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Dashed Hopes The Criminalization of Peaceful Expression in Myanmar A demonstrator shouts from inside a prison van after being detained by Myanmar police during an anti-war protest in Yangon, May 12, Parliament itself included new members who were former political prisoners, and there was reason to hope the government would implement far-reaching reforms to laws and policies that had long restricted freedom of expression and assembly in the country. That optimism has proved unfounded. With limited exceptions, parliament has thus far failed to make substantive changes to most of the laws used against speech and assembly. Instead, it has often done the opposite, strengthening some abusive laws and enacting at least one law imposing new restrictions on speech. If there is no law, they can make a new one and charge you with that.
Pyathadar Pyathatgyi Temple Pyathadar Temple is a double-cave type monument.
Most of these kinds of monasteries were built out of wood. But some were built out of bricks and testify to the power of these monasteries. The architectural design explains the expansion of vaults and broad corridors which made it possible to pass from one building to the other. This monastery has Indian influence.
It even contains a hall of ordination and a small palate. There are the same sloping roofs, the same terraces, the same corner stupas, the same spire and the same stupa finial. But they are here used in a much more subdued manner than in the Ananda.
A portico in the north, paved with green glazed stones and having niches holding stone reliefs of the life of the Buddha, provides access to the Nagayon. Within the temple itself, the central shrine contains a huge standing image of the Buddha protected by the hood of a naga serpent. Two smaller images flank the main one.
A corridor, also paved with green glazed stones, runs around the central shrine. Pahto Thamya Temple Although it is traditionally believed that Pahto Thamya pagoda was one of the five pagodas which King Taung Thu Gyi built, its designs and inner mural paintings indicate that it could belong to the time of King Saw Lu or King Kyansittha. In any case, it is a cave pagoda of early period of Bagan. The dome-like sloping roof of this pagoda is one architectural characteristic of early Bagan monuments.
Resting on a platform, the temple is square in plan, with porches projecting on all four sides, and with the main entrance in the east. The superstructure consists of receding terraces, with crenellated parapets and small stupas at the corners, surmounted by a curvilinear spire which is crowned by a stupa. The Late Style makes for a bright interior, where there are remnants of murals portraying the 28 Buddhas of the Past, scenes from the Jatakas, and the Final Life of Gotama Buddha.
Unfortunately, many of the murals have been lost in whitewash. Before Kyansittha became king, he had to flee and hide himself from his enemy King Saw Lu. While he was hiding at the place where Naga Yon Paya now is, his queen Abeyadana brought food to him. When he became king he built this Pagoda in honour of his queen. The Pagoda was built on the very place where she brought food for him. The ink inscription inside Thet-taw shey Pagoda on the south-east, records the history of Abe-yadana Pagoda.
Thinganyone Temple Thiganyone Temple is a cave-type and Indian style monument. Po Thu Gyi or the chieftain of Po village donated this temple. There is a stone tablet inscribing the chieftain's donation of the land and donation of slaves to the temple. As by the legend, the name of the temple was taken from the place where the Aris where they put their Thingan or robe, after playing. It was built by Narathihapate also known as the king who fled from the Mongolian invasion.
This is the meaning of Tayok Pye in Myanmar. The king was not able to complete the temple. It is a beautiful temple decorated with much smoothness, and which does not show this king directing an empire in crumbs.
The temple has two levels. It can be imagined surrounded by a superstructure out of wood.
The enamelled decoration is particularly interesting with many plates intended to receive the jatakas. The characters in stucco who decorate his frontage are enough rare to be mentioned. It has a double vaulted corridors and a sikhara. The earthquake of brought down the sikhara and the upper vaulted corridor. The Pagoda faces east. There are mural paintings in the devotional hall of the first storey.
Like other temples, the ceiling was adorned with pictures of the Buddha's foot prints. It has hugely disrupted my personal, family and professional life. In any society, a monk who encourages murder would have been arrested. Instead, I have been arrested. He was not happy with the satire, saying it would harm military unity. I explained that that was not our purpose—we were just making a satire about a movie.
It was a movie shown to the public, and everyone can say freely their feelings on the movie.
He did not accept my explanation. Tun Tun Oo filed a complaint with the Press Council. After waiting for several hours, they were told that they were under arrest. The case against British Ko Ko Maung was dismissed on June 16 because he had nothing to do with posting the article, which originally came out in print form, on the website. Rather than seek a correction or retraction of the article, Phyo Min Thein held a press conference to deny any wrongdoing and announced that he was filing a section 66 d complaint against the journalists.
When this case happened, they sued and sent us to prison. Also we have the media law, but they used 66 d so there would be no bail. We were shocked and disappointed—this is not a military government, and yet this happened. We felt this was consistent with media ethics—if you made a mistake you apologize in the newspaper.
Use of Section 66 d Against Non-Journalists Section 66 d has also been used against politicians and ordinary citizens who have criticized the military or government on social media. Below are a few examples of such cases. Two weeks later he was formally charged with violating section 66 d.
When they came, I was surprised. Myo Yan Naung Thein is critical of the law under which he was convicted: We need to protect people from being abused on social media—like nude photos of a former girlfriend. But laws are to protect people, not to use to take action for political reasons.
What is wrong with posting against her? It is their right. During the play, a news agency called Oxygen interviewed supporters of conflict in Myanmar. They said that those wives can be happy with other men while their husbands are going to battle.
They also mentioned that soldiers can rape if the wars are going on. Prosecution for Insulting Aung San Suu Kyi, Min Aung Hlaing, and Wirathu In some cases, individuals have been prosecuted for posts they assert they did not make—a defense that can be hard to prove given the prevalent lack of technical knowledge on the part of lawyers, police, and judges. The police said that the profile on the post was in my name and detained me. I showed the police. They still detained me.
The court did not accept that. In the phone you can check when I took or saved photos. The court needs to have guidelines and training on electronic evidence.
Then they will get the real answer. Myo Aye, an activist with Solidarity of Trade Union Myanmar, uploaded photos of a protest by garment workers over conditions at their factory to her Facebook page. She also uploaded news articles about the protest. The garment company sued her for defamation, alleging violation of section 66 d.
I must not be sued for posting about labor abuses at the garment factory with 66 d. She deleted the post several hours later after the relative called her to complain. Nevertheless, a few days later, the relative filed a defamation complaint with the police and A. However, according to A. There, according to A.
For more than a year, nothing happened. Then, in February , the relative told A. Now I am afraid because I have to come to court every two weeks. The law is in my mouth. When I was pregnant, I worried about being put in jail. Now I have a baby and I worry about being put in jail. I run a small tea shop and it is hard having to come to court. The case was finally dismissed the second week of October, more than two years after it was filed.
Based on my experience coming to court every two weeks, the Myanmar judicial system is all about money. While used much less frequently than section 66 d of the Telecommunications Law, which carries a heavier sentence and was, until August , non-bailable, these Penal Code provisions are still invoked when the alleged defamation did not involve use of a telecommunications device.
Prosecution for Satirical Anti-War Play As discussed above, nine students were prosecuted for defamation under section of the Penal Code for performing a satirical anti-war play as part of a peace movement event at the Pathein Hotel on January 9, Aung Myo Khaing filed a defamation complaint against the students who took part in the play. Eight of the students were convicted in April He prayed " May the white umbrella incline towards the son who deserves to be Crown Prince.
When Zeya Theinkha became king he built this Pagoda on the site of the white umbrella that inclined toward him. This Pagoda is one of 90 religious monuments located within the city walls. It is situated close to the Ayeyarwady River. Legend has it that this king had commited a sin against his ancestors by thinking that they were not as grate as he. At the advice of the Brahmen astrologers at the court, king made idols of his ancestors and placed them on the thrones. The King worshipped them asking forgiveness for his sin.
He regained his sight. On the place where this ceremony took place was built Gawdaw Palin Pagoda. The name Gawdaw Palin literally means "the throne which was worshipped. This pagoda lies south of Manuha Image. It is one of four Bagan monuments built of sandstones.
In it collapsed due to old age. Only photographic record of it remains. The architectural structure of Nan Paya Pagoda is unique. The inner walls were built of baked bricks whereas the outer walls were built of sandstones. It was built on the palace site where King Manuha, king of Thaton had resided. The date of its building was guessed either late A.
The name chosen —Culamcini in Pali, meaning "Crowning Jewel"- was a particularly sacred one, being the name of the reliquary monument in the celestial abode of Tavatimsa in which was enshrined the holy hair of the Buddha when, as Prince Siddhattha, he cut it off to renounce the world and set out on a life of asceticism. The chronicles also record how Narapatisithu settled on a site for the temple. It is said that once, when Narapatisithu was returning from climbing Mount Tuywin, he chancedupon a ruby shining radiantly in a hollow.
This image is sheltered in a temple that stands near Myin Kaba village. It was made in A. The lithic inscription which recorded its history is now kept in the shed inside the Mandalay Palace Cily.
Acording to that inscription the Manuha Buddha Image was made and dedicated by Manuha, king of Thaton. His regnal title was "Thiritivavanaditya pavara thudhamma raja. With that money the king made a big Buddha on a highland named "Thiri Zeya Bumi" which was on the north-east of Loka Nanda, the jetty where the sacred Buddha's tooth relic arrived. He did this religious merit in cause he wished to attain Nivirna. But before attaining Nivirna, during the course of Samsara Cycle of endless rebirths he wished he would also be king whom enemies could never conquer.
It was built in A. Lines 30 to 32 of the Pali inscription of Mya Zedi stone pillar tell us that Yaza Kumaya was the Prince as well as Amat Kyi High Official and that he built a cave pagoda with a gold finial and cast a gold image of Buddha.
Since Myin Kaba Gupyauk-Gyi Pagoda is the only cave pagoda in the neighbourhood of the Mya zedi stone pillar, it is safe to assume that it was the very cave pagoda which Prince Yaza Kumaya built and in which he enshrined the gold image of Buddha. Myin Kaba Gupyauk-Gyi Pagoda is noted for a variety of artworks which ornamented it.
Amongst over surviving monuments in Bagan, this Pagoda is the one which is closely identical with the Maha Bodhi Pagoda at Bodhgaya in India. The structure has two tiers of vaulted corridors. In the thick wall on the southern side is a spiral stairway going up. Iike the Maha Bodhi at Bodhgaya, this pagoda faces East and there is in the ground floor a Buddha image with the right hand in earth-touching posture and a similar one in upper storey.
There are several niches on the faces of the Sikhara. Inside them are Buddha statues with different postures- standing, sitting, and reclining, totalling statues. Winido, it is a group of temples. This place is seldomly visited and difficult to access. However some of these temples are interesting. Inside the Winido Temple are very remarkable paintings. These paintings are in the style of the late period of Bagan, decorative, delicate but also rather extravagant.
They are in the contents similar to other paintings of the zone of Minnanthu. There are paintings of Jatakas on the walls of the entrance and the footprint of the Buddha on the vault of entry. Brahma and Sakka protect the entry. Two Bodhisattvas keep the furnace bridge, whereas the horoscope of the life of the Buddha appears on the vault. Lawkahteikpan is a small temple close to the large pagoda Shwesandaw and built by King Alaungsithu, the successor of Kyanzittha.
Lawkahteikpan means "The adorned tip of the world". It has been one of Bagan's great constructions and the small temple was being decorated with pure jewels.
The architectural style of the temple is typical for the intermediate period. It is thought that this temple dates from the middle of the 12th century. Pyathadar Temple is a double-cave type monument. Most of these kinds of monasteries were built out of wood.
But some were built out of bricks and testify to the power of these monasteries. The architectural design explains the expansion of vaults and broad corridors which made it possible to pass from one building to the other. This monastery has Indian influence.
It even contains a hall of ordination and a small palate. The Nagayon, built by King Kyansittha , foreshadows his crowning achievement, the Ananda.
There are the same sloping roofs, the same terraces, the same corner stupas, the same spire and the same stupa finial.