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Moreover in the history of the history of Middle-earth the development was seldom by outright rejection -- far more often it was by subtle transformation in stages. THE HISTORY OF MIDDLE-EARTH. Volume The Later Silmarillion. Part One. The Legends of Aman. Edited by Christopher Tolkien. HarperCollinsPublishers. The History of Middle-earth is a volume series of books published between and .. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.

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The History of Middle Earth - reviewed by Franco Manni - J.R.R. Tolkien, The History of Middle-Earth,. HarperCollins, London, 12 volumes. HISTORY OF MIDDLE-EARTH CONTENTS Foreword I THE COTTAGE OF LOST PLAY Notes and Commentary II THE MUSIC OF THE AINUR. CONTENTS. Preface page x I THE TALE OF TINUVIEL. Notes and Commentary. II TURAMBAR AND THE FOALOKE. Notes and Commentary. III THE FALL OF.

The Book of Lost Tales, written between sixty and seventy years ago, was the first substantial work of imaginative literature by J. Tolkien, and the first emergence in narrative of the Valar, of the Children of Iluvatar, Elves and Men, of the Dwarves and the Orcs, and of the lands in which their history is set, Valinor beyond the western ocean, and Middle-earth, the 'Great Lands' between the seas of east and west. This Foreword seems a suitable opportunity to remark on some aspects of both works. The Silmarillion is commonly said to be a 'difficult' book, needing explanation and guidance on how to 'approach' it; and in this it is contrasted' to The Lord of the Rings. Shippey accepts that this is so 'The Silmarillion could never be anything but hard to read', p.

I believe that in their genesis these stories are inextricably linked; therefore we will take a close look into their origin in the bargain, a review of the events leading up to it, evidence for their dates of composition, and the strikingly different ways these works deal with common themes.

Finally, I will offer reasons why these stories remained unfinished and almost unknown until the efforts of Christopher Tolkien and Walter Hooper made them available at last, decades after their authors had moved on to other works.

In The Lord of the Rings , mythological borrowings are often more implied than manifest. In these History books to speak of them collectively , mythological echoes are altogether more evident, more imitative, and more easily understood.

Tolkien and his works. These are too little known, undeservedly neglected, and worth the effort of searching out. Not because he was tired of the Tree, but he seemed to have got it all clear in his mind now, and was aware of it, and of its growth, even when he was not looking at it.

As he walked away, he discovered an odd thing: the Forest, of course, was a distant Forest, yet he could approach it, even enter it, without its losing that particular charm. He had never before been able to walk into the distance without it turning into mere surroundings.

It really added a considerable attraction to walking in the country, because, as you walked, new distances opened out; so that you now had double, treble, and quadruple distances, doubly, trebly, and quadruply enchanting. You could go on and on, and have a whole country in a garden, or in a picture if you preferred to call it that.

You could go on and on, but not perhaps forever. Whither then should he go but to Angband? For many a great tale has his father made to him aforetime of thy splendour and thy glory. Lo, lord, albeit I am no renegade thrall, still do I desire nothing so much as to serve thee in what small manner I may. The truth, however, did Beren then tell, saying that he was a great huntsman, swift and cunning to shoot or snare or to outrun all birds and beasts.

I would myself have fared to thee and begged of thee some humble office as a winner of meats for thy table, perchance had not these Orcs seized me and tormented me unjustly.

Subsequently a part of this passage was emended on the typescript, to read: At the same time the words 'Now the Valar must have inspired that speech' were changed to 'Now the Valar inspired that speech'.

In the MS the Gnomish name is Tifil. Then was Tiberth wroth, and said: Often too was he tormented by the cats and other evil beasts of their company, and when, as happened at whiles, there was an Orc-feast in those halls, he would ofttimes be set to the roasting of birds and other meats upon spits before the mighty fires in Melko's dungeons, until he swooned for the overwhelming heat; yet he knew himself fortunate beyond all hope in being yet alive among those cruel foes of Gods and Elves.

Seldom got he food or sleep himself, and he became haggard and half-blind, so that he wished often that never straying out of the wild free places of Hisilome he had not even caught sight afar off of the vision of Tinuviel. Little love was there between the woodland Elves and the folk of Angband even in those days before the Battle of Unnumbered Tears when Melko's power was not grown to its full, and he veiled his designs, and spread his net of lies.

Carcaras is spelt thus subsequently in the typescript. Now when the guards awoke it was late in the morning, and they fled away nor dared to bear the tidings to their lord; and Dairon it was bore word of the escape of Tinuviel to Thingol, for he had met the folk that ran in amazement from the ladders which each morning were lifted to her door. Great was the mingled grief and wrath of the king, and all the deep places of his court were in uproar, and all the woods were ringing with the search; but Tinuviel was already far away dancing madly through the dark woods towards the gloomy foothills and the Mountains of Night.

Now fared Tinuviel forward, and a sudden dread overtook her at the thought of what she had dared to do, and of what lay before her. Then did she turn back for a while, and wept, wishing that Dairon were with her. It is said that he was not indeed at that time far off, and wandered lost in Taurfuin, the Forest of Night, where after Turin slew Beleg by mishap.

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Nigh was Tinuviel to those evil places; but she entered not that dark region, and the Valar set a new hope in her heart, so that she pressed on once more. No less too was their skill in climbing and in hiding, and their fleetness was that of an arrow, yet were the free dogs of the northern woods marvellously valiant and knew no fear, and great enmity was between them, and some of those hounds were held in dread even by the greatest of the cats.

None, however, did Tiberth fear save only Huan the lord of the Hounds of Hisi1ome. So swift was Huan that on a time he had fallen upon Tiberth as he hunted alone in the woods, and pursuing him had overtaken him and nigh rent the fur of his neck from him ere he was rescued by a host of Orcs that heard his cries.

Huan got him many hurts in that battle ere he won away, but the wounded pride of Tiberth lusted ever for his death. Great therefore was the good fortune that befell Tinuviel in meeting with Huan in the woods; and this she did in a little glade nigh to the forest's borders, where the first grasslands begin that are nourished by the upper waters of the river Sirion. Seeing him she was mortally afraid and turned to flee; but in two swift leaps Huan overtook her.

Speaking softly the deep tongue of the Lost Elves he bade her be not afeared, and "wherefore," said he, "do I see an Elfin maiden, and one most fair, wandering thus nigh to the places of the Prince of Evil Heart?

What is thy thought, O Huan? I will guide thee thither by the most secret ways, and when we are come there thou must creep alone, if thou hast the heart, to the dwelling of that prince at an hour nigh noon when he and most of his household lie drowsing upon the terraces before his gates.

There thou mayst perchance discover, if fortune is very kind, whether Beren be indeed within that ill place as thy mother said to thee. But lo, I will lie not far from the foot of the mount whereon Tiberth's hall is built, and thou must say to Tiberth so soon as thou seest him, be Beren there or be he not, that thou hast stumbled upon Huan of the Dogs lying sick of great wounds in a withered dale without his gates.

Fear not overmuch, for herein wilt thou both do my pleasure and further thine own desires, as well as may be; nor do I think that when Tiberth hears thy tidings thou wilt be in any peril thyself for a time. Only do thou not direct him to the place that I shall show to thee; thou must offer to guide him thither thyself. Thus thou shalt get free again of his evil house, and shalt see what I contrive for the Prince of Cats.

At last on a day at morn they came to a wide dale hollowed like a bowl among the rocks. Deep were its sides, but nought grew there save low bushes of scanty leaves and withered grass. I think it is improbable that any more of this version was made. The distinction made here between the Elves who call the queen Wendelin and, by implication, the Gnomes who call her 3.

Gwendeling is even more explicit in the typescript version, p. See I. The manuscript as originally written read: From this point, and continuing to the words 'forests of the south' on p. There is no rejected material corresponding to this passage. It is possible that it existed, and was removed from the book and lost; but, though the book is in a decayed state, it does not seem that any pages were removed here, and I think it more likely that my father simply found himself short of space, as he wrote over the original, erased, version, and almost certainly expanded it as he went.

The text as originally written read: As a result of the interpolation 'but turned towards Palisor' Palisor is placed in the south of the world. In the tale of The Coming of the Elves I.

The Tale of Turambar, though composed after the Tale of Tinuviel, was in existence when Tinuviel was rewritten see p.

From 'amazed utterly' to 'if Tinuviel were not there' p. A short passage of earlier text in pencil becomes visible here, ending: This was a slip, but a significant slip see p.

It is possible that 'man'was used here, as occasionally elsewhere e. Struck out here in the manuscript: Originally the name of Tinuviel's brother was Tifanto throughout the tale. See notes , and the Commentary, p. Mablung replaced Tifanto, and again immediately below; see note In this place Mablung was the form as first written; see the Commentary, p. It is essential to the narrative of the Coming of the Elves that the Solosimpi were the third and last of the three tribes; 'second' here can only be a slip, if a surprising one.

Changes made to names in The Tale of Tinuviel. Gwendeling As the tale was originally written, Wendelin was the name throughout Wendelin is found in tales given in Part One, emended from Tindriel: It was later changed throughout to the Gnomish form Gwendeling found in the early Gnomish dictionary, 1. Dairon Mablung at the end of the tale notes above see the Commentary, p. Dor Lomin Elves it is said I. At subsequent occurrences in this tale Aryador was not changed.

Angband was originally twice written, and in one of these cases it was changed to Angamandi, in the other p. In the manuscript version of the tale Veanne does not make consistent use of Gnomish or 'Elvish' forms: Commentary on The Tale of Tinuviel. The primary narrative. In this section I shall consider only the conduct of the main story, and have for the moment such questions as the wider history implied in it, Tinwelint's people and his dwelling, or the geography of the lands that appear in the story.

The story of Beren's coming upon Tinuviel in the moonlit glade in its earliest recorded form pp. But there are nonetheless the most remarkable differences; and the chief of these is of course that Beren was here no mortal Man, but an Elf, one of the Noldoli, and the absolutely essential element of the story of Beren and Luthien is not present.

It will be seen later pp. Several years after the composition of the tale in the form in which we have it he became a Man again, though at that time -- 6 my father appears to have hesitated long on the matter of the elvish or mortal nature of Beren.

In the tale there is, necessarily, a quite different reason for the hostility and distrust shown to Beren in Artanor Doriath -- namely that 'the Elves of the woodland thought of the Gnomes of Dor Lomin as treacherous creatures, cruel and faithless' see below, p. It seems clear that at this time the history of Beren and his father Egnor was only very sketchily devised; there is in any case no hint of the story of the outlaw band led by his father and its betrayal by Gorlim the Unhappy The Silmarillion pp.

But an association of Beren's father changed to Beren himself with Urin Hurin as 'brother in arms' is mentioned in the typescript version of the tale pp.

In the old story, Tinuviel had no meetings with Beren before the day when he boldly accosted her at last, and it was at that very time that she led him to Tinwelint's cave; they were not lovers, Tinuviel knew nothing of Beren but that he was enamoured of her dancing, and it seems that she brought him before her father as a matter of courtesy, the natural thing to do. Despite these radical differences in the narrative structure, it is remarkable how many features of the scene in Tinwelint's hall pp.

To the beginning go back, for instance, Beren's abashment and silence, Tinuviel's answering for him, the sudden rising of his courage and uttering of his desire without preamble or hesitation.

But the tone is altogether lighter and less grave than it afterwards became; in the jeering laughter of Tinwelint, who treats the matter as a jest and Beren as a benighted fool, there is no hint of what is explicit in the later story: The Silmarils are indeed famous, and they have a holy power p. In this passage is the first mention of the I ron Crown of Melko, and the setting of the Silmarils in the Crown; and here again is a detail that was never lost: The Silmarillion p.

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But from this point Veanne's story diverges in an altogether unexpected fashion from the later narrative. At no other place in the Last Tales is the subsequent transformation more remarkable than in this, the precursor of the story of the capture of Beren and Felagund and their companions by Sauron the Necromancer, the imprisonment and death of all save Beren in the dungeons of Tol-in-Gaurhoth the Isle of Werewolves in the river Sirion , and the rescue of Beren and overthrow of Sauron by Luthien and Huan.

Most notably, what may be referred to as 'the Nargothrond Element' is entirely absent, and in so far as it already existed had as yet made no contact with the story of Beren and Tinuviel for Nargothrond, not yet so named, at this period see pp. Beren has no ring of Felagund, he has no companions on his northward journey, and there is no relationship between on the one hand the story of his capture, his speech with Melko, and his dispatch to the house of Tevildo, and on the other the events of the later narrative whereby Beren and the band of Elves out of Nargothrond found themselves in Sauron's dungeon.

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Indeed, all the complex background of legend, of battles and rivalries, oaths and alliances, out of which the story of Beren and Luthien arises in The Silmarillion, is very largely absent. The castle of the Cats 'is' the tower of Sauron on Tol-in-Gaurhoth, but only in the sense that it occupies the same 'space' in the narrative: The monstrous gormandising cats, their kitchens and their sunning terraces, and their engagingly Elvish-feline names Miaugion, Miaule, Meoita all disappeared without trace.

Did Tevildo? It would scarcely be true, I think, to say even that Sauron 'originated' in a cat: On the other hand it would be wrong to regard it as a simple matter of replacement Thu stepping into the narrative place vacated by Tevildo without any element of transformation of what was previously there.

Tevildo's immediate successor is 'the Lord of Wolves', himself a werewolf, and he retains the Tevildo-trait of hating Huan more than any other creature in the world. Tevildo was 'an evil fay in beastlike shape' p. When the tale returns to Tinuviel in Artanor the situation is quite the reverse: The passage in The Silmarillion p.

It may be observed that in this part of the story the earliest version had a strength that was diminished later, in that the duration of Tinuviel's imprisonment and her journey to Beren's rescue relates readily enough to that of Beren's captivity, which was intended by his captors to be unending; whereas in the later story there is a great deal of event and movement with the addition of Luthien's captivity in Nargothrond to be fitted into the time when Beren was awaiting his death in the dungeon of the Necromancer.

While the strong element of 'explanatory' beast-fable concerning cats and dogs was to be entirely eliminated, and Tevildo Prince of Cats replaced by the Necromancer, Huan nonetheless remained from it as the great Hound of Valinor. His encounter with Tinuviel in the woods, her inability to escape from him, and indeed his love for her from the moment of their meeting suggested in the tale, p. In the story of the defeat of Tevildo and the rescue of Beren the germ of the later legend is clearly seen, though for the most part only in broad structural resemblances.

It is curious to observe that the loud speaking of Tinuviel sitting perched on the sill of the kitchen hatch in the castle of the Cats, so that Beren might hear, is the precursor of her singing on the bridge of Tol-in-Gaurhoth the song that Beren heard in his dungeon The Silmarillion p. Tevildo's intention to hand her over to Melko remained in Sauron's similar purpose ibid.

Huan released his enemy when he yielded the mastery of his dwelling. This last is very notable: Of course, when this waswritten the castle of Tevildo was an adventitious feature in the story -- it had no previous history: The Silmarillion pp. This element in the legend remained, however, and is fully present in The Silmarillion p. And she said: Then Luthien stood upon the bridge, and declared her power: Here again the actual matter of the narrative is totally different in the Carly and late forms of the legend: If my fatherhad used in the tale names other than Huan, Beren, and Tinuviel, and inthe absence of all other knowledge, including that of authorship, it wouldnot be easy to demonstrate from a simple comparison between this part ofthe Tale and the story as told in The Silmarillion that the resemblances were more than superficial and accidental.

A more minor narrative point may be noticed here. The typescriptversi on would presumably have treated the fight of Huan and Tevildo somewhat differently, for in the manuscript Tevildo and his companion can flee up great trees p.

In the remainder of the story the congruence between early and late forms is far closer. The narrative structure in the tale may be summarised thus: Beren is attired for disguise in the fell of the dead cat Oikeroi.

He and Tinuviel journey together to Angamandi. Tinuviel lays a spell of sleep on Karkaras the wolf-ward of Angamandi. They enter Angamandi, Beren slinks in his beast-shape beneath the seat of Melko, and Tinuviel dances before Melko. All the host of Angamandi and finally Melko himself are cast into sleep, and Melko's iron crown rolls from his head.

Tinuviel rouses Beren, who cuts a Silmaril from the crown, and the blade snaps. The sleepers stir, and Beren and Tinuviel flee back to the gates, but find Karkaras awake again. Karkaras bites off Beren's outthrust hand holding the Silmaril.

Karkaras becomes mad with the pain of the Silmaril in his belly, for the Silmaril is a holy thing and sears evil flesh. Karkaras goes raging south to Artanor.

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Beren and Tinuviel return to Artanor; they go before Tinwelint and Beren declares that a Silmaril is in his hand. The hunting of the wolf takes place, and Mablung the Heavyhanded is one of the hunters. Beren is slain by Karkaras, and is borne back to the cavern of Tinwelint on a bier of boughs; dying he gives the Silmaril to Tinwelint. Tinuviel follows Beren to Mandos, and Mandos permits them to return into the world. Changing the catskin of Oikeroi to the wolfskin of Draugluin, and altering some other names, this would do tolerably well as a precis of the story in The Silmarillion!

But of course it is devised as a summary of similarities. There are major differences as well as a host of minor ones that do not appear in it. Again, most important is the absence of 'the Nargothrond Element'.

When this combined with the Beren legend it introduced Felagund as Beren's companion, Luthien's imprisonment in Nargothrond by Celegorm and Curufin, her escape with Huan the hound of Celegorm, and the attack on Beren and Luthien as they returned from Tol-inGaurhoth by Celegorm and Curufin, now fleeing from Nargothrond The Silmarillion pp. The narrative after the conclusion of the episode of 'the Thraldom of Beren' is conducted quite differently in the old story pp. In The Silmarillion p. But on either road I shall go with you, and our doom shall be alike.

He was overtaken on the edge of Anfauglith by Huan bearing Luthien on his back and bringing from Tol-in-Gaurhoth the skins of Draugluin and of Sauron's bat-messenger Thuringwethil of whom in the old story there is no trace ; attired in these Beren and Luthien went to Angband. Huan is here their active counsellor.

Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle-earth

The later legend is thus more full of movement and incident in this part than is the Tale of Tinuviel though the final form was not achieved all at one stroke, as may be imagined ; and in the Silmarillion form this is the more marked from the fact that the account is a compression and a summary of the long Lay of Leithian.

Professor T. Shippey, The Road to Middle-earth, , p. The other side of that criticism is that on occasion Tolkien has to bc rather brisk with his own inventions. Celegorm wounds Beren, and the hound Huan turns on his master and pursues him; "returning he brought to Luthien a herb out of the forest. With that leaf she staunched Beren's wound, and by her arts and her love she healed him But in that it occupies a whole scene, if not a whole poem.

In The Silmarillion it appears only to be dismissed in two lines, while Beren's wound is inflicted and healed in five. Repeatedly one has this sense of summary In the Lay of Leithian the wounding and the healing with the herb occupy some 64 lines. In the Tale of Tinuviel the account of Beren's disguise is characteristically detailed: Tinuviel's disguise as a bat has however not yet emerged, and whereas in The Silmarillion when confronted by Carcharoth she 'cast back her foul raiment' and 'commanded him to sleep', here she used once more the magical misty robe spun of her hair: The indifference of Karkaras to the false Oikeroi contrasts with Carcharoth's suspicion of the false Druagluin, of whose death he had heard tidings: The encounter of Tinuviel with Melko is given with far more detail than in The Silmarillion here much compressed from its source ; notable is the phrase p.

Then Morgoth looking upon her beauty conceived in his thought an evil lust, and a design more dark than any that had yet come into his heart since he fled from Valinor.

We are never told anything more explicit. Whether Melko's words to Tinuviel, 'Who art thou that flittest about my halls like a bat? The knife with which Beren cut the Silmaril from the Iron Crown has a quite different provenance in the Tale of Tinuviel, being a kitchen-knife that Beren took from Tevildo's castle pp.

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The sleepers of Angamandi are here disturbed by the sound of the snapping of the knife-blade; in The Silmarillion it is the shard flying from the snapped knife and striking Morgoth's cheek that makes him groan and stir. There is a minor difference in the accounts of the meeting with the wolf as Beren and Tinuviel fled out. In The Silmarillion 'Luthien was spent, and she had not time nor strength to quell the wolf'; in the tale it seems that she might have done so if Beren had not been precipitate.

Much more important, there appears here for the first time the conception of the holy power of the Silmarils that burns unhallowed flesh. In The Silmarillion pp. In the old story Huan comes to them later, after their long southward flight on foot. In both accounts there is a discussion between them as to whether or not they should return to her father's hall, but it is quite differently conducted -- in the tale it is she who persuades Beren to return, in The Silmarillion it is Beren who persuades her.

There is a curious feature in the story of the Wolf-hunt pp. At first, it was Tinuviel's brother who took part in the hunt with Tinwelint, Beren, and Huan, and his name is here Tifanto, which was the name throughout the tale before its replacement by Dairon. Thus on the one hand Tifanto was lost, and it is a grief to Tinuviel on her return to learn of it, but on the other he was present at the Wolf-hunt.

Tifanto was then changed to Dairon throughout the tale, except in the story of the Wolf-hunt, where Tifanto was replaced by a new character, Mablung. This shows that Tifanto was removed from the hunt before the change of name to Dairon, but does not explain how, under the name Tifanto, he was both lost in the wilds and present at the hunt. Since there is nothing in the MS itself to explain this puzzle, I can only conclude that my father did, in fact, write at first that Tifanto was lost and never came back, and also that he took part in the Wolf-hunt; but observing this contradiction he introduced Mablung in the latter role and probably did this even before the tale was completed, since at the last appearance of Mablung his name was written thus, not emended from Tifanto: It was subsequent to this that Tifanto was emended, wherever it still stood, to Dairon.

In the tale the hunt is differently managed from the story in The Silmarillion where, incidentally, Beleg Strongbow was present. It is curious that all including, as it appears, Huan! In The Silmarillion Huan slew Carcharoth and was slain by Aim, whereas here Karkaras met his death from the king's spear, and the boy Ausir tells at the end that Huan lived on to find Beren again at the time of 'the great deeds of the Nauglafring' p.

Of Huan's destiny, that he should not die 'until he encountered the mightiest wolf that would ever walk the world', and of his being permitted 'thrice only ere his death to speak with words' The Silmarillion p. The most remarkable feature of the Tale of Tinuviel remains the fact that in its earliest extant form Beren was an Elf; and in this connection very notable are the words of the boy at the end p. Thither [i. There Mandos spake their doom, and there they waited in the darkness, dreaming of their past deeds, until such time as he appointed when they might again be born into their children, and go forth to laugh and sing again.

The same idea occurs in the tale of The Music of the Ainur 1. The peculiar dispensation of Mandos in the case of Beren and Tinuviel as here conceived is therefore that their whole 'natural' destiny as Elves was changed: The earliest eschatology is too unclear to allow of a satisfactory interpretation of this 'mortality', and the passage in The Building of Valinor on the fates of Men 1.

But it seems possible that the words 'even as Men' in the address of Mandos to Beren and Tinuviel were included to stress the finality of whatever second deaths they might undergo; their departure would be as final as that of Men, there would be no second return in their own persons, and no reincarnation.

They will remain in Mandos 'when ye fare hither again it will be for ever' -- unless they are summoned by the Gods to dwell in Valinor. These last words should probably be related to the passage in The Building of Valinor concerning the fate of certain Men 1. Few are they and happy indeed for whom at a season doth Nornore the herald of the Gods set out. Then ride they with him in chariots or upon good horses down into the vale of Valinor and feast in the halls of Valmar, dwelling in the houses of the Gods until the Great End come.

Places and peoples in the Tale of Tinuviel. Tolkien 's The Lord of the Rings. Adaptations and other derivative works. The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King The Hunt for Gollum Born of Hope I Vol. Shadow of Mordor Middle-earth: Shadow of War. Middle Earth Lord of the Rings Risk: Middle-earth Lego sets. Tolkien 's legendarium.

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Middle-earth Writings. Author of the Century J. Maker of Middle-earth.

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