological surveys, folkloric analyses, and so on. The communicative units involved in such stuies are situation, event, and act.
The situation is the context within which the communication takes place. The communicative act is synonymous with a single interactional function, such as referential statement, a request, or command. Ethnography of communication has strong applications for educational issues.
Research by Erickson and Mohart for instance shows that some classroom practices may have a negative impact on learners who come from different cultural backgrounds. Ethnographic investigations are also of value to the study of both first and second language acquisition.
Such studies have increased our understanding of strategies children use to communicate with one another in spite of limited skills Wong, Fillmore, , In addition, reading and writing skills can largely benefit from ethnography of communication.
And finally, it contributes to the cultivation of a different rather than a deficient view toward student performance. Chapter 12, Part IV — Speech act In this chapter Andrew Cohen introduces a research approach based on ethnography of communication that focuses on the identification and cross cultural comparison of speech acts. He draws on the work of philosophers Austin and Searle, who define speech act as a functional unit in communication. Cohen takes on defining speech acts and explains how this field of dicosurse has been applie to SLA.
Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching Thomas S.
Farrell A language teacher's role is not only critical in teaching a language, but also in teaching the cultures and societies that surround the language. Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching looks at the relationship between language and society and the pivotal part teachers play in shaping student perceptions of the language.
Non-member Price: Discounted Member Price: Your Price: You Could Save: For print book orders outside of the U. Description About the Author. A language teacher's role is not only critical in teaching a language, but also in teaching the cultures and societies that surround the language. Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching looks at the relationship between language and society and the importance of showing language in a real social setting.