PDF | On Jan 1, , Ian A Kerr and others published The Value of the History of Economic Thought. Source: ronaldweinland.info pdf history of economic theory on the grounds that promising students can cut A strong case for perpetuating the historical study of economic thought can be . Among the social sciences, economics is often considered the most cohesive and influential, which both its defenders and detractors explain by its reliance on a.
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This reader in the history of economic thought challenges the assumption that PDF · The Tradition of Economic Thought in the Mediterranean World from the. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. History of economic thought : a critical perspective I E. K. Hunt and Mark Lautzenheiser;. Education and history of economic thought: from Adam Smith to the «Residue of Ignorance» (). History of Education & Children's Literature HECL.
As Leland Yeager has pointed out, unlike the scientists of the natural sciences, economists provide their ideas largely to politicians and political appointees who have rather different incentives that might prevent them from choosing the best economic theory. In this book, the life and work of each of the founders of economics is examined by the best available expert on that founding figure. These contributors present rather novel and certainly not mainstream interpretations of the founders of modern economics. The primary theme concerns the development of economic thought as this emerged in the various continental traditions including the Islamic tradition. These continental traditions differed substantially, both substantively and methodologically, from the Anglo-Saxon orientation that has been dominant in the last century for example in the study of public finance or the very construct of the state itself. This books maps the various channels of continental economics, particularly from the lateth through the earlyth centuries, explaining and demonstrating the underlying unity amid the surface diversity.
It's an excellent set of brief summaries of the current state of the art in the history of thought, from ancient times until today. Jeff E. John B.
Professor Davis specializes in history of economic thought and is renowned for his work on John Maynard Keynes. Recently he was a visiting fellow at Clare Hall, Cambridge, UK where he conducted research on Keynes' unpublished manuscripts. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password.
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Samuels Jeff E. Ancient Athens , an advanced city-state civilisation and progressive society, developed an embryonic model of democracy. Plato 's dialogue The Republic c. According to Joseph Schumpeter , Plato was the first known advocate of a credit theory of money that is, money as a unit of account for debt. Of particular interest for economists, Plato provided a blueprint of a society based on common ownership of resources.
Aristotle viewed this model as an oligarchical anathema. Though Aristotle did certainly advocate holding many things in common, he argued that not everything could be, simply because of the "wickedness of human nature". For him there is a certain "art of acquisition" or "wealth-getting", but because it[ clarification needed ] is the same many people are obsessed with its accumulation, and "wealth-getting" for one's household is "necessary and honorable", while exchange on the retail trade for simple accumulation is "justly censured, for it is dishonorable".
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Education and history of economic thought: Stefano Spalletti. Research regarding these themes has brought important con- tributions to the analysis of the economic value of education and of its impact on income distribution.
In order to summarize the main results over the last two centuries, the article uses the four categories suggested by William G. Bowen, i.
The literature review covers some high profile authors in the development of the economics of education. Firstly, it looks back to the main contributions from the history of economic thought section 1. Secondly, it attempts to underline the fundamental reasons for the spreading of literature on education and human capital in the late Fifties and in the early Sixties of the 20th centu- ry section 2. A brief conclusion ends this short survey.
Economic value of education and educational opportunities 1.
Starting from a classical locus of The Wealth of Nations, a precise sequence of quotations consolidates a definition of human capital from the point of view of production. According to Smith, when any expensive machine is erected, the extraordinary work to be performed by it before it is worn out, it must be expected, will replace the capital laid out upon it, with at least the ordinary profits. A man educated at the expense of much labour and time to any of those employments which require extraordinary dexterity and skill, may be compared to one of those expensive machines Smith, I,x,b, 3.
In this passage, Smith states that dexterity and labour skills of a man are comparable to a specialized machine which is included in the account of the fixed capital.
Fry ed. A Re-Exam- ination, in A.
Skinner, T. Wilson eds. The main conclusion is that the aim of training and spe- cialization of human resources is productive and determines a theoretical account of investment. Smith is also aware of the efforts in the acquisition of human talents and in their maintenance. The talents always cost a real expense, which is a capital fixed and realized, as it were, in his per- son.
Those talents, as they make a part of his fortune, so do they likewise of that of the society to which he belongs. The improved dexterity of a workman may be considered in the same light as a machine or instrument of trade which facilitates and abridges labour, and which, though it costs a certain expense, repays that expense with a profit Smith, II,i, From this perspective, Smith can be placed in the group of classical econo- mists who elaborate the definition of working skills as capital.
However, he does not go beyond this. He does not proceed to measure the amount of wealth that originates from the human being and does not attempt to find an empirical mea- sure of the cost of education and of the economic returns.
Although a theoretical representation of human capital returns, firmly anchored to the educational costs, does not exist, those costs are indicated with a certain precision. During apprenticeship, for example, the entire work of the apprentice belongs to his master.
In many cases the apprentice needs to be maintained in the meanwhile by parents or relatives who, usually, have to provide him with clothes.
Generally, the master receives some money, so that he teaches the trade Smith, I,x,b,8. The costs of education and training are therefore grouped into four typologies, according to their nature: Notably, Smith argues: They are so accord- ingly, and their superior gains make them in most places be considered as a superior rank of people.
This superiority, however, is generally very small; the daily or weekly earnings of journeymen in the more common sorts of manufactures, such as those of plain linen or woollen cloth, computed at an average, are, in most places, very little more than the day wages of common labourers.
Their employment, indeed, is more steady and uniform, and the superiority of their earnings, taking the whole year together, may be somewhat greater.
It seems evidently, however, to be no greater than what is sufficient to compensate the supe- rior expense of their education Smith, I,x,b,8. John Stuart Mill Mill follows Smith in arguing that skills and knowledge, and consequently both technical and general education, are important factors bearing upon labour productivity: The intelligence of the workman is a most important element in the productiveness of labour.
So low, in some of the most civilized countries, is the present standard of intelligence, that there is hardly any source from which a more indefinite amount of improvement may be looked for in productive power, than by endowing with brains those who now have only hands4.
In fact: According to Bowman6, Mill goes beyond Smith in arguing that general education has an important bearing on productivity. However, Mill is the economist who better underlines the classical arguments in support of government intervention in education. According to Mill, a serious economic failure arises from the market of education. It is the so called natural monopoly in favour of skilled labourers to the detriment of unskilled ones: When a course of instruction is required, of even a low degree of costliness, or that the labourer must be maintained for a considerable time from other sources, suffices every- where to exclude the great body of the labouring people from the possibility of any such competition.