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ILLUSTRATED LIGHT ON YOGA PDF

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The Illustrated Light on Yoga B. K. S. Iyengar's classic book Lighton Yoga is a comprehensive introduction to yoga with detailed descriptions of over Illustrated Light on Yoga. Home · Illustrated Light on Views 72MB Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali · Read more. Iyengar B. K. S. The Illustrated Light On ronaldweinland.info - Ebook download as PDF File ( .pdf) or read book online.


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'Mr Iyengar's Light on Yoga has, since it was first published over. 25 years ago, enabled This book, The Illustrated Light on Yoga, introduces 57 key äsanas. The. FOREWORD BY YEHUDI MENUHIN. Illustrated. Light on Yoga. An Easy-to- follow Version of the Classic. Introduction to Yoga. FOR SALE IN THE INDIAN. profusely illustrated book on Yoga in English'; it is just that." -CHOICE. "This is the best book on Yoga The introduction to Yoga philosophy alone is worth.

This new concise edition wi ll brin g the basic art of yoga to a much w ider audience and w ill enable it to be practised at the very high est leveL' Yehudi Menuhin The JIIustrated Light on Yoga is a straightforward and comprehensive introduction for the beginner by the acknowledged expert on the subject. Illustrated throughout with 15 0 photographs carefully positioned in the relevant part of the text for easy reference , it includes: He has several million students and has established centres all over the world. Iyengar's classic book Lighton Yoga is a comprehensive introduction to yoga with detailed descriptions of over postures asanas and 14 breathing exercises pranayamas. This book, TheIllustrated Lighton Yoga, introduces 57 key asanas and provides a brief summary of pranayama. The book is illustrated throughout with photographs positioned in the relevant part of the text.

Patanjali enumerates these means as the eight limbs or stages of Yoga for the quest of the soul. They are: Yama universal moral commandments ; Niyama self purification by discipline ; Asana posture ; Pranayama rhythmic control of the breath ; Pratyahara withdrawal and emancipation of the mind from the domination of the senses and exterior objects ; 6. Dharana concentration ; 7. Dhyana meditation ; 8. Samadhi a state of super-consciousness brought about by profound meditation, in which the individual aspirant sadhaka becomes one with the object of his meditation - Paramatma or the Universal Spirit.

Yama and Niyama control the yogi's passions and emotions and keep him in harmony with his fellow man. Asanas keep the body healthy and strong and in harmony with nature. Finally, the yogi becomes free of body consciousness. He conquers the body and renders it a fit vehicle for the soul.

The first three stages are the outward quests bahiranga sadhana. The next two stages, Pranayama and Pratyahara, teach the aspirant to regulate the breathing, and thereby control the mind. This helps to free the senses from the thraldom of the objects of desire. These two stages of Yoga are known as the inner quests antaranga sadhana. The yogi does not look heavenward to find God. The last three stages keep him in harmony with himself and his Maker. These stages are called antaratma sadhana, the quest of the soul.

By profound meditation, the knower, the knowledge and the known become one. The seer, the sight and the seen have no separate existence from each other. It is like a great musician becoming one with his instrument and the music that comes from it.

Then, the yogi stands in his own nature and realizes his self Atman , the part of the Supreme Soul within himself. There are different paths margas by which a man travels to his Maker. The active man finds realization through Karma Marga, in which a man realizes his own divinity through work and duty.

The emotional man finds it through Bhakti Marga, where there is realization through devotion to and love of a personal God.

The intellectual man pursues [fiana, Marga, where realization comes through knowledge. The meditative or reflective man follows Yoga. Marga, and realizes his own divinity through control of the mind.

Happy is the man who knows how to distinguish the real from the unreal, the eternal from the transient and the good from the pleasant by his discrimination and wisdom. Twice blessed is he who knows true love and can love all God's creatures.

He who works selflessly for the welfare of others with love in his heart is thrice blessed. But the man who combines within his mortal frame knowledge, love and selfless service is holy and becomes a place of pilgrimage, like the confluence of the rivers Ganga, Saraswati and [amuna. Those who meet him become calm and purified. Mind is the king of the senses.

One who has conquered his mind, senses, passions, thought and reason is a king among men. He is fit for Raja Yoga, the royal union with the Universal Spirit. He has Inner Light. He who has conquered his mind is Raja Yogi. The word raja means a king.

The expression Raja Yoga implies a complete mastery of the Self. Though Patanjali explains the ways to control the mind, he nowhere states in his aphorisms that this science is Raja Yoga, but calls it Astanga Yoga or the eight stages limbs of Yoga.

As it implies complete mastery of the self one may call it the science of Raja Yoga. It is generally believed that Raja Yoga and Hatha Yoga are entirely distinct, different and opposed to each other, that the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali deal with Spiritual discipline and that the Hatha Yoga Pradfpikd of Swatmarama deals solely with physical discipline. Hatha Yoga and Raja Yoga complement each other and form a single approach towards Liberation.

As a mountaineer needs ladders,. This path of Yoga is the fountain for the other three paths. It brings calmness and tranquillity and prepares the mind for absolute unqualified self-surrender to God, in which all these four paths merge into one. These are: Pramana a standard or ideal ,. Viparyaya a mistaken view which is observed to be such after study.

A faulty medical diagnosis based on wrong hypotheses, or the formerly held theory in astronomy that the Sun rotates round the Earth, are examples of viparyaya. Vikalpa fancy or imagination, resting merely on verbal expression without any factual basis. A beggar may feel happy when he imagines himself spending millions. A rich miser, on the other hand, may starve himself in the belief that he is poor.

Nidra sleep , where there is the absence of ideas and experiences. When a man is sleeping soundly, he does not recall his name, family or status, his knowledge or wisdom, or even his own existence. When a man forgets himself in sleep, he wakes up refreshed. But, if a disturbing thought creeps into his mind when he is dropping off, he will not res!

Smrti memory, the holding fast of the impressions of objects that one has experienced. There are people who live in their past experiences, even though the past is beyond recall. Their sad or happy memories keep them chained to the past and they cannot break their fetters. Patarijali enumerates five causes of chitta vrtti creating pain klesa. Avidya ignorance or nescience ; 2. These causes of pain remain submerged in the mind of the sadhaka the aspirant or seeker.

They are like icebergs barely showing their heads in the polar seas. So long as they are not studiously controlled and eradicated, there can be no peace.

The yogi learns to forget the past and takes no thought for the morrow. He lives in the eternal present. As a breeze ruffles the surface of a lake and distorts the images reflected therein, so also the chitta vrtti disturb the peace of mind.

The still waters of a lake reflect the beauty around it. When the mind is still, the beauty of the Self is seen reflected in it. The yogi stills his mind by constant study and by freeing himself from desires. The eight stages of Yoga teach him the way.

Chitta Viksepa Distractions and Obstacles The distractions and obstacles which hinder the aspirant's practice of Yoga are: Vyadhi - sickness which disturbs the physical equilibrium 2. Styana - languor or lack of mental disposition for work Sarnsaya - doubt or indecision Pramada - indifference or insensibility Alasya - laziness Avirati - sensuality, the rousing of desire when sensory objects possess the mind 7.

Bhranti Darsana - false or invalid knowledge, or illusion 8. Alabdha Bhumikatva - failure to attain continuity of thought or concentration so that reality cannot be seen 9.

Anavasthitattva - instability in holding on to concentration which has been attained after long practice. There are, however, four more distractions: To win a battle, a general surveys the terrain and the enemy and plans counter-measures.

In a similar way the Yogi plans the conquest of the Self. It will be noticed that the very first obstacle is ill-health or sickness. To the yogi his body is the prime instrument of attainment. If his vehicle breaks down, the traveller cannot go far.

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If the body is broken by ill-health, the aspirant can achieve little. Physical health is important for mental development, as normally the mind functions through the nervous system. When the body is sick or the nervous system is affected, the mind becomes restless or dull and inert and concentration or meditation become impossible.

A person suffering from languor has no goat no path to follow and no enthusiasm. His mind and intellect become dull due to inactivity and their faculties rust. Constant flow keeps a mountain stream pure, but water in a ditch stagnates and nothing good can flourish in it.

A listless person is like a living corpse for he can concentrate on nothing. The unwise, the faithless and the doubter destroy them- selves.

How can they enjoy this world or the next or have any happiness? The seeker should have faith in himself and his master. He should have iaith that God is ever by his side and that no evil can touch him. As faith springs up in the heart it dries out lust, ill-wilt mental sloth, spiritual pride and doubt, and the heart free from these hindrances becomes serene and untroubled.

A person suffering from pramada is full of self-importance, lacks any humility and believes that he alone is wise. No doubt he knows what is right or wrong, but he persists in his indifference to the right and chooses what is pleasant. To gratify his selfish passions and dreams of personal glory, he will deliberately and without scruple sacrifice everyone who stands in his way.

Such a person is blind of God's glory and deaf to His words. To remove the obstacle of laziness, unflagging enthusiasm virya is needed. The attitude of the aspirant is like that of a lover ever yearning to meet the beloved but never giving way to despair. Hope should be his shield and courage his sword.

He should be free from hate and sorrow. With faith and enthusiasm he should overcome the inertia of the body and the mind.

This is the tremendous craving for sensory objects after they have been consciously abandoned, which is so hard to restrain. Without being attached to the objects of sense, the yogi learns to enjoy them with the aid of the senses which are completely under his control. By the practice of pratyahara he wins freedom from attachment and emancipation from desire and becomes content and tranquil.

Bhrdnii Darsana. A person afflicted by false knowledge suffers from delusion and believes that he alone has seen the true Light. He has a powerful intellect but lacks humility and makes a show of wisdom.

By remaining in the company of great souls and through their guidance he sets his foot firmly on the right path and overcomes his weakness.

Alabdha Bhumikaioa. As a mountain climber fails to reach the summit for lack of stamina, so also a person who cannot overcome the inability to concentrate is unable to seek reality. He might have had glimpses of reality but he cannot see clearly.

He is like a musician who has heard divine music in a dream, but who is unable to recall it in his waking moments and cannot repeat the dream. A person affected with anavasthitattva has by hard work come within sight of reality.

Happy and proud of his achievements he becomes slack in his practice sadhana. He has purity and great power of concentration and has come to the final cross-roads of his quest. Even at this last stage continuous endeavour is essential and he has to pursue the path with infinite patience and determined perseverance and must never show slackness which hampers progress on the path of God realization. He must wait until divine grace descends upon him. It has been said in the Kathopanisad: Verily to such a one the Self reveals His true being.

To overcome the obstacles and to win unalloyed happiness, Patafijali offered several remedies. The best of these is the fourfold remedy of Maitri friendliness , Karuna compassion , Mudita delight and Upeksa disregard.

Maitri is not merely friendliness, but also a feeling of oneness with the object of friendliness atmiyata. A mother feels intense happiness at the success of her children because of atmiyata, a feeling of oneness. Patanjali recommends maitri for sukha happiness or virtue. The yogi cultivates maitri and atmiyata for the good and turns enemies into friends, bearing malice towards none.

Karuna is not merely showing pity or compassion and shedding tears of despair at the misery duhkha of others. It is compassion coupled with devoted action to relieve the misery of the afflicted.

The yogi uses all his resources - physical, economic, mental or moral- to alleviate the pain and suffering of others. He shares his strength with the weak until they become strong. He shares his courage with those that are timid until they become brave by his example.

He denies the maxim of the 'survival of the fittest', but makes the weak strong enough to survive. He becomes a shelter to one and all. Mudita is a feeling of delight at the good work punya done by another, even though he may be a rival. Through mudita, the yogi saves himself from much heart-burning by not showing anger, hatred or jealousy for another who has reached the desired goal which he himself has failed to achieve.

It is not merely a feeling of disdain or contempt for the person who has fallen into vice apunya or one of indifference or superiority towards him. It is a searching self-examination to find out how one would have behaved when faced with the same temptations. It is also an examination to see how far one is responsible for the state into which the unfortunate one has fallen and the attempt thereafter to put him on the right path. The yogi understands the faults of others by seeing and studying them first in himself.

This self-study teaches him to be charitable to all. The deeper significance of the fourfold remedy of maitri, karuna, mudita and upeksa cannot be felt by an unquiet mind. My experience has led me to conclude that for an ordinary man or woman in any community of the world, the way to achieve a quiet mind is to work with determination on two of the eight stages of Yoga mentioned by Patafijali, namely, asana and pranayama.

The mind manas and the breath prana are intimately connected and the activity or the cessation of activity of one affects the other. Hence Patanjali recommended pranayama rhythmic breath control for achieving mental equipoise and inner peace. They are 1 mrdu feeble , 2 madhyama average , 3 adhimatra superior and 4 adhimatratama the supreme one.

The last, the highest, is alone able to cross beyond the ocean of the manifest world. The feeble seekers are those who lack enthusiasm, criticize their teachers, are rapacious, inclined to bad action, eat much, are in the power of women, unstable, cowardly, ill, dependent, speak harshly, have weak characters and lack virility.

With much effort, the sadhaka can reach enlightenment in twelve years. The word mantra is derived from the root 'man', meaning to think. Mantra thus means a sacred thought or prayer to be repeated with full understanding of its meaning. It takes a -long time, perhaps years, for a mantra to take firm root in the mind of a feeble sadhaka and still longer for it to bear fruit.

Of even mind, capable of bearing hardship, wishing to perfect the 9 10 The Illustrated Light on Yoga work, speaking gently, moderate in all circumstances, such is the average seeker.

Recognizing these qualities, the Guru teaches him Laya Yoga, which gives liberation. Laya means devotion, absorption or dissolution. Of stable mind, capable of Laya Yoga, virile, independent, noble, merciful, forgiving, truthful, brave, young, respectful, worshipping his teacher, intent on the practice of Yoga, such is a superior seeker.

He can reach enlightenment after six years of practice. The Guru instructs this forceful man in Hatha Yoga. Of great virility and enthusiasm, good looking, courageous, learned in scriptures, studious, sane in mind, not melancholic, keeping young, regular in food, with his senses under control, free from fear, clean, skilful, generous, helpful to all, firm, intelligent, independent, forgiving, of good character, of gentle speech and worshipping his Guru, such is a supreme seeker, fit for all forms of Yoga.

He can reach enlightenment in three years. Although the Siva Samhitii and the Haiha Yoga Pradipikii mention the period of time within which success might be achieved, Patanjali nowhere lays down the time required to unite the individual soul with the Divine Universal Soul. According to him abhyasa constant and determined practice and vairagya freedom from desires make the mind calm and tranquil.

He defines abhyasa as effort of long duration, without interruption, performed with devotion, which creates a firm foundation. The study of Yoga is not like work for a diploma or a university degree by someone desiring favourable results in a stipulated time. The obstacles, trials and tribulations in the path of Yoga can be removed to a large extent 'with the help of a Guru. The syllable gu means darkness and ru means light.

He alone is a Guru who removes darkness and brings enlightenment. The conception of a Guru is deep and significant. He is not an ordinary guide. He is a spiritual teacher who teaches a way of life, and not merely how to earn a livelihood. He transmits knowledge of the Spirit and one who receives such knowledge is a sisya, a disciple. The relationship between a Guru and a sisya is a very special one, transcending 'that between parent and child, husband and wife or friends.

A Guru is free from egotism. He devotedly leads his sisya towards the ultimate goal without any attraction for fame or gain. He shows the path of God and watches the progress of his disciple, guiding him along that path. He inspires confidence, devotion, discipline, deep understanding and illumination through love. With faith in his pupil, the Guru strains hard to see that he absorbs the teaching. He encourages him to ask questions and to know the truth by question and analysis.

A sisya should possess the necessary qualifications of higher realization and development. He must have confidence, devotion and love for his Guru. The sisya should hunger for knowledge and have the spirit of humility, perseverance and tenacity of purpose. He should not go to the Guru merely out of curiosity.

He should possess sraddha dynamic faith and should not be discouraged if he cannot reach the goal in the time he had expected. It requires tremendous patience to calm the restless mind which is coloured by innumerable past experiences and sarnskara the accumulated residue of past thoughts and actions. Merely listening to the words of the Guru does not enable the sisya to absorb the teaching. This is borne out by the story of Indra and Virochana.

Indra, the king of Gods, and Virochana, a demon prince, went together to their spiritual preceptor Brahma to obtain knowledge of the Supreme Self. Both stayed and listened to the same words of their Guru. Indra obtained enlightenment, whereas Virochana did not. Indra's memory was developed by his devotion to the subject taught by the love and faith which he had for his teacher. He had a feeling of oneness with his Guru.

These were the reasons for his success. Virochana's memory was developed only through his intellect. He had no devotion either for the subject taught or for his preceptor.

He remained what he originally was, an intellectual giant. He returned a doubter. Indra had intellectual humility, while Virochana had intellectual pride and imagined that it was condescending on his part to go to Brahma. The approach of Indra was devotional while that of Virochana was practical.

Virochana was motivated by curiosity and wanted the practical knowledge which he believed would be useful to him later to win power. The sisya should above all treasure love, moderation and humility. Love begets courage, moderation creates abundance and humility generates power. Courage without love is brutish. Abundance without moderation leads to over-indulgence and decay. Power without humility breeds arrogance and tyranny. The true sisya learns from his Guru about a power which will never leave him as he returns to the Primeval One, the Source of His Being.

Sddhand A Key to Freedom All the important texts on Yoga lay great emphasis on sadhana or abhyasa constant practice. It is a spiritual endeavour. Oil seeds must be pressed to yield oil. Wood must be heated to ignite and bring out the hidden fire within.

In the same way, the sadhaka must by constant practice light the divine flame within himself.

Success will follow him who practises, not him who practises not. Success in Yoga is not obtained by the mere theoretical reading of sacred texts. Success is not obtained by wearing the dress of a yogi or a sanyasi a recluse , nor by talking about it. Constant practice alone is the secret of success. Verily, there is no doubt of this. It is by the co-ordinated and concentrated efforts of his body, senses, mind, reason and Self that a man obtains the prize of inner peace and fulfils the quest of his soul to meet his Maker.

The supreme adventure in a man's life is his journey back to his Creator. To reach the goal he needs well developed and co-ordinated functioning of his body, senses, mind, reason and Self. If the effort is not co-ordinated, he fails in his adventure. In the third valli chapter of the first part of the Kaihopanisad, Yama the God of Death explains this Yoga to the seeker Nachiketa by way of the parable of the individual in a chariot. The senses, they say, are the horses, and their objects of desire are the pastures.

The Self, when united with the senses and the mind, the wise call the Enjoyer Bhoktr. The undiscriminating can never rein in his mind; his senses are like the vicious horses of a charioteer. The discriminating ever controls his mind; his senses are like disciplined horses. The undiscriminating becomes unmindful, ever impure; he does not reach the goal, wandering from one body to another.

The discriminating becomes mindful, ever pure; he reaches the goal and is never reborn. The man who has a discriminating charioteer to rein in his mind reaches the end of the journey - the Supreme Abode of the everlasting Spirit. Greater than the senses is the mind, higher than the mind is the reason What is Yoga? Discipline yourself by the Self and destroy your deceptive enemy in the shape of desire. To realize this not only constant practice is demanded but also renunciation.

As regards renunciation, the question arises as to what one should renounce. The yogi does not renounce the world, for that would mean renouncing the Creator. The yogi renounces all that takes him away from the Lord. He renounces his own desires, knowing that all inspiration and right action come from the Lord. He renounces those who oppose the work of the Lord, those who spread demonic ideas and who merely talk of moral values but do not practise them. The yogi does not renounce action.

He cuts the bonds that tie himself to his actions by dedicating their fruits either to the Lord or to humanity. He believes that it is his privilege to do his duty and that he has no right to the fruits of his actions. While others are asleep when duty calls and wake up only to claim their rights, the yogi is fully awake to his duty, but asleep over his rights. Hence it is said that in the night of all beings the disciplined and tranquil man wakes to the light.

The first deals with samadhi, the second with the means sadhana to achieve Yoga, the third enumerates the powers vibhuti that the yogi comes across in his quest, and the fourth deals with absolution kaivalya. Yama The eight limbs of Yoga are described in the second chapter.

The first of these is yama ethical disciplines - the great commandments transcending creed, country, age and time. These commandments are the rules of morality for society and the individual, which if not obeyed bring chaos, violence, untruth, stealing, dissipation and covetousness.

The roots of these evils are the emotions of greed, desire and attachment, which may be mild, medium or excessive. They only bring pain and ignorance. Patanjali strikes at the root of these evils by changing the direction of one's thinking along the five principles of yama. The word ahimsa is made up of the particle 'a' meaning 'not' and the noun himsa meaning killing or violence.

It is more than a nega- tive command not to kill, for it has a wider positive meaning, love. This love embraces all creation for we are all children of the same Father the Lord. The yogi believes that to kill or to destroy a thing or being is to insult its Creator. Men either kill for food or to protect themselves from danger. But merely because a man is a vegetarian, it does not necessarily follow that he is non-violent by temperament or that he is a yogi, though a vegetarian diet is a necessity for the practice of yoga.

Bloodthirsty tyrants may be vegetarians, but violence is a state of mind, not of diet. It resides in a man's mind and not in the instrument he holds in his hand. One can use a knife to pare fruit or to stab an enemy. The fault is not in the instrument, but in the user. Men take to violence to protect their own interests - their own bodies, their loved ones, their property or dignity.

But a man cannot rely upon himself alone to protect himself or others. The belief that he can do so is wrong. A man must rely upon God, who is the source of all strength.

Then he will fear no evil. Violence arises out of fear, weakness, ignorance or restlessness. To curb it what is most needed is freedom from fear.

To gain this freedom, what is required is a change of outlook on life and reorientation of the mind. Violence is bound to decline when men learn to base their faith upon reality and investigation rather than upon ignorance and supposition. The yogi believes that every creature has as much right to live as he has. He believes that he is born to help others and he looks upon creation with eyes of love. He knows that his life is linked inextricably with that of others and he rejoices if he can help them to be happy.

He puts the happiness of others before his own and becomes a source of joy to all who meet him. As parents encourage a baby to walk the first steps, he encourages those more unfortunate than himself and makes them fit for survival.

For a wrong done by others, men demand justice; while for that done by themselves they plead mercy and forgiveness. The yogi on the other hand, believes that for a wrong done by himself, there should be justice, while for that done by another there should be forgiveness. He knows and teaches others how to live. Always striving to perfect himself, he shows them by his love and compassion how to improve themselves.

The yogi opposes the evil in the wrong-doer, but not the wrong-doer. He prescribes penance not punishment for a wrong done. Opposition to evil and love for the wrong-doer can live side by side. A drunkard's wife whilst loving him may still oppose his habit.

Opposition without love leads to violence; loving the wrong-doer without opposing the evil in him is folly and leads to misery. The yogi knows that to love a person W whilst fighting the evil in him is the right course to follow.

The battle is won because he fights it with love. A loving mother will sometimes beat her child to cure it of a bad habit; in the same way a true follower of ahimsa loves his opponent. Along with ahimsa go abhaya freedom from fear and akrodha freedom from anger. Freedom from fear comes only to those who lead a pure life. The yogi fears none and none need fear him!

Fear grips a man and paralyses him. He is afraid of the future, the unknown and the unseen. He is afraid that he may lose his means of livelihood, wealth or reputation. But the greatest fear is that of death. The yogi knows that he is different from his body, which is a temporary house for his spirit.

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He sees all beings in the Self and the Self in all beings and therefore he loses all fear. Though the body is subject to sickness, age, decay and death, the spirit remains unaffected.

To the yogi death is the sauce that adds zest to life. He has dedicated his mind, his reason and his whole life to the Lord. When he has linked his entire being to the Lord, what shall he then fear? There are two types of anger krodha , one of which debases the mind while the other leads to spiritual growth. The root of the first is pride, which makes one angry when slighted.

This prevents the. The yogi, on the other hand, is angry with himself when his mind stoops low or when all his learning and experience fail to stop him from folly. He is stern with himself when he deals with his own faults, but gentle with the faults of others. Gentleness of mind is an attribute of a yogi, whose heart melts at all suffering. In him gentleness for others and firmness for himself go hand in hand, and in his presence all hostilities are given up.

Satya or truth is the highest rule of conduct or morality. Mah- atma Gandhi said: As fire burns impurities and refines gold, so the fire of truth cleanses the yogi and burns up the dross in him. If the mind thinks thoughts of truth, if the tongue speaks words of truth and if the whole life is based upon truth, then one becomes fit for union with the Infinite.

Reality in its fundamental nature is love and truth and expresses itself through these two aspects. The yogi's life must conform strictly to these two facets of Reality. That is why ahimsa, which is essentially based on love, is enjoined. Satya presupposes perfect truthfulness in thought, word and deed. Untruthfulness in any form puts the sadhaka out of harmony with the fundamental law of truth. Truth is not limited to speech alone. There are four sins of speech: The tale bearer is more poisonous than a snake.

The control of speech leads to the rooting out of malice. When the mind bears malice towards none, it is filled with charity towards all. He who has learnt to control his tongue has attained self-control in a great measure.

Iyengar B. K. S. The Illustrated Light On Yoga.pdf

When such a person speaks he will be heard with respect and attention. His words will be remembered, for they will be good and true. When one who is established in truth prays with a pure heart, then things he really needs come to him when they are really needed: The man firmly established in truth gets the fruit of his actions without apparently doing anything.

God, the source of all truth, supplies his needs and looks after his welfare. The desire to possess and enjoy what another has, drives a person to do evil deeds. From this desire spring the urge to steal and the urge to covet. It thus includes misappropriation, breach of trust, mismanagement and misuse.

The yogi reduces his physical needs to the minimum, believing that if he gathers things he does not really need, he is a thief. While other men crave for wealth, power, fame or enjoyment, the yogi has one craving and that is to adore the Lord. Freedom from craving enables one to ward off great temptations. Craving muddies the stream of tranquillity.

It makes men base and vile and cripples them. He who obeys the commandment Thou shalt not steql, becomes a trusted repository of all treasures. According to the dictionary brahmacharya means the life of celibacy, religious study and self-restraint. It is thought that the loss of semen leads to death and its retention to life. By the preservation of semen the yogi's body develops a sweet smell. So long as it is retained, there is no fear of death.

Hence the injunction that it should be preserved by concentrated effort of the mind. The concept of brahmacharya is not one of negation, forced austerity and prohibition. According to Sankaracharya, a brahmachari one who observes brahmacharya is a man who is engrossed in the study of the sacred Vedic lore, constantly moves in Brahman and knows that all exists in Brahman. In other words, one who sees divinity in all is a brahmachan, Patafijali, however, lays stress on continence of the body, speech and mind.

This does not mean that the philosophy of Yoga is meant only for celibates. Brahmacharya has little to do with whether one is a bachelor or married and living the life of a householder. One has to develop the higher aspects of Brahmacharya in one's daily living. It is not necessary for II ,I, [: On the contrary, all the smrtis codes of law recommend marriage.

Without experiencing human love and happiness, it is not possible to know divine love. Almost all the yogis and sages of old in India were married men with families of their own. They did not shirk their social or moral responsibilities. Marriage and parenthood are no bar to the knowledge of divine love, happiness and union with the Supreme Soul. Dealing with the position of an aspirant who is a householder, the Siva Samhiti; says: Let him practise free from the company of men in a retired place.

For the sake of appearances, he should remain in society, but not have his heart in it. He should not renounce the duties of his profession, caste or rank; but let him perform these as an instrument of the Lord, without any thought of the results. He succeeds by following wisely the method of Yoga; there is no doubt of it. Remaining in the midst of the family, always doing the duties of the householder, he who is free from merits and demerits -and has restrained his senses, attains salvation.

The householder practising Yoga is not touched by virtue or vice: Chapter V, verses When one is established in brahmacharya, one develops a fund of vitality and energy, a courageous mind and a powerful intellect so that one can fight any type of injustice. The brahrnachari will use the forces he generates wisely: Brahmacharya is the battery that sparks the torch of wisdom. Parigraha means hoarding or collecting. To be free from hoarding is aparigraha. It is thus but another facet of asteya nonstealing.

Just as one should not take things one does not really need, so one should not hoard or collect things one does not require immediately. Neither should one take anything without working for it or as a favour from another, for this indicates poverty of spirit. The yogi feels that the collection or hoarding of things implies a lack of faith in God and in himself to provide for his future. He keeps faith by keeping before him the image of the moon. During the dark half of the month, the moon rises late when most men are asleep and so do not appreciate its beauty.

Its splendour wanes but it does not stray from its path and is indifferent to man's lack of appreciation. It has faith that it will be full again when it faces the Sun and then men will eagerly await its glorious rising.

By the observance of aparigraha, the yogi makes his life as simple as possible and trains his mind not to feel the loss or the lack of anything. Then everything he really needs will come to him by itself at the proper time. The life of an ordinary man is filled with an unending series of L 17 , 18 The I I Ius t rat e d L i g h ton Y 0 g a disturbances and frustrations and with his reactions to them.

Thus there is hardly any possibility of keeping the mind in a state of equilibrium. The sadhaka has developed the capacity to remain satisfied with whatever happens to him. Thus he obtains the peace which takes him beyond the realms of illusion and misery with which our world is saturated.

I shall supply all their wants and shall protect them for ever. The five niyama listed by Patanjali are: Purity of blood is essential for well-being. While good habits like bathing purify the body externally, asana and praayama cleanse it internally. The practice of asanas tones the entire body and removes the toxins and impurities caused by over-indulgence. Pranayama cleanses and aerates the lungs, oxygenates the blood and purifies the nerves. But more important than the physical cleansing of the body is the cleansing of the mind of its disturbing emotions like hatred, passion, anger, lust, greed, delusion and pride.

Still more important is the cleansing of the intellect buddhi of impure thoughts. The impurities of the mind are washed off in the waters of bhakti adoration. The impurities of the intellect or reason are burned off in the fire of svadhyaya study of the Self.

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This internal cleansing gives radiance and joy. It brings benevolence saumanasya and banishes mental pain, dejection, sorrow and despair daurmanasya.

When one is benevolent, one sees the virtues in others and not merely their faults. The respect which one shows for another's virtues, makes him self-respecting as well and helps him to fight his own sorrows and difficulties. When the mind is' lucid, it is easy to make it one-pointed ekagra.

With concentration, one obtains mastery over the senses indriyajaya. Then one is ready to enter the temple of his own body and see his real self in the mirror of his mind.

Besides purity of body, thought and word, pure food is also necessary. Apart from cleanliness in the preparation of food it is also necessary to observe purity in the means by which one procures it.

Food, the supporting yet consuming substance of all life, is regarded as a phase of Brahman. It should be eaten with the feeling that with L W hat i s Y 0 g a? Then food becomes pure. Whether or not to be a vegetarian is a purely personal matter as each person is influenced by the tradition and habits of the country in which he was born and bred.

But, in course of time, the practitioner of yoga has to adopt a vegetarian diet, in order to attain one-pointed attention and spiritual evolution. Food should be taken to promote health, strength, energy and life. It should be simple, nourishing, juicy and soothing. Avoid foods which are sour, bitter, pungent, burning, stale, tasteless, heavy and unclean. Character is moulded by the type of food we take and by how we eat it.

Men are the only creatures that eat when not hungry and generally live to eat rather than eat to live. If we eat for flavours of the tongue, we over-eat and so suffer from digestive disorders which throw our systems out of gear. The yogi believes in harmony, so he eats for the sake of sustenance only.

He does not eat too much or too little. He looks upon his body as the rest-house of his spirit and guards himself against over-indulgence. Besides food, the place is also important for spiritual practices. It is difficult to practise in a distant country away from home , in a forest, in a crowded city, or where it is noisy. One should choose a place where food is easily procurable, a place which is free from insects, protected from the elements and with pleasing surroundings.

The banks of a lake or river or the sea-shore are ideal. Such quiet ideal places are hard to find in modern times; but one can at least make a corner in one's room available for practice and keep it clean, airy, dry and pest-free.

Santosa or contentment has to be cultivated. A mind that is not content cannot concentrate. The yogi feels the lack of nothing and so he is naturally content. Contentment gives bliss unsurpassed to the yogi. A contented man is complete for he has known the love of the Lord and has done his duty.

He is blessed for he has known truth and joy. Contentment and tranquillity are states of mind. Differences arise among men because of race, creed, wealth and learning. Differences create discord and there arise conscious or unconscious conflicts which distract and perplex one.

Then the mind cannot become one-pointed ekagra and is robbed of its peace. There is contentment and tranquillity when the flame of the spirit does not waver in the wind of desire. The sadhaka does not seek the empty peace of the dead, but the peace of one whose reason is firmly established in God.

Tapas is derived from the root 'tap' meaning to blaze, burn, shine, suffer pain or consume by heat. It therefore means a burning effort under all circumstances to achieve a definite goal in life. It involves 19 20 , The Illustrated Light on Yoga purification, self-discipline and austerity.

The whole science of character building may be regarded as a practice of tapas. Tapas is the conscious effort to achieve ultimate union with the Divine and to bum up all desires which stand in the way of this goal. A worthy aim makes life illumined, pure and divine. Without such an aim, action and prayer have no value. Life without tapas, is like a heart without love.

Without tapas, the mind cannot reach up to the Lord. Tapas is of three types. It may relate to the body kayika , to speech vachika or to mind manasika , Continence brahmacharya and nonviolence ahimsa are tapas of the body.

Using words which do not offend, reciting the glory of God, speaking the truth without regard for the consequences to oneself and not speaking ill of others are tapas of speech.

Developing a mental attitude whereby one remains tranquil and balanced in joy and sorrow and retains self-control are tapas of the mind. It is tapas when one works without any selfish motive or hope of reward and with an unshakable faith that not even a blade of grass can move without His will.

By tapas the yogi develops strength in body, mind and character. He gains courage and wisdom, integrity, straightforwardness and simplicity. Sva means self and adhyaya means study or education. Education is the drawing out of the best that is within a person. Svadhyaya, therefore, is the education of the self. Svadhyaya is different from mere instruction like attending a lecture where the lecturer parades his own learning before the ignorance of his audience. When people meet for svadhyaya, the speaker and listener are of one mind and have mutual love and respect.

There is no sermonizing and one heart speaks to another. The ennobling thoughts that arise from svadhyaya are, so to speak, taken into one's bloodstream so that they become a part of one's life and being. The person practising svadhyaya reads his own book of life, at the same time that he writes and revises it. There is a change in his outlook on life. He starts to realize that all creation is meant for bhakti adoration rather than for bhoga enjoyment , that all creation is divine, that there is divinity within himself and that the energy which moves him is the same that moves the entire universe.

According to Sri Vinoba Bhave the leader of the Bhoodan movement , svadhyaya is the study of one subject which is the basis or root of all other subjects or actions, upon which the others rest, but which itself does not rest upon anything.

To make life healthy, happy and peaceful, it is essential to study regularly divine literature in a pure place. This study of the sacred books of the world will enable the sadhaka to concentrate upon and solve the I I l' W hat i s Y difficult problems of life when they arise. It will put an end to ignorance and bring knowledge. Ignorance has no beginning, but it has an end. There is a beginning but no end to knowledge. By svadhyaya the sadhaka understands the nature of his soul and gains communion with the divine.

The sacred books of the world are for all to read. They are not meant for the members of one particular faith alone. As bees savour the nectar in various flowers, so the sadhaka absorbs things in other faiths which will enable him to appreciate his own faith better. Philology is not a language but the science of languages, the study of which will enable the student to learn his own language better. Simi'lady, Yoga is not a religion by itself.

It is the science of religions, the study of which will enable a sadhaka the better to appreciate his own faith. Isuara pranidhiina. Dedication to the Lord of one's actions and will is Isvara pranidhana. He who has faith in God does not despair. He has illumination tejas. He who knows that all creation belongs to the Lord will not be puffed up with pride or drunk with power. He will not stoop for selfish purposes; his head will bow only in worship.

When the waters of bhakti adoration are made to flow through the turbines of the mind, the result is mental power and spiritual illumination. While mere physical strength without bhakti is lethal, mere adoration without strength of character is like an opiate. Addiction to pleasures destroys both power and glory. From the gratification of the senses as they run after pleasures arise moha attachment and lobha greed for their repetition.

If the senses are not gratified, then, there is soka sorrow. They have to be curbed with knowledge and forbearance; but to control the mind is more difficult. After one has exhausted one's own resources and still not succeeded, one turns to the Lord for help for He is the source of all power. It is at this stage that bhakti begins. In bhakti, the mind, the intellect and the will are surrendered to the Lord and the sadhaka prays: Thy will be done. In bhakti or true love there is no place for 'I' and 'mine'.

When the feeling of 'I' and 'mine' disappears, the individual soul has reached full growth. When the mind has been emptied of desires of personal gratification, it should be filled with thoughts of the Lord. In a mind filled with thoughts of personal gratification, there is danger of the senses dragging the mind after the objects of desire.

Attempts to practise bhakti without emptying the mind of desires is like building a fire with wet fuel. It makes a lot of smoke and brings tears to the eyes of the person who builds it and of those around him.

A mind with desires does not ignite and glow, nor does it generate light and warmth when touched with the fire of knowledge. The name of the Lord is like the Sun, dispelling all darkness. The individual soul experiences fullness purnata when it faces the Lord. If the shadow of the earth comes between the full moon and the sun there is an eclipse. If the feeling of T and 'mine' casts its shadow upon the experience of fullness, all efforts of the sadhaka to gain peace are futile. Actions mirror a man's personality better than his words.

The yogi has learnt the art of dedicating all his actions to the Lord and so they reflect the divinity within him. Asana The third limb of yoga is asana or posture. Asana brings steadiness, health and lightness of limb.

A steady and pleasant posture produces mental equilibrium and prevents fickleness of mind. Asanas are not merely gymnastic exercises; they are postures. With faith in his pupil, the Guru strains hard to see that he absorbs the teaching. He encourages him to ask questions and to know the truth by question and analysis.

A sisya should possess the necessary qualifications of higher realization and development. He must have confidence, devotion and love for his Guru.

The sisya should hunger for knowledge and have the spirit of humility, perseverance and tenacity of purpose. He should not go to the Guru merely out of curiosity. He should possess sraddha dynamic faith and should not be discouraged if he cannot reach the goal in the time he had expected. It requires tremendous patience to calm the restless mind which is coloured by innumerable past experiences and sarnskara the accumulated residue of past thoughts and actions.

Merely listening to the words of the Guru does not enable the sisya to absorb the teaching. This is borne out by the story of Indra and Virochana. Indra, the king of Gods, and Virochana, a demon prince, went together to their spiritual preceptor Brahma to obtain knowledge of the Supreme Self. Both stayed and listened to the same words of their Guru.

Indra obtained enlightenment, whereas Virochana did not. Indra's memory was developed by his devotion to the subject taught by the love and faith which he had for his teacher.

He had a feeling of oneness with his Guru. These were the reasons for his success. Virochana's memory was developed only through his intellect.

He had no devotion either for the subject taught or for his preceptor. He remained what he originally was, an intellectual giant.

He returned a doubter. Indra had intellectual humility, while Virochana had intellectual pride and imagined that it was condescending on his part to go to Brahma. The approach of Indra was devotional while that of Virochana was practical. Virochana was motivated by curiosity and wanted the practical knowledge which he believed would be useful to him later to win power.

The sisya should above all treasure love, moderation and humility. Love begets courage, moderation creates abundance and humility generates power.

Courage without love is brutish. Abundance without moderation leads to over-indulgence and decay. Power without humility breeds arrogance and tyranny. The true sisya learns from his Guru about a power which will never leave him as he returns to the Primeval One, the Source of His Being.

Sddhand A Key to Freedom All the important texts on Yoga lay great emphasis on sadhana or abhyasa constant practice. It is a spiritual endeavour. Oil seeds must be pressed to yield oil. Wood must be heated to ignite and bring out the hidden fire within. In the same way, the sadhaka must by constant practice light the divine flame within himself.

Success will follow him who practises, not him who practises not. Success in Yoga is not obtained by the mere theoretical reading of sacred texts.

Success is not obtained by wearing the dress of a yogi or a sanyasi a recluse , nor by talking about it. Constant practice alone is the secret of success. Verily, there is no doubt of this. It is by the co-ordinated and concentrated efforts of his body, senses, mind, reason and Self that a man obtains the prize of inner peace and fulfils the quest of his soul to meet his Maker. The supreme adventure in a man's life is his journey back to his Creator.

To reach the goal he needs well developed and co-ordinated functioning of his body, senses, mind, reason and Self. If the effort is not co-ordinated, he fails in his adventure. In the third valli chapter of the first part of the Kaihopanisad, Yama the God of Death explains this Yoga to the seeker Nachiketa by way of the parable of the individual in a chariot.

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The senses, they say, are the horses, and their objects of desire are the pastures. The Self, when united with the senses and the mind, the wise call the Enjoyer Bhoktr. The undiscriminating can never rein in his mind; his senses are like the vicious horses of a charioteer. The discriminating ever controls his mind; his senses are like disciplined horses.

The undiscriminating becomes unmindful, ever impure; he does not reach the goal, wandering from one body to another. The discriminating becomes mindful, ever pure; he reaches the goal and is never reborn. The man who has a discriminating charioteer to rein in his mind reaches the end of the journey - the Supreme Abode of the everlasting Spirit.

Greater than the senses is the mind, higher than the mind is the reason What is Yoga? Discipline yourself by the Self and destroy your deceptive enemy in the shape of desire. To realize this not only constant practice is demanded but also renunciation.

As regards renunciation, the question arises as to what one should renounce. The yogi does not renounce the world, for that would mean renouncing the Creator. The yogi renounces all that takes him away from the Lord. He renounces his own desires, knowing that all inspiration and right action come from the Lord.

He renounces those who oppose the work of the Lord, those who spread demonic ideas and who merely talk of moral values but do not practise them. The yogi does not renounce action.

He cuts the bonds that tie himself to his actions by dedicating their fruits either to the Lord or to humanity. He believes that it is his privilege to do his duty and that he has no right to the fruits of his actions. While others are asleep when duty calls and wake up only to claim their rights, the yogi is fully awake to his duty, but asleep over his rights. Hence it is said that in the night of all beings the disciplined and tranquil man wakes to the light.

The first deals with samadhi, the second with the means sadhana to achieve Yoga, the third enumerates the powers vibhuti that the yogi comes across in his quest, and the fourth deals with absolution kaivalya. Yama The eight limbs of Yoga are described in the second chapter. The first of these is yama ethical disciplines - the great commandments transcending creed, country, age and time. They are: ahimsa non-violence , satya truth , asteya non-stealing , brahmacharya continence and aparigraha non-coveting.

These commandments are the rules of morality for society and the individual, which if not obeyed bring chaos, violence, untruth, stealing, dissipation and covetousness. The roots of these evils are the emotions of greed, desire and attachment, which may be mild, medium or excessive. They only bring pain and ignorance. Patanjali strikes at the root of these evils by changing the direction of one's thinking along the five principles of yama.

The word ahimsa is made up of the particle 'a' meaning 'not' and the noun himsa meaning killing or violence. It is more than a nega- tive command not to kill, for it has a wider positive meaning, love. This love embraces all creation for we are all children of the same Father the Lord. The yogi believes that to kill or to destroy a thing or being is to insult its Creator. Men either kill for food or to protect themselves from danger.

But merely because a man is a vegetarian, it does not necessarily follow that he is non-violent by temperament or that he is a yogi, though a vegetarian diet is a necessity for the practice of yoga. Bloodthirsty tyrants may be vegetarians, but violence is a state of mind, not of diet. It resides in a man's mind and not in the instrument he holds in his hand. One can use a knife to pare fruit or to stab an enemy.

The fault is not in the instrument, but in the user. Men take to violence to protect their own interests - their own bodies, their loved ones, their property or dignity. But a man cannot rely upon himself alone to protect himself or others. The belief that he can do so is wrong. A man must rely upon God, who is the source of all strength. Then he will fear no evil. Violence arises out of fear, weakness, ignorance or restlessness.

To curb it what is most needed is freedom from fear. To gain this freedom, what is required is a change of outlook on life and reorientation of the mind.

Violence is bound to decline when men learn to base their faith upon reality and investigation rather than upon ignorance and supposition. The yogi believes that every creature has as much right to live as he has.

He believes that he is born to help others and he looks upon creation with eyes of love. He knows that his life is linked inextricably with that of others and he rejoices if he can help them to be happy. He puts the happiness of others before his own and becomes a source of joy to all who meet him. As parents encourage a baby to walk the first steps, he encourages those more unfortunate than himself and makes them fit for survival.

For a wrong done by others, men demand justice; while for that done by themselves they plead mercy and forgiveness. The yogi on the other hand, believes that for a wrong done by himself, there should be justice, while for that done by another there should be forgiveness.

He knows and teaches others how to live. Always striving to perfect himself, he shows them by his love and compassion how to improve themselves. The yogi opposes the evil in the wrong-doer, but not the wrong-doer. He prescribes penance not punishment for a wrong done.

Opposition to evil and love for the wrong-doer can live side by side. A drunkard's wife whilst loving him may still oppose his habit. Opposition without love leads to violence; loving the wrong-doer without opposing the evil in him is folly and leads to misery.

The yogi knows that to love a person W whilst fighting the evil in him is the right course to follow. The battle is won because he fights it with love. A loving mother will sometimes beat her child to cure it of a bad habit; in the same way a true follower of ahimsa loves his opponent. Along with ahimsa go abhaya freedom from fear and akrodha freedom from anger.

Freedom from fear comes only to those who lead a pure life. The yogi fears none and none need fear him! Fear grips a man and paralyses him. He is afraid of the future, the unknown and the unseen. He is afraid that he may lose his means of livelihood, wealth or reputation. But the greatest fear is that of death.

The yogi knows that he is different from his body, which is a temporary house for his spirit. He sees all beings in the Self and the Self in all beings and therefore he loses all fear. Though the body is subject to sickness, age, decay and death, the spirit remains unaffected.

To the yogi death is the sauce that adds zest to life. He has dedicated his mind, his reason and his whole life to the Lord. When he has linked his entire being to the Lord, what shall he then fear? There are two types of anger krodha , one of which debases the mind while the other leads to spiritual growth. The root of the first is pride, which makes one angry when slighted. This prevents the.

The yogi, on the other hand, is angry with himself when his mind stoops low or when all his learning and experience fail to stop him from folly. He is stern with himself when he deals with his own faults, but gentle with the faults of others.

Gentleness of mind is an attribute of a yogi, whose heart melts at all suffering. In him gentleness for others and firmness for himself go hand in hand, and in his presence all hostilities are given up. Satya or truth is the highest rule of conduct or morality. As fire burns impurities and refines gold, so the fire of truth cleanses the yogi and burns up the dross in him.

If the mind thinks thoughts of truth, if the tongue speaks words of truth and if the whole life is based upon truth, then one becomes fit for union with the Infinite. Reality in its fundamental nature is love and truth and expresses itself through these two aspects.

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The yogi's life must conform strictly to these two facets of Reality. That is why ahimsa, which is essentially based on love, is enjoined. Satya presupposes perfect truthfulness in thought, word and deed. Untruthfulness in any form puts the sadhaka out of harmony with the fundamental law of truth.

Truth is not limited to speech alone. There are four sins of speech: abuse and obscenity, dealing in falsehoods, calumny or telling tales and L hat i s Y a g a? The tale bearer is more poisonous than a snake. The control of speech leads to the rooting out of malice. When the mind bears malice towards none, it is filled with charity towards all.

He who has learnt to control his tongue has attained self-control in a great measure. When such a person speaks he will be heard with respect and attention.

His words will be remembered, for they will be good and true. When one who is established in truth prays with a pure heart, then things he really needs come to him when they are really needed: he does not have to run after them. The man firmly established in truth gets the fruit of his actions without apparently doing anything.

God, the source of all truth, supplies his needs and looks after his welfare. The desire to possess and enjoy what another has, drives a person to do evil deeds. From this desire spring the urge to steal and the urge to covet.

It thus includes misappropriation, breach of trust, mismanagement and misuse. The yogi reduces his physical needs to the minimum, believing that if he gathers things he does not really need, he is a thief. While other men crave for wealth, power, fame or enjoyment, the yogi has one craving and that is to adore the Lord. Freedom from craving enables one to ward off great temptations.

Craving muddies the stream of tranquillity. It makes men base and vile and cripples them. He who obeys the commandment Thou shalt not steql, becomes a trusted repository of all treasures.

According to the dictionary brahmacharya means the life of celibacy, religious study and self-restraint. It is thought that the loss of semen leads to death and its retention to life.

By the preservation of semen the yogi's body develops a sweet smell. So long as it is retained, there is no fear of death. Hence the injunction that it should be preserved by concentrated effort of the mind. The concept of brahmacharya is not one of negation, forced austerity and prohibition. According to Sankaracharya, a brahmachari one who observes brahmacharya is a man who is engrossed in the study of the sacred Vedic lore, constantly moves in Brahman and knows that all exists in Brahman.

In other words, one who sees divinity in all is a brahmachan, Patafijali, however, lays stress on continence of the body, speech and mind. This does not mean that the philosophy of Yoga is meant only for celibates. Brahmacharya has little to do with whether one is a bachelor or married and living the life of a householder.

One has to develop the higher aspects of Brahmacharya in one's daily living. On the contrary, all the smrtis codes of law recommend marriage. Without experiencing human love and happiness, it is not possible to know divine love.

Almost all the yogis and sages of old in India were married men with families of their own.

They did not shirk their social or moral responsibilities. Marriage and parenthood are no bar to the knowledge of divine love, happiness and union with the Supreme Soul. Dealing with the position of an aspirant who is a householder, the Siva Samhiti; says: Let him practise free from the company of men in a retired place. For the sake of appearances, he should remain in society, but not have his heart in it.

He should not renounce the duties of his profession, caste or rank; but let him perform these as an instrument of the Lord, without any thought of the results. He succeeds by following wisely the method of Yoga; there is no doubt of it. Remaining in the midst of the family, always doing the duties of the householder, he who is free from merits and demerits -and has restrained his senses, attains salvation. The householder practising Yoga is not touched by virtue or vice: if to protect mankind he commits any sin, he is not polluted by it.

Chapter V, verses When one is established in brahmacharya, one develops a fund of vitality and energy, a courageous mind and a powerful intellect so that one can fight any type of injustice.

The brahrnachari will use the forces he generates wisely: he will utilize the physical ones for doing the work of the Lord, the mental for the spread of culture and the intellectual for the growth of spiritual life.

Brahmacharya is the battery that sparks the torch of wisdom. Parigraha means hoarding or collecting. To be free from hoarding is aparigraha. It is thus but another facet of asteya nonstealing. Just as one should not take things one does not really need, so one should not hoard or collect things one does not require immediately.

Neither should one take anything without working for it or as a favour from another, for this indicates poverty of spirit. The yogi feels that the collection or hoarding of things implies a lack of faith in God and in himself to provide for his future. He keeps faith by keeping before him the image of the moon. During the dark half of the month, the moon rises late when most men are asleep and so do not appreciate its beauty.

Its splendour wanes but it does not stray from its path and is indifferent to man's lack of appreciation. It has faith that it will be full again when it faces the Sun and then men will eagerly await its glorious rising. By the observance of aparigraha, the yogi makes his life as simple as possible and trains his mind not to feel the loss or the lack of anything.

Then everything he really needs will come to him by itself at the proper time. The life of an ordinary man is filled with an unending series of L 17 , 18 The I I Ius t rat e d L i g h ton Y 0 g a disturbances and frustrations and with his reactions to them.

Thus there is hardly any possibility of keeping the mind in a state of equilibrium. The sadhaka has developed the capacity to remain satisfied with whatever happens to him. Thus he obtains the peace which takes him beyond the realms of illusion and misery with which our world is saturated. He recalls the promise given by Sri Krishna to Arjuna in the ninth chapter of the Bhagavad Gita: 'To those who worship Me alone with single-minded devotion, who are in harmony with Me every moment, I bring full security.

I shall supply all their wants and shall protect them for ever. The five niyama listed by Patanjali are: saucha purity , santosa contentment , tapas ardour or austerity , svadhyaya study of the Self and Isvara pranidhana dedication to the Lord.

Purity of blood is essential for well-being. While good habits like bathing purify the body externally, asana and praayama cleanse it internally. The practice of asanas tones the entire body and removes the toxins and impurities caused by over-indulgence. Pranayama cleanses and aerates the lungs, oxygenates the blood and purifies the nerves. But more important than the physical cleansing of the body is the cleansing of the mind of its disturbing emotions like hatred, passion, anger, lust, greed, delusion and pride.

Still more important is the cleansing of the intellect buddhi of impure thoughts. The impurities of the mind are washed off in the waters of bhakti adoration. The impurities of the intellect or reason are burned off in the fire of svadhyaya study of the Self.

This internal cleansing gives radiance and joy. It brings benevolence saumanasya and banishes mental pain, dejection, sorrow and despair daurmanasya. When one is benevolent, one sees the virtues in others and not merely their faults. The respect which one shows for another's virtues, makes him self-respecting as well and helps him to fight his own sorrows and difficulties.

When the mind is' lucid, it is easy to make it one-pointed ekagra. With concentration, one obtains mastery over the senses indriyajaya. Then one is ready to enter the temple of his own body and see his real self in the mirror of his mind. Besides purity of body, thought and word, pure food is also necessary. Apart from cleanliness in the preparation of food it is also necessary to observe purity in the means by which one procures it.

Food, the supporting yet consuming substance of all life, is regarded as a phase of Brahman. It should be eaten with the feeling that with L W hat i s Y 0 g a?

Then food becomes pure. Whether or not to be a vegetarian is a purely personal matter as each person is influenced by the tradition and habits of the country in which he was born and bred.

But, in course of time, the practitioner of yoga has to adopt a vegetarian diet, in order to attain one-pointed attention and spiritual evolution. Food should be taken to promote health, strength, energy and life. It should be simple, nourishing, juicy and soothing. Avoid foods which are sour, bitter, pungent, burning, stale, tasteless, heavy and unclean.

Character is moulded by the type of food we take and by how we eat it. Men are the only creatures that eat when not hungry and generally live to eat rather than eat to live. If we eat for flavours of the tongue, we over-eat and so suffer from digestive disorders which throw our systems out of gear.

The yogi believes in harmony, so he eats for the sake of sustenance only. He does not eat too much or too little. He looks upon his body as the rest-house of his spirit and guards himself against over-indulgence. Besides food, the place is also important for spiritual practices. It is difficult to practise in a distant country away from home , in a forest, in a crowded city, or where it is noisy.

One should choose a place where food is easily procurable, a place which is free from insects, protected from the elements and with pleasing surroundings. The banks of a lake or river or the sea-shore are ideal.

Such quiet ideal places are hard to find in modern times; but one can at least make a corner in one's room available for practice and keep it clean, airy, dry and pest-free. Santosa or contentment has to be cultivated. A mind that is not content cannot concentrate. The yogi feels the lack of nothing and so he is naturally content. Contentment gives bliss unsurpassed to the yogi. A contented man is complete for he has known the love of the Lord and has done his duty.

He is blessed for he has known truth and joy. Contentment and tranquillity are states of mind. Differences arise among men because of race, creed, wealth and learning. Differences create discord and there arise conscious or unconscious conflicts which distract and perplex one. Then the mind cannot become one-pointed ekagra and is robbed of its peace.

There is contentment and tranquillity when the flame of the spirit does not waver in the wind of desire. The sadhaka does not seek the empty peace of the dead, but the peace of one whose reason is firmly established in God.

Tapas is derived from the root 'tap' meaning to blaze, burn, shine, suffer pain or consume by heat. It therefore means a burning effort under all circumstances to achieve a definite goal in life. It involves 19 20 , The Illustrated Light on Yoga purification, self-discipline and austerity. The whole science of character building may be regarded as a practice of tapas.