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emphasizing empiricism is that the Introduction to Psychology course represents many students' best opportunity to .. Source: Stangor, C. (). Research. by Stangor, Charles Introduction to Cognitive Psychology - Psychological Sciences Assessment Instruments large array of evidence-handling pdf . Intro to Psychology by Charles Stangor - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. The development of Introduction to.
Supplements are available for instructors who have registered their adoption with us. If you need to review or preview something specific, please contact us. Already registered? Sign in here Instructor Manual The Instructor Manual in Word format will help guide you through the main concepts of each chapter such as learning objectives, key terms and takeaways. Many also include explanations and answers to chapter exercises. PowerPoint Lecture Notes A PowerPoint presentation highlighting key learning objectives and the main concepts for each chapter are available for you to use in your classroom. You can either cut and paste sections or use the presentation as a whole.
Figure 1. The questions psychologists pose are as difficult as those posed by doctors, biologists, chemists, physicists, and other scientists, if not more so Wilson, Making predictions is difficult in part because people vary and respond differently in different situations.
Individual differences are the variations among people on physical or psychological dimensions. For instance, although many people experience at least some symptoms of depression at some times in their lives, the experience varies dramatically among people.
Some people experience major negative events, such as severe physical injuries or the loss of significant others, without experiencing much depression, whereas other people experience severe depression for no apparent reason.
Other important individual differences that we will discuss in the chapters to come include differences in extraversion, intelligence, self-esteem, anxiety, aggression, and conformity. Because of the many individual difference variables that influence behavior, we cannot always predict who will become aggressive or who will perform best in graduate school or on the job. The predictions made by psychologists and most other scientists are only probabilistic. We can say, for instance, that people who score higher on an intelligence test will, on average, do better than people who score lower on the same test, but we cannot make very accurate predictions about exactly how any one person will perform.
Another reason that it is difficult to predict behavior is that almost all behavior is multiply determined, or produced by many factors. And these factors occur at different levels of explanation. We have seen, for instance, that depression is caused by lower-level genetic factors, by medium-level personal factors, and by higher-level social and cultural factors. You should always be skeptical about people who attempt to explain important human behaviors, such as violence, child abuse, poverty, anxiety, or depression, in terms of a single cause.
This overlap makes it difficult to pinpoint which cause or causes are operating. For instance, some people may be depressed because of biological imbalances in neurotransmitters in their brain. The resulting depression may lead them to act more negatively toward other people around them, which then leads those other people to respond more negatively to them, which then increases their depression.
As a result, the biological determinants of depression become intertwined with the social responses of other people, making it difficult to disentangle the effects of each cause. Another difficulty in studying psychology is that much human behavior is caused by factors that are outside our conscious awareness, making it impossible for us, as individuals, to really understand them. The role of unconscious processes was emphasized in the theorizing of the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud , who argued that many psychological disorders were caused by memories that we have repressed and thus remain outside our consciousness.
Unconscious processes will be an important part of our study of psychology, and we will see that current research has supported many of Freuds ideas about the importance of the unconscious in guiding behavior. Though it is easy to think that everyday situations have commonsense answers, scientific studies have found that people are not always as good at predicting outcomes as they think they are.
The hindsight bias leads us to think that we could have predicted events that we actually could not have predicted. People are frequently unaware of the causes of their own behaviors. Psychologists use the scientific method to collect, analyze, and interpret evidence. Employing the scientific method allows the scientist to collect empirical data objectively, which adds to the accumulation of scientific knowledge.
Can you think of a time when you used your intuition to analyze an outcome, only to be surprised later to find that your explanation was completely incorrect? Did this surprise help you understand how intuition may sometimes lead us astray? Describe the scientific method in a way that someone who knows nothing about science could understand it. Consider a behavior that you find to be important and think about its potential causes at different levels of explanation.
How do you think psychologists would study this behavior? Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment.
The psychology of interpersonal relations. Attribution theory in social psychology. Levine Ed. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Expert testimony regarding eyewitness identification. Skeem, S. Douglas Eds. Eyewitness identification: Issues in common knowledge and generalization. Fiske Eds. Malden, NJ: Blackwell. How we know what isnt so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. Social cognition: From brains to culture. Decision and experience: Why dont we choose what makes us happy?
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10 1 , Name letter branding: Valence transfers when product specific needs are active. Journal of Consumer Research, 32 3 , Multilevel integrative analyses of human behavior: Social neuroscience and the complementing nature of social and biological approaches.
Psychological Bulletin, 6 , Relapse rates with long-term antidepressant drug therapy: A meta-analysis. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental, 24 5 , Biological variations in depression and anxiety between East and West.
Archives of General Psychiatry, 66 7 , Consilience: The unity of knowledge. Explain how psychology changed from a philosophical to a scientific discipline. List some of the most important questions that concern psychologists. Outline the basic schools of psychology and how each school has contributed to psychology. In this section we will review the history of psychology with a focus on the important questions that psychologists ask and the major approaches or schools of psychological inquiry.
The schools of psychology that we will review are summarized in Table 1. Although most early psychologists were men, now most psychologists, including the presidents of the most important psychological organizations, are women.
Titchener memories and our early childhood experiences in determining behavior Alfred Adler, Erik Erickson Based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to John B. Watson, B.
Some of these questions follow, and we will discuss them both in this chapter and in the chapters to come: Nature versus nurture. Are genes or environment most influential in determining the behavior of individuals and in accounting for differences among people? Most scientists now agree that both genes and environment play crucial roles in most human behaviors, and yet we still have much to learn about how nature our biological makeup and nurture the experiences that we have during our lives work together Harris, ; Pinker, We will see, for example, that the heritability of intelligence is very high about.
But we will also see that nature and nurture interact in complex ways, making the question of Is it nature or is it nurture? Free will versus determinism. This question concerns the extent to which people have control over their own actions. Are we the products of our environment, guided by forces out of our control, or are we able to choose the behaviors we engage in? Most of us like to believe in free will, that we are able to do what we wantfor instance, that we could get up right now and go fishing.
And our legal system is premised on the concept of free will; we punish criminals because we believe that they have choice over their behaviors and freely choose to disobey the law.
But as we will discuss later in the research focus in this section, recent research has suggested that we may have less control over our own behavior than we think we do Wegner, To what extent are humans good information processors?
Although it appears that people are good enough to make sense of the world around them and to make decent decisions Fiske, , they are far from perfect.
For instance, our judgment may be affected by our desires to gain material wealth and to see ourselves positively and by emotional responses to the events that happen to us.
Conscious versus unconscious processing. To what extent are we conscious of our own actions and the causes of them, and to what extent are our behaviors caused by influences that we are not aware of? Many of the major theories of psychology, ranging from the Freudian psychodynamic theories to contemporary work in cognitive psychology, argue that much of our behavior is determined by variables that we are not aware of.
Differences versus similarities. To what extent are we all similar, and to what extent are we different? For instance, are there basic psychological and personality differences between men and women, or are men and women by and large similar?
And what about people from different ethnicities and cultures? Are people around the world generally the same, or are they influenced by their backgrounds and environments in different ways? Personality, social, and cross-cultural psychologists attempt to answer these classic questions. These philosophers asked many of the same questions that todays psychologists ask; for instance, they questioned the distinction between nature and nurture and the existence of free will.
In terms of the former, Plato argued on the nature side, believing that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn, whereas Aristotle was more on the nurture side, believing that each child is born as an empty slate in Latin atabula rasa and that knowledge is primarily acquired through learning and experience.
European philosophers continued to ask these fundamental questions during the Renaissance.
For instance, the French philosopher Ren Descartes also considered the issue of free will, arguing in its favor and believing that the mind controls the body through the pineal gland in the brain an idea that made some sense at the time but was later proved incorrect. A scientist as well as a philosopher, Descartes dissected animals and was among the first to understand that the nerves controlled the muscles.
He also addressed the relationship between mind the mental aspects of life and body the physical aspects of life. Descartes believed in the principle ofdualism: that the mind is fundamentally different from the mechanical body.
Other European philosophers, including Thomas Hobbes , John Locke , and Jean-Jacques Rousseau , also weighed in on these issues. The fundamental problem that these philosophers faced was that they had few methods for settling their claims. Most philosophers didnt conduct any research on these questions, in part because they didnt yet know how to do it, and in part because they werent sure it was even possible to objectively study human experience.
But dramatic changes came during the s with the help of the first two research psychologists: the German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt , who developed a psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany, and the American psychologist William James , who founded a psychology laboratory at Harvard University.
Structuralism: Introspection and the Awareness of Subjective Experience Wundts research in his laboratory in Liepzig focused on the nature of consciousness itself.
Wundt and his students believed that it was possible to analyze the basic elements of the mind and to classify our conscious experiences scientifically.
Wundt began the field known as structuralism, a school of psychology whose goal was to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience. Its goal was to create a periodic table of the elements of sensations, similar to the periodic table of elements that had recently been created in chemistry. Structuralists used the method of introspection to attempt to create a map of the elements of consciousness.
A participant who is reading a book might report, for instance, that he saw some black and colored straight and curved marks on a white background. In other studies the structuralists used newly invented reaction time instruments to systematically assess not only what the participants were thinking but how long it took them to do so.
Wundt discovered that it took people longer to report what sound they had just heard than to simply respond that they had heard the sound. These studies marked the first time researchers realized that there is a difference between the sensation of a stimulus and theperception of that stimulus, and the idea of using reaction times to study mental events has now become a mainstay of cognitive psychology.
Perhaps the best known of the structuralists was Edward Bradford Titchener Titchener was a student of Wundt who came to the United States in the late s and founded a laboratory at Cornell University. In his research using introspection, Titchener and his students claimed to have identified more than 40, sensations, including those relating to vision, hearing, and taste.
An important aspect of the structuralist approach was that it was rigorous and scientific. The research marked the beginning of psychology as a science, because it demonstrated that mental events could be quantified.
But the structuralists also discovered the limitations of introspection. Even highly trained research participants were often unable to report on their subjective experiences. When the participants were asked to do simple math problems, they could easily do them, but they could not easily answer how they did them.
Thus the structuralists were the first to realize the importance of unconscious processesthat many important aspects of human psychology occur outside our conscious awareness, and that psychologists cannot expect research participants to be able to accurately report on all of their experiences.
As he put it in his psychology textbook, My thinking is first and last and always for the sake of my doing James, The functionalists believed that Darwins theory applied to psychological characteristics too. Just as some animals have developed strong muscles to allow them to run fast, the human brain, so functionalists thought, must have adapted to serve a particular function in human experience.
Although functionalism no longer exists as a school of psychology, its basic principles have been absorbed into psychology and continue to influence it in many ways. As we will see in the chapters to come, evolutionary psychologists use evolutionary theory to understand many different behaviors including romantic attraction, stereotypes and prejudice, and even the causes of many psychological disorders. A key component of the ideas of evolutionary psychology is fitness.
Fitness refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic. Fitter organisms pass on their genes more successfully to later generations, making the characteristics that produce fitness more likely to become part of the organisms nature than characteristics that do not produce fitness.
For example, it has been argued that the emotion of jealousy has survived over time in men because men who experience jealousy are more fit than men who do not. One problem is that many of its predictions are extremely difficult to test. Unlike the fossils that are used to learn about the physical evolution of species, we cannot know which psychological characteristics our ancestors possessed or did not possess; we can only make guesses about this.
Psychodynamic Psychology Perhaps the school of psychology that is most familiar to the general public is the psychodynamic approach to understanding behavior, which was championed by Sigmund Freud and his followers. Psychodynamic psychology is an approach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories.
Freud developed his theories about behavior through extensive analysis of the patients that he treated in his private clinical practice. Freud believed that many of the problems that his patients experienced, including anxiety, depression, and sexual dysfunction, were the result of the effects of painful childhood experiences that the person could no longer remember.
Freuds ideas were extended by other psychologists whom he influenced, including Carl Jung , Alfred Adler , Karen Horney , and Erik Erikson These and others who follow the psychodynamic approach believe that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the persons early sexual experiences and current sexual desires. The founders of the school of psychodynamics were primarily practitioners who worked with individuals to help them understand and confront their psychological symptoms.
Behaviorism and the Question of Free Will Although they differed in approach, both structuralism and functionalism were essentially studies of the mind.
The psychologists associated with the school of behaviorism, on the other hand, were reacting in part to the difficulties psychologists encountered when they tried to use introspection to understand behavior. Behaviorism is a school of psychology that is based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself.
Behaviorists believe that the human mind is a black box into which stimuli are sent and from which responses are received. They argue that there is no point in trying to determine what happens in the box because we can successfully predict behavior without knowing what happens inside the mind.
Furthermore, behaviorists believe that it is possible to develop laws of learning that can explain all behaviors. The first behaviorist was the American psychologist John B. Watson Watson was influenced in large part by the work of the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov , who had discovered that dogs would salivate at the sound of a tone that had previously been associated with the presentation of food.
For instance, in Pavlovs research the stimulus either the food or, after learning, the tone would produce the response of salivation in the dogs. Here is a summary of the findings: The boy was placed in the middle of a room; a white laboratory rat was placed near him and he was allowed to play with it.
The child showed no fear of the rat. In later trials, the researchers made a loud sound behind Alberts back by striking a steel bar with a hammer whenever the baby touched the rat.
The child cried when he heard the noise.
After several such pairings of the two stimuli, the child was again shown the rat. Now, however, he cried and tried to move away from the rat. In line with the behaviorist approach, the boy had learned to associate the white rat with the loud noise, resulting in crying.
The most famous behaviorist was Burrhus Frederick B. Skinner , who expanded the principles of behaviorism and also brought them to the attention of the public at large. Skinner used the ideas of stimulus and response, along with the application of rewards or reinforcements, to train pigeons and other animals.
And he used the general principles of behaviorism to develop theories about how best to teach children and how to create societies that were peaceful and productive. Skinner even developed a method for studying thoughts and feelings using the behaviorist approach Skinner, , , In terms of the nature-nurture debate, the behaviorists agreed with the nurture approach, believing that we are shaped exclusively by our environments.
They also argued that there is no free will, but rather that our behaviors are determined by the events that we have experienced in our past. In short, this approach argues that organisms, including humans, are a lot like puppets in a show who dont realize that other people are controlling them.
Furthermore, although we do not cause our own actions, we nevertheless believe that we do because we dont realize all the influences acting on our behavior.
The letter on the screen changed every one-half second. The participants were asked, whenever they decided to, to press either of two buttons. Then they were asked to indicate which letter was showing on the screen when they decided to press the button.
The researchers analyzed the brain images to see if they could predict which of the two buttons the participant was going to press, even before the letter at which he or she had indicated the decision to press a button. Suggesting that the intention to act occurred in the brain before the research participants became aware of it, the researchers found that the prefrontal cortex region of the brain showed activation that could be used to predict the button press as long as 10 seconds before the participants said that they decided which button to press.
Research has found that we are more likely to think that we control our behavior when the desire to act occurs immediately prior to the outcome, when the thought is consistent with the outcome, and when there are no other apparent causes for the behavior. Aarts, Custers, and Wegner  asked their research participants to control a rapidly moving square along with a computer that was also controlling the square independently. The participants pressed a button to stop the movement.
When participants were exposed to words related to the location of the square just before they stopped its movement, they became more likely to think that they controlled the motion, even when it was actually the computer that stopped it. The idea that we are more likely to take ownership for our actions in some cases than in others is also seen in our attributions for success and failure.
Because we normally expect that our behaviors will be met with success, when we are successful we easily believe that the success is the result of our own free will. Personality Approaches and Measurement Behavioural and Molecular Genetics Defining Psychological Disorders. Defining Psychological Disorders What Makes a Behaviour Abnormal? Fearing the World Around Us Emotions as Illness The Edge of Reality and Consciousness Treating Psychological Disorders.
Treating Psychological Disorders Psychotherapy Drug and Brain Therapy What Works? Psychology in Our Social Lives.
Making Sense of Ourselves and Others Helping, Hurting, and Conforming The Costs and Benefits of Social Groups Stress, Health, and Coping. Health, Stress, and Coping Download this book for free at http: Stangor, C. Introduction to Psychology — 1st Canadian Edition. Victoria, B. Cover image: Skip to content Increase Font Size. Book Title: Introduction to Psychology — 1st Canadian Edition Authors: Read Book.
Book Description This book is designed to help students organize their thinking about psychology at a conceptual level. To facilitate learning outcomes, three techniques have been used: Chapter openers.
The focus on behaviour begins each chapter with an opener showcasing an interesting real-world example of people who are dealing with behavioural questions and who can use psychology to help them answer those questions. The opener is designed to draw the student into the chapter and create an interest in learning about the topic.
Psychology in everyday life. Each chapter contains one or two features designed to link the principles from the chapter to real-world applications in business, environment, health, law, learning, and other relevant domains.
Research focus. Empiricism is also emphasized throughout, but without making it a distraction from the main story line. Each chapter presents one or more close-ups on research — well-articulated and specific examples of research within the content area, each including a summary of the hypotheses, methods, results, and interpretations.
This feature provides a continuous thread that reminds students of the importance of empirical research. The research foci also emphasize the fact that findings are not always predictable ahead of time dispelling the myth of hindsight bias and help students understand how research really works. Authors Charles Stangor and Jennifer Walinga. Subject Psychology. Click for more information.