Download The Golden Compass Northern Lights Pdf Book By Philip Pullman. Author: Pullman Philip. downloads Views KB Size Report The Golden Compass (Northern Lights). Read more · 1 - The Golden Compass (v). Philip Pullman Author cover image of Once Upon a Time in the North cover image of The Science of Philip Pullman's His Dark Materials Northern Lights.
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The right of Philip Pullman to be identified as the author and illustrator of this NORTHERN LIGHTS; the universe we know; and a third universe, which differs. PRAISE FOR PHILIP PULLMAN'S The Shadow in the North Compass was originally published under the title His Dark Materials I: Northern Lights in Great. Northern Lights (His Dark Materials) by Philip Pullman; 4 editions; First published in ; Subjects: In library.
The early part of his life was spent travelling all over the world, because his father and then his stepfather were both in the Royal Air Force. He spent part of his childhood in Australia, where he first met the wonders of comics, and grew to love Superman and Batman in particular. From the age of 11, he lived in North Wales, having moved back to Britain. It was a time when children were allowed to roam anywhere, to play in the streets, to wander over the hills, and he took full advantage of it. His English teacher, Miss Enid Jones, was a big influence on him, and he still sends her copies of his books.
My intention is to tell a story - in the first place because the story comes to me and wants to be told.
The central theme is the eternal battle between Good and Ev il, Light and Darkness. The Catholic Church hierarchy is caricatured, as well as any form of organized religion in general, with its doctrines and public attitudes. Although this creation my th underlies the whole trilogy from the v ery beginning, it only becomes ex plicit to a higher degree in the last v olume. He was nev er the creator. He was an angel like ourselv es, the first angel, true, the most powerful, but he was formed of Dust as we are, and Dust is only a name for what happens when matter begins to understand itself.
Matter lov es matter. It seeks to know more about itself, and Dust is formed. The first angels condensed out of Dust, and the Authority was the first of all. He told those who came after him that he had created them, but it was a lie. Namely , Pullman was nev er reserv ed when it came to his religious v iews: There's no God here.
There nev er was. But if y ou go out into the v astness of space, well, I'm not so sure.
On that lev el, I'm an agnostic. But, it is not Pullman's atheism or agnosticism for that matter, that agitate zealous Christians so much; it is the fact that he calls "The Authority , God, the Creator, the Lord, Y ahweh, El Adonai, the King, the Father, the Almighty " an imposter, a liar and self-proclaimed creator. This effect is ev en enhanced when one notes that Pullman does not make ex plicit references to the Creation from Genesis here, but simply adds a prequel, so to say.
He proposes the ex istence of the Matter which became self-conscious and ev entually created Dust - an embodiment and indication of reason. It is interesting how Pullman's Dust stands in a sharp contrast to God's Dust, an omen of sin and an eternal flaw in man: Also, it could be compared to the description of Creation in the Book of John: If the notion of the Word is compared, or ev en equalled, to the Dust, an inv ersion becomes apparent: Accordingly , Pullman's representation of the creation my th can be interpreted dichotomously.
It might be perceiv ed, on the one hand, as a case of malicious transposition of the narrativ e's elements or, on the other, merely as a radical change in perspectiv e. His adroit juggle with this part of religious canon is multi-lay ered and includes sev eral related elements: The tex t from Genesis, the story of "how sin came into the world, sin and shame and death" is discarded as a fairy tale imposed by the Church, and used as a template for dev eloping an entirely new image.
Since the scientists from Ly ra's world hav e discov ered the ex istence of Rusakov 's particles, that is Dust, and through its further ex plorations, it has become obv ious that it is attracted to consciousness: Therefore, as it is emphasised throughout the trilogy , the Fall of Man was not actually a fall, but rather an ascent from the state of ignorance to the state of ex perience and self-awareness. The Church, on the other hand, did not rejoice ov er the idea of enlightenment: From that moment on "all the history of human life has been a struggle between wisdom and stupidity.
She and the rebel angels, the followers of wisdom, hav e alway s tried to open minds; the Authority and his churches hav e alway s tried to keep them closed" Pullman III, It appears that Pullman not only prolonged the Dark Ages but, moreov er, announced its climax: This division between There is also an interesting nov elty regarding human nature: This div ision between the towards learning about body , which is capable of sensing the world around it, the spirit, the world around it which is oriented towards learning about the world around it, and the soul, which is lov ing the world around it.
This is especially intriguing, if one considers the fact that the human souls in Ly ra's world are presented through daemons. There is a considerable difference in the quantity of Dust produced by adults and children.
This is the reason why the Spectres feed on adults only , for the children are not conscious enough to attract a lot of Dust. In the time of puberty , as children's characters form and their daemons assume fix ed shapes, more Dust is beguiled. Since Pullman's Church considers ev ery thing related to Dust to be sinful and ungodly , the notion of childhood as a Dust-free period is idealised.
Furthermore, they try to preserv e it ev en download cutting off the children's daemons because, as Mrs. Coulter ex plains to Ly ra, "y our daemon's a wonderful friend and companion when y ou're y oung, but at the age we call puberty Conv ersely , it is the ex perience and maturity that Pullman idolises, in opposition to a child's innocence and ignorance; he regards childhood as a preparatory stage: The Child Hero Archety pe is subv erted in order to: This is the moment at which the purpose behind Pullman's use of the figure of the Child Hero becomes apparent.
Pullman's works do not y earn toward a higher form of innocence: Crosby To underline this, Pullman introduces v arious woes into his parallel worlds; Spectres are attacking people, the Church has gotten out of control, etc.
Ev ery thing indicates the necessity of the Second Fall: It would hav e to lead up to a garden in which something similar took place, or something analogous, any way " Pullman in Fried Furthermore, a prophecy made by witches is unv eiled: Ly ra will be a new Ev e, she will be tempted and "hav e the power to make a fateful choice, on which the future of all the worlds depended" Pullman III, Indeed, Ly ra is somewhat Ev e-ish: I think we could win her around.
She's innocent, and she lov es easily " Pullman III, 1 46 , but also "a thoughtless, insolent child" 1 Will is more alert, "but won't go any where without her" and ev en his name is sy mbolic - it refers to what mankind gained after the Fall: Just like in Eden, Ly ra and Will hav e a serpent too, Mary Malone, an ex -nun turned scientist, whose character and attitude towards the Church doctrine many Catholics found offensiv e: I thought phy sics could be done to the glory of God, till I saw there wasn't any God at all and that phy sics was more interesting any way.
It was Mary who, in a way , is responsible for the change, for the Fall. Her stories and v iews of the world, life and lov e open Will and Ly ra's ey es. This enables the recreation of the Eden scene: Their Fall, howev er, does not bring about misery and desolation. On the contrary , as witch Serafina Pekkala ex plains to Mary: I don't know what it was. They saw each other differently , or something Until then, they hadn't felt like that, but suddenly they did.
And then the Dust was attracted to them, v ery powerfully , and it stopped flowing the other way " Pullman III, Apparently , it was what the univ erse needed to achiev e harmony again and restore its balance. Howev er, Pullman discards the accusations of immorality and v ulgarity: And as a child, a kiss is enough. A kiss can change the world" Pullman Life After Death One of the foundations of Catholic teaching is the eternity of the human soul, which inev itably implicates the ex istence of afterlife.
In Catholicism, death is nothing but a new beginning; heav en and boundless joy await those who hav e prov en themselv es to be worthy and interminable suffering for the sinful.
Pullman substitutes this merit sy stem with a disheartening image of the Land of the Dead, where ev ery one goes to, "kings, queens, murderers, poets, children" but nobody comes back from. His descriptions are painfully ex pressiv e: It's a place of nothing. The good come here as well as the wicked, and all of us languish in this gloom forev er, with no hope of freedom, or joy , or sleep, or rest, or peace" Pullman III, The ghosts of deceased people feel deceiv ed.
A woman who died as a marty r complains to Ly ra: And they said that Heav en was a place of joy and glory and we would spend eternity in the company of saints and angels praising the Almighty , in a state of bliss.
That's what they said. And that's what led some of us to giv e our liv es, and others to spend y ears in solitary pray er, while all the joy of life was going to waste around us and we nev er knew. Ly ra and Will are ev entually able to release them by cutting a portal to another world. The ghosts realise that this entails dematerialisation and disappearance but are eager to accept the regress: They refer to the Kingdom of God that is within the people that can be approached by understanding and accepting the world like a child.
It also denotes a spiritual rebirth, as well as performing the will of God. Finally , the paramount realisation of the Kingdom of Heav en will take place after Christ's Second Coming, when he deliv ers the final judgment on all the liv ing and the dead and defeats Satan. Pullman seizes this utterly religious concept and giv es it a political, as well as a spiritual connotation. This change has considerably more to it than just a cosmetic v ocabulary alteration; the entire concept it conv ey s is considerably modified.
The term kingdom refers to a monarchy , a realm ruled by and in absolute control of one entity solely. The connotations it carries are oppression, restrictions and single-mindedness. As an opposition to this, Lord Asriel, the character Pullman matches to Satan, proposes the idea of a Republic, which implies a sy stem where the gov erning entity is chosen by the people and which is characterised by democracy , collaboration and tolerance.
These opposites are portray ed in order to present the current state of affairs and the utopia mankind should aim to achiev e. Equally important, the Republic of Heav en has an immaterial, spiritual dimension to it. The Republic is not only a place, free of the Church and other constraints, but also a state of mind.
Lord Asriel's grandiose v ision may not be fulfilled but it is replaced with an enlightened legacy: We hav e to build the Republic of Heav en where we are, because for us there is no elsewhere.
We shouldn't liv e as if it mattered more than this life in this world, because where we are is alway s the most important place.
We hav e to be all those difficult things like cheerful and kind and curious and patient, and we'v e got to study and think and work hard, all of us, in all our different worlds, and then we'll build Pullman III, 41 4 3. It seems as if Pullman is dissecting its structure in order to call attention to its flaws on ev ery lev el and in ev ery segment. The Image of God The ex istence of God and his almightiness is the crux of ev ery monotheistic religion and the basis for the formation of the religious canon.
The premise that he is an almighty supernatural being who, not only created, but is still and alway s will be in control of the entire univ erse is the postulate for further dev elopment of the religious belief sy stem.
By negating this, Pullman delineates the Church as a house built on nonex istent foundations. Interestingly and v ery indicativ ely , the rev elation comes from angels Balthamos and Baruch, a couple of well informed insiders: Pullman giv es no detailed account on how did it happen that matter became conscious, but leav es no doubt regarding God's role in the Creation.
He also brings to light the perception of God and how it was manipulated ov er time: No one has seen the summit for thousands of y ears. The ex pression used here, the Clouded Mountain, is v ery suggestiv e of how the image of God has assumed fictional, rather than religious properties.
When Will and Ly ra finally meet God they are shocked by what they see: Not only is the figure of God depriv ed of any power, but also of the last bit of dignity ; he is tantamount to a helpless toddler. His disconcerting weakness is in a sharp contrast to the frightening power of the Church. But in the open air there was nothing to stop the wind from damaging him, and to their dismay his form began to loosen and dissolv e.
Only a few moments later he had v anished completely , and their last impression was of those ey es, blinking in wonder, and a sigh of the most profound and ex hausted relief.
He simply replies that the figure of authority fits the story better. Howev er, if the God-killing incident is ex amined closely , certain parallels between him and Jesus can be found. Just like Jesus Christ was sacrificed and died for the salv ation of the world in the New Testament, in His Dark Materials God dies and the restoration of balance is enabled.
Also, Christ forgiv es the men who crucify him and, here, God smiles at Will and Ly ra as he dissolv es into the air. Concludingly , although the figure of God is utterly distorted, it is not completely depriv ed of omnibenev olence. The Critique of the Church Hierarchy and Organised Religion The Church Pullman portray s in his trilogy could be most accurately described as a v illainous criminal organisation with one and sole objectiv e: In unmasking it, Pullman starts at the top of the tree.
After disclosing God as a benign imposter, he turns to his Regent Metatron. This character and his role can be compared to those of the Pope, God's Regent in the Catholic Church.
Apart from the leadership, Pullman also criticises the rest of its structure. His clergy are wicked, power-hungry and unscrupulous. In realising their plans, they do not recoil at any thing.
To ex emplify , when constructing a bomb to kill Ly ra, they follow it through although they are v ery well aware of the fact that their plan might not come off and that the entire world could be destroy ed. Just like in the real world: Another criticism is directed towards the Church's own discord.
Ev en though they are fighting the same enemy and it is apparent that collaboration would ensure them the v ictory , the Church departments refuse to work together. They simply cannot ov ercome their calamitous destructiv eness: Image of the Helpers: Exclusion vs. Acceptance His Dark Materials has an astonishingly wide and div erse range of minor and supporting characters.
In creating sidekicks for Will and Ly ra, Pullman is making a firm and conv incing statement about tolerance and alliance. Although, their helpers are somewhat socially different and come from marginal groups, they succeed where the Church fails; they manage not only to surmount their differences, but also use them as an adv antage in fighting against the common enemy.
The first ones in the rainbow coalition were Gy ptians, a nomadic people, liv ing and trav elling on boats, who were regarded as trouble-makers in Ly ra's world. Pullman draws here an ev ident analogy to the Romani people, who are similarly marginalised. Secondly , there are witches, who are sinful fly ing temptations, persecuted by the Church. One of Ly ra's best friends is the polar bear Iorek, an armoured brute, who is able to foresee things ev en before the alethiometer.
Finally , both Will and Ly ra's liv es hav e been sav ed by homosex ual angles. Ev en though Metatron ex iled them, their lov e is so strong that it creates an abundance of Dust.
The inclusion of these protagonists is not merely a critique of the Church but of the society on the whole. Pullman fights prejudice and stereoty pes through Ly ra, whose childish play fulness and open-mindedness prev ents her from judging and discriminating. Conclusion Pullman's trilogy His Dark Materials is a fantasy literary work profusely aggrandised with elements of the religious canon.
The author employ s numerous traditional Judeo-Christian concepts, implementing them in a completely new contex t and reshaping them to tell his story. His interpretations and representation brought on a lot of criticism and public discussions, and his writing was perceiv ed by some as a scurrilous attack against Christianity. The analy sis of Pullman's work in the framework of the religious canon raises the question of boundaries that art ov ercomes.
Obv iously , for part of the audience, killing God in a children's book was too much, a sacred realm not to be inv aded. Others, howev er, consider the v ehicles, such as the murder of a div inity , felicitous or perhaps ev en necessary to conv ey the author's message about organised forms of religion.
The only certainty is the ambiv alence of responses to the subv ersiv e act. Pullman interprets this as a nev er-ending life battle and calls to befitting arms: I think we should act as if.
I think we should read books, and tell children stories, and take them to the theatre, and learn poems, and play music, as if it would make a difference. We should act as if the univ erse were listening to us and responding. We should act as if life were going to win. An adult teacher 'trimming' the thoughts and imagination of young children is in fact something very intrusive, controlling, and often downright sinister' Hunt Was Pullman's intentions from writing his trilogy just to entertain its readers?
In Fig. In his discussion of how innocent children's literature is, Hunt focuses on the power and authority of the adults over the children, like the one elaborated in Fig.
Hunts mentions that 'adults write' while 'children read [. He then discusses that books for children are 'inevitably didactic'. Lewis' The Chronicles of Narnia. It is discussed that the trilogy is anti-Chronicles in its ideology. Both works talk about the Fall of human, yet they differ in the way they deal with it. The Chronicles of Narnia shows fall as being something negative, yet ' For Pullman the Fall must be seen as positive because it represents the necessary and natural transition from childhood to adulthood' Cuthew Starting from this notion, it maybe considered that Pullman's work is religiously irresponsible as it tends to make children question whether 'Fall' or 'sin' is something good or bad.
We believed them, even though we could see that what they were doing was wicked and evil and wrong We thought Dust must be bad too, because they were grown up and they said so. But what if it isn't? What if it's — " She said breathlessly, "Yeah! What if it's really good. Pullman Northern Lights, pp.
In other words, Pullman is providing an ideology that 'Fall' should be considered as something good because it resembles the Rihane 6 discovery of oneself while to Lewis, who is a conservative Christian writer, sin resides with bad people. Northern Lights arises questions of how whether witches are good or bad, or whether murder can be justified.
Your father en't the kind of man to deny or conceal the truth, and it left the judge with a problem. He'd killed all right, he'd shed blood, but he was defending his home and his child against an intruder. On t'other hand, the law allows any man to avenge the violation of his wife, and the dead man's lawyers argued that he were doing just that.
Morally speaking, this notion sheds the spots lights on the ideologies that Pullman is providing within his book.
Witches in Pullman's 'world' also differ from Lewis' White Witch who is a purely evil character. The witch who kills Will's father, for example, does so not out of malevolence but because of a broken heart' Squires In this notion, Pullman tends to disclaim the old accusation of 'bad witches' which the Church used to promote during the 16th and 17th century in Europe. Also, he mentions again the issue of tolerating death depending on the circumstances and intentions.
Besides religious and ethical issues, Northern Lights 'denounces the Church and its Oblation Board [. Northern Lights is not only the adventure of young Lyra in a fantastic world, it is also the motif of child from the phase of innocence to that of experience.
Some readers say that daemons in the story are presentation of a person's sexuality. Daemons are animals who change constantly, yet they obtain their constant shape when the child reaches puberty. In such way, Rihane 7 Daemons can be interpreted as the child's sexual awakening and as children's shift from 'innocence to experience'. They were captured She felt those hands It wasn't allowed Not supposed to touch Similar to Tolkien, Lewis, and Rowling, Pullman has succeeded in amusing readers from all ages.
Northern Lights tells the adventure of a young girl, Lyra, who goes on a quest in what seems to be an alternative world that contains witches, talking animals, and magic. The element of fantastic in the novel served its 'delighting' goal. On another hand, Pullman's work seems not to be free of the ideologies of sexuality, morality, and religion. Whether intentionally or not, the first book of His Dark Materials trilogy raises many questions of what is 'good' and 'bad' while most of the ideologies it discusses are considered for granted 'bad', like that of murder and witches.
Northern Lights is more than just an adventure in a fantastic world, it is the journey of a child from innocence to experience. Therefore, Pullman's novel can be considered as being intrusive on some levels and may be seen by conservatives as downright sinister. London: Palgrave Macmillan, Cuthew, Lucy Marie.
Fully Booked: The Whitbread judges made the right choice. Philip Pullman's extraordinary novels are not just for children. The Guardian.