PDF | Background: In , Egypt has witnessed a paradigm shift in the pharmacy profession with by using Drug Information Center Scoring Index (DI- CSI). “Essential drugs - practical guidelines” is an important contribution from essential medicines, certain drugs have been added, others have. Egyptian Drug Authority. Inspectorate is a specialized department belonging to the General Pharmaceutical Inspectorate, CAPA, MOHP, Egypt.
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Egptian Essential Drug List 28 Prednisolone. Tablet: 5mg; 25mg. Syrup: 5mg/5ml. Injection: 25mg,mg,1g. 29 Chlorpheniramine. Tablet: 4 mg. Egyptian Essential Drug List The Egyptian Drug Authority (EDA) is the pharmaceutical regulatory body of the Egyptian View the PDF document. ronaldweinland.info - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or Egyptian Drug Guide 3rd Edition Avandia. Drug Index
Laboratory investigations included: complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, lipid profile, immunological profile antinuclear antibodies, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, anticardiolipin antibody, and complements C3 and C4. The right common carotid artery was scanned by ultrasound and the average of carotid intima media thickness CIMT was calculated mean of four readings for all participants participating in the study. ECG was also done for all participants. A greater prevalence of increased CIMT was observed in SLE patients, emphasizing the important role of this disease in the development of premature atherosclerosis which did not correlate with disease activity or severity parameters. Outcome of intensive rehabilitation following single-event multilevel surgery for crouch gait in children with cerebral palsy p. H Amen, Dalia M. The literature reports wide variations in surgical practice and rehabilitation programs following single-event multilevel surgeries.
Heavy workload and new staff. Miscommunications between health care professionals. Discussion The aim of this systematic review was to review studies of the incidence and types of MEs in Middle Eastern countries and to identify the main contributory factors involved.
Prescribing errors Many differences were found with regard to how the studies obtained and reported data. Transcribing errors Although some studies classified the transcribing stage as the third most important area in the medication treatment process, Lisby et al. Administration errors Our review showed that administration errors occurred in 9.
Limitation of this review Some limitations of this review should be considered in interpreting the results. Conclusion As the first systematic review to describe MEs in Middle Eastern countries, this review aimed to find out which scientific literature has reported on or evaluated MEs in Middle East countries. Suggested recommendations According to the review results, the following recommendations are suggested to allow decision-makers to improve medication safety and reduce MEs in Middle Eastern countries: Increase the awareness of MEs of health care professionals.
Prescribers need to pay more attention to drug dosing. Clinical consequences of MEs should be assessed and evaluated in future studies Carry out regular intensive educational and training programmes in pharmacotherapy for undergraduate medical and paramedical students. Acknowledgments Zayed Alsulami is a postgraduate research student and sponsored by the Saudi Arabian government. Competing interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author s and the source are credited. Footnotes Contributor statement All authors contributed to the manuscript during planning, data analysis, interpretation and revision.
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Errors in the medication process: It should be relevant to the research question and adapted to benefits gained by the health care system. Only for those whom clinical and cost effectiveness may be expected to differ from that of the overall population. Comparators should be policy relevant. The widely used and reimbursed health care technology for a given patient group is the preferred option.
It should be ensured that the chosen outcome and the resource consumption of the treatment alternatives are observable in this period. Direct medical costs as well as additional costs, savings or other benefits when data are available. Primary data collection; if unavailable, secondary data sources can be used such as local administration, accounting data patient chart review.
The assess common impairments that occur in individuals with prevalence of smoking was higher among pure tramadol SUD McLellan et al.
For detecting the correlation of Immunochromatography The sociodemographic characteristics of patients who test was used for qualitative detection of drugs or their metab- used pure tramadol and those who used polysubstance were olites in urine. Positive results indicated only the presence of a comparable except for their occupations. Both groups started smoking at the same age study. Patients with poly- variables. Comparisons were made using paired Student test t substance use were more likely to have drug-related problems test in the case of quantitative data for 2 groups.
Bassiony et al. Severe 27 The most common person- No problems 40 Cluster B Severe 57 75 16 The most common personality disorders were borderline disorders among patients who used only tramadol, and avoidant and obsessive disorders among the controls, as Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders shown in Table 3.
Among the patients, Among The prevalence of personality disorders among patients the controls, Among the patients, mood disorders was comparable. Cluster B Among the patients There was no association between personality disorders who used only tramadol, Whereas, among the pure tramadol users, Comparison among total cases, polysubstance, pure tramadol, and control groups regarding psychiatric disorders.
The high who used polysubstance, and this finding was supported by frequency of OUD-T among married patients could be earlier studies Vivek et al. The explained by its therapeutic effect on premature ejaculation, results of this study confirm the findings of a recent study its low cost, or its lower social stigmatization than other opioids.
Hamdi et al. These results substance after tramadol. This is consistent with the last are comparable with another study Hassanian-Moghaddam national report in Egypt Hamdi et al.
Skilled workers used tramadol to overcome fatigue, used pharmaceutical drug among Egyptian youth Loffredo increase alertness, and decrease pain to help them work et al. Further, a recent study Mohamed et al. However, the frequency of benzodiazepines started smoking earlier than the controls. This finding is use was high in our study. The high level of benzodiazepines consistent with another study Haas et al. Patients using polysubstance were more addition, patients who took higher doses of tramadol might likely to have drug-related problems than those who used experience seizures and took benzodiazepines especially only tramadol.
This was reflected by the ASI scores and was clonazepam as prophylaxis or treatment for seizures. One comparable with the results of an earlier study Ahmad et al. Mood Zhang and Liu, , India Sarkar et al. Emerging case reports demonstrate that tramadol could psychiatric comorbidities Kessler et al.
It was suggested There are several reasons for these wide vari- et al. Among patients who used only tramadol, Comparison Between Polysubstance Users and comorbid axis-I disorders, among which anxiety Negative 24 31 12 50 2.
This Avoidant 4 5. Narcisstic 0 0 1 4. This Schizoid 0 0 1 4. The high prevalence of comorbidity of anxiety and Chi-square test was used to compare between positive and negative, whereas Fisher mood disorders among OUD-T patients could be explained by exact test was used to compare among types of personalities. This significant relationship could be explained by 2 factors: firstly, the high Limitations prevalence of smoking among patients with psychiatric This was a cross-sectional study, and hence, could not comorbidities as reported by previous studies Lasser et al.
This substances Lindsay and Rainey, Hence, these findings disorders could be due to common genetic and environmental cannot be generalized to the general population. We included risk factors, or because one of them caused the other. In this first-degree relatives of the patients as controls. This might study, we excluded participants who had a past history of represent a potential bias in study design. We included psychiatric illness. Therefore, we expected that those with consecutive patients without randomization and this might psychiatric disorders had developed them after the use of lead to a lack of control for all confounders related to substances.
In addition, the controls were first-degree psychiatric comorbidities.
On the contrary, they had This study concluded that patients with OUD-T were much lesser comorbidities than the patients did. This might more likely to be married, skilled males from rural areas. About three-fourths of the patients used other substances However, this explanation should be considered with caution besides tramadol, and more than half of the patients used as some patients might be unable to recall a past history of a less than 5 tablets mg per day.
Screening for common mental This study found that cluster B was the most frequent disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired cleaners in Egyptian governmental hospitals, Zagazig city, Sharqia Governorate. Int J Occup personality category Environ Med ;—