⬋Simplifying Boolean expressions. ◇ Today's lecture. ▫ Logic gates and truth tables. ▫ Implementing logic functions. ▫ CMOS switches. 2. CSE, Lecture 4. INTRODUCTIN. A logic gate can be defined as digital circuit which either allows a signal to pass through or stops it. These gates are related to Boolean. Algebra. gates, the application of Boolean algebra to digital circuitry, and transistor- transistor following: logic states, gates, truth tables, logic functions, gating networks.

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Physics Investigatory project Class 12 on topic Logic Gates. DOWNLOAD FULL PDF EBOOK here { ronaldweinland.info }. . Truth Table: A logic gate may have one or more than one inputs, but it has only one. LOGIC GATES AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 20 Logic Gates INTRODUCTION A logic gate is an elementary building block of a digital circuit. It makes “logical. 3 days ago PDF | On Jun 9, , Mohammed Qasim Taha and others published [Lab 1]. Basic logic Gates (AND, OR, and NOT gates) Objectives. 15+ million members; + million publications; k+ research projects. Join for free.

Digital logic gates may have more than one input but generally only have one digital output. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. Knowledge Cloud A gate is a digital circuit that is designed for performance a particular logical operation. The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. Individual logic gates can be connected together to form combinational or sequential circuits or larger logic gate functions. Different types of logic gate implements different Boolean function, that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device.

The resistance of the coil is assumed to be zero. If Ep be the e. Then, the induced e. Efficiency: The efficiency of the transformer is given by: If Ip and Is be the currents in the primary and secondary circuits. In practice, the output energy of a transformer is always less than the input energy, because energy losses occur due to a number of reasons as explained below.

Loss of Magnetic Flux: The coupling between the coils is seldom perfect. So, whole of the magnetic flux produced by the primary coil is not linked up with the secondary coil. Iron Loss: In actual iron cores in spite of lamination, Eddy currents are produced. The magnitude of eddy current may, however be small. And a part of energy is lost as the heat produced in the iron core. An AND gate can be realize by the electronic circuit, making use of two diodes D1 and D2 as shown in the figure. The resistance R is connected to the positive terminal of a 5V battery permanently.

The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: A NOT gate cannot be realized by using diodes. However an electronic circuit of NOT gate can be realized by making use of a n-p-n transistor as shown in the figure.

The base B of the transistor is connected to the input A through a resistance Rb and the emitter E is earthed. The collector is connected to 5V battery. The following conclusion can be easily drawn from the working of the electrical circuit: Input Output A Y 0 1 1 0.

Two ideal p-n junction diode D1 and D2 , an ideal n-p-n transistor. Two ideal p-n junction diode D1 and D2 , a resistance R, an ideal n- p-n transistor.

The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit: It means if A and B are not identical i. This transformer converts high voltage at alternating current into low voltage alternating current. In step-down transformer the number of turns in primary coil remains large as compare to secondary coil. This transformer converts low voltage at alternating current into high voltage alternating current.

In step-up transformer the number of turns in secondary coil remains large as compare to primary coil. The transformer consists of two coils. They are. The resistance of the coil is assumed to be zero. If Ep be the e.

Then, the induced e. In practice, the output energy of a transformer is always less than the input energy, because energy losses occur due to a number of reasons as explained below. Loss of Magnetic Flux: The coupling between the coils is seldom perfect. So, whole of the magnetic flux produced by the primary coil is not linked up with the secondary coil.

Iron Loss: In actual iron cores in spite of lamination, Eddy currents are produced. The magnitude of eddy current may, however be small. And a part of energy is lost as the heat produced in the iron core.

Copper Loss: In practice, the coils of the transformer possess resistance. Hysteresis Loss: The alternating current in the coil tapes the iron core through complete cycle of magnetization.

So Energy is lost due to hysteresis. Magneto restriction: The alternating current in the Transformer may be set its parts in to vibrations and sound may be produced. It is called humming.

Thus, a part of energy may be. Developed At: Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. The symbol for a 2 input NOR gate is as follows. XNOR gate: A HIGH output 1 results if both of the inputs to the gate are the same. The symbol for a 2 input XNOR gate is as follows. EXOR gate. XOR represents the inequality function, i.

A way to remember XOR is "one or the other but not both". The symbol for a 2 input EXOR gate is as follows. B Using combinations of logic gates, complex operations can be performed. In theory, there is no limit to the number of gates that can be arrayed together in a single device.

But in practice, there is a limit to the number of gates that can be packed into a given physical space. Arrays of logic gates are found in digital integrated circuits ICs.

As IC technology advances, the required physical volume for each individual logic gate decreases and digital devices of the same or smaller size become capable of performing ever-more-complicated operations at ever-increasing speeds.

Summary of 2-input Logic Gates The following Truth Table compares the logical functions of the 2- input logic gates above. In digital circuits, these gates serve as digital building blocks.

Knowledge Cloud Charles Sanders Peirce winter of —81 showed that NOR gates alone or alternatively NAND gates alone can be used to reproduce the functions of all the other logic gates, but his work on it was unpublished until The first published proof was by Henry M. An IC can function as an amplifier, oscillator, timer, counter, computer memory, or microprocessor.

For example, a simple AND gate my contain only a few individual transistors, were as a more complex microprocessor may contain many thousands of individual transistor gates. A particular IC is categorized as either linear analog or digital, depending on its intended application.

Medium Scale Integration or MSI — between 10 and transistors or tens of gates within a single package and perform digital operations such as adders, decoders, counters, flip-flops and multiplexers. Very-Large Scale Integration or VLSI — between 1, and 10, transistors or thousands of gates and perform computational operations such as processors, large memory arrays and programmable logic devices.

Miniature in size. As fabrication process is used for the integration of active and passive components on to a silicon chip, the IC becomes a lot smaller.

When compared to a discrete circuit, it may be at least a thousand times smaller. Due to small size, the weight of the IC also reduces, when compared to the discrete circuit.

To produce hundreds of discrete circuits on a PCB Printed circuit board for the same logic takes more time and increase the cost factor. But for the production of hundreds of ICs the cost of production will be very low and less time consuming. The PCB Printed circuit board consisting soldered joints will be less reliable. The small size of ICs causes lesser power consumption and lesser power loss.

In a discrete circuitry, if a single transistor becomes faulty, the whole circuit may fail to work. This transistor has to be desoldered and replaced. It is difficult to find out which component has failed.

This problem can be omitted in an IC by replacing an entire IC as it is low in cost. Increased operating speed because of absence of parasitic capacitance is an unavoidable and usually unwanted capacitance that exists between the parts of an electronic component or circuit simply because of their proximity to each other effect. Improved functional performance as more complex circuits can be fabricated for achieving better characteristics.

As all the components are fabricated inside the chip, there will not be any external projections. Demerits of Integrated Circuits 1.

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