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Reads like paper with no glare, even in bright sunlight. Holds over 1, books - take your library wherever you go.
The matte screen reflects light like ordinary paper and uses no backlighting, so you can read as easily in bright sunlight as in your living room. Unlike tablet screens, Kindle has no glare. Lighter Than a Paperback Less than 6 ounces, Kindle is lighter than most paperback books, and weighs half as much as many tablets, making it easy and comfortable to hold in one hand for extended periods of time.
One-Month Battery Life Kindle also has the advantage of significantly lower power consumption than tablets. Kindle does not require power to maintain a page of text, allowing you to read for up to a month on a single charge, with wireless off and a half hour of reading per day, versus hours on a tablet or smart phone.
Sharp, Clear Text Kindle uses actual ink particles and proprietary, hand-built fonts to create crisp, print-like text similar to what you see in a physical book.
The blacks and whites on the screen are uniform, improving image quality. Easy on the Eyes Every time your eyes switch from a bright screen to a dimmer, ambient room, your eyes have to adjust, which may result in fatigue.
With Kindle the page is the same brightness as everything else in the room so there's no adjustment needed. Read in Any Position When you read for long periods of time, you often switch positions to get more comfortable. Kindle has a uniform contrast ratio that does not change with your viewing angle, so you can read in any position.
Holds Over 1, Books Carry more than 1, books - keep your library with you wherever you go. Thinner Than a Pencil At just over a third of an inch, Kindle is thinner than a pencil. You can download the binaries from windows.
For learning and local development, you can use the built in webserver with PHP 5. That said, these tools will be a little different from production so be careful of environment differences if you are working on Windows and deploying to Linux.
If you need to run your production system on Windows, then IIS7 will give you the most stable and best performance. For support and additional resources there is a dedicated area on iis. Generally running your application on different environment in development and production can lead to strange bugs popping up when you go live. If you are developing on Windows and deploying to Linux or anything non-Windows then you should consider using a Virtual Machine. Chris Tankersley has a very helpful blog post on what tools he uses to do PHP development using Windows.
For each team, CMS, or framework one works in, a standard directory structure is used by each of those entities. However, if one is starting a project alone, knowing which filesystem structure to use can be daunting. Paul M. Jones has done some fantastic research into common practices of tens of thousands of github projects in the realm of PHP.
For other files and directories, abiding by the Standard PHP Package Skeleton will make the most sense to contributors of a project. The PHP community is large and diverse, composed of innumerable libraries, frameworks, and components.
It is common for PHP developers to choose several of these and combine them into a single project. It is important that PHP code adhere as close as possible to a common code style to make it easy for developers to mix and match various libraries for their projects.
The Framework Interop Group has proposed and approved a series of style recommendations. You can use them for your own projects, or continue to use your own personal style. Ideally, you should write PHP code that adheres to a known standard.
This means other developers can easily read and work with your code, and applications that implement the components can have consistency even when working with lots of third-party code. It will show errors and describe how to fix them.
It can also be helpful to include this command in a git hook. That way, branches which contain violations against the chosen standard cannot enter the repository until those violations have been fixed. It will show which kind of errors the code structure had before it fixed them.
English is preferred for all symbol names and code infrastructure. Comments may be written in any language easily readable by all current and future parties who may be working on the codebase. PHP is a flexible, dynamic language that supports a variety of programming techniques. It has evolved dramatically over the years, notably adding a solid object-oriented model in PHP 5.
PHP has a very complete set of object-oriented programming features including support for classes, abstract classes, interfaces, inheritance, constructors, cloning, exceptions, and more. PHP supports first-class functions, meaning that a function can be assigned to a variable.
Both user-defined and built-in functions can be referenced by a variable and invoked dynamically. Functions can be passed as arguments to other functions a feature called Higher-order Functions and functions can return other functions. Recursion, a feature that allows a function to call itself, is supported by the language, but most PHP code is focused on iteration. PHP 5. As mentioned above, the PHP community has a lot of developers creating lots of code.
When both libraries are used in the same namespace, they collide and cause trouble. Namespaces solve this problem. As described in the PHP reference manual, namespaces may be compared to operating system directories that namespace files; two files with the same name may co-exist in separate directories. It is important for you to namespace your code so that it may be used by other developers without fear of colliding with other libraries.
One recommended way to use namespaces is outlined in PSR-4 , which aims to provide a standard file, class and namespace convention to allow plug-and-play code. The latter requires PHP 5. It is made up primarily of commonly needed datastructure classes stack, queue, heap, and so on , and iterators which can traverse over these datastructures or your own classes which implement SPL interfaces.
PHP was created to write web applications, but is also useful for scripting command line interface CLI programs. Command line PHP programs can help automate common tasks like testing, deployment, and application administration. The -i option will print your PHP configuration just like the phpinfo function. There are a number of other useful command line options , too. To try it out, create a file named hello.
PHP sets up two special variables based on the arguments your script is run with.
The first argument is always the name of your PHP script file, in this case hello. The exit expression is used with a non-zero number to let the shell know that the command failed.
Commonly used exit codes can be found here. One of the most useful tools in software development is a proper debugger. It allows you to trace the execution of your code and monitor the contents of the stack. Your IDE will now intercept the current state as the script executes, allowing you to set breakpoints and probe the values in memory. Graphical debuggers make it very easy to step through code, inspect variables, and eval code against the live runtime.
There are a ton of PHP libraries, frameworks, and components to choose from. Your project will likely use several of them — these are project dependencies. Until recently, PHP did not have a good way to manage these project dependencies.
Even if you managed them manually, you still had to worry about autoloaders. That is no longer an issue. Composer is the recommended dependency manager for PHP. Composer is analogous to NPM in the node.
There is a plethora of PHP libraries that are compatible with Composer and ready to be used in your project. The safest way to download composer is by following the official instructions. This will verify the installer is not corrupt or tampered with. The installer installs a composer. We recommend installing Composer globally e.
To do so, run this command next:. If the above fails due to permissions, prefix with sudo. You can manage it by hand if you like, or use Composer itself. Alternatively, the composer init command will guide you through creating a full composer.
Composer creates a file called composer. If you share your project with others, ensure the composer. To update your dependencies, run composer update.
This is most useful when you define your version requirements flexibly. To receive notifications about new version releases you can sign up for libraries. The Security Advisories Checker is a web service and a command-line tool, both will examine your composer. Composer can also handle global dependencies and their binaries. Usage is straight-forward, all you need to do is prefix your command with global.
It behaves similarly to Composer, but has some notable differences. PEAR requires each package to have a specific structure, which means that the author of the package must prepare it for usage with PEAR. Using a project which was not prepared to work with PEAR is not possible.
PEAR installs packages globally, which means after installing them once they are available to all projects on that server. This can be good if many projects rely on the same package with the same version but might lead to problems if version conflicts between two projects arise. You can install PEAR by downloading the. The PEAR documentation has detailed install instructions for every operating system. If you are using Linux, you can also have a look at your distribution package manager.
Debian and Ubuntu, for example, have an apt php-pear package.
If the package is listed on the PEAR packages list , you can install it by specifying the official name:. If the package is hosted on another channel, you need to discover the channel first and also specify it when installing. See the Using channel docs for more information on this topic.
This example will install code from pear2.
Then the require section will prefix the package name like this:. When this code is installed it will be available in your vendor directory and automatically available through the Composer autoloader:. PHP is a vast language that allows coders of all levels the ability to produce code not only quickly, but efficiently.
To help combat this common issue, this section is aimed at reminding coders of the basic coding practices within PHP. PHP has a class named DateTime to help you when reading, writing, comparing or calculating with date and time. There are many date and time related functions in PHP besides DateTime, but it provides nice object-oriented interface to most common uses. It can handle time zones, but that is outside this short introduction. To start working with DateTime, convert raw date and time string to an object with createFromFormat factory method or do new DateTime to get the current date and time.
Use format method to convert DateTime back to a string for output. Calculating with DateTime is possible with the DateInterval class. DateTime has methods like add and sub that take a DateInterval as an argument. Do not write code that expect same number of seconds in every day, both daylight saving and timezone alterations will break that assumption.
Use date intervals instead. To calculate date difference use the diff method. It will return new DateInterval, which is super easy to display. One last example to demonstrate the DatePeriod class. It is used to iterate over recurring events. It can take two DateTime objects, start and end, and the interval for which it will return all events in between.
It inherits everything in the DateTime class, so involves minimal code alterations, but extra features include Localization support, further ways to add, subtract and format a DateTime object, plus a means to test your code by simulating a date and time of your choosing.
When you are building your application it is helpful to use common patterns in your code and common patterns for the overall structure of your project. Using common patterns is helpful because it makes it much easier to manage your code and lets other developers quickly understand how everything fits together.
If you use a framework then most of the higher level code and project structure will be based on that framework, so a lot of the pattern decisions are made for you. But it is still up to you to pick out the best patterns to follow in the code you build on top of the framework.
Right now PHP does not support Unicode at a low level. However, most string functions, like strpos and strlen , do need special consideration. If you forget even just once, your Unicode string has a chance of being garbled during further processing. Explicitly defining the encoding of your strings in every script will save you a lot of headaches down the road.
Additionally, many PHP functions that operate on strings have an optional parameter letting you specify the character encoding. You should always explicitly indicate UTF-8 when given the option. For example, htmlentities has an option for character encoding, and you should always specify UTF-8 if dealing with such strings.
Note that as of PHP 5. This will use mbstring if it is available, and fall back to non UTF-8 functions if not. See example code below. This is critically important. Note that you must use the utf8mb4 character set for complete UTF-8 support, not the utf8 character set! See Further Reading for why.
Today, it is common to set the character set in the HTTP response header like this:. Disclaimer for newcomers: This way is, however, hardly recommended for serious projects, as it poses some maintenance issues along the road - some might appear in the very beginning, such as pluralization. The most classic way and often taken as reference for i18n and l10n is a Unix tool called gettext. It dates back to and is still a complete implementation for translating software. It is easy enough to get running, while still sporting powerful supporting tools.
It is about Gettext we will be talking here. Also, to help you not get messy over the command-line, we will be presenting a great GUI application that can be used to easily update your l10n source. There are common libraries used that support Gettext and other implementations of i18n. Some of them may seem easier to install or sport additional features or i18n file formats.
In this document, we focus on the tools provided with the PHP core, but here we list others for completion:. Other frameworks also include i18n modules, but those are not available outside of their codebases:.
If you decide to go for one of the libraries that provide no extractors, you may want to use the gettext formats, so you can use the original gettext toolchain including Poedit as described in the rest of the chapter.
You might need to install Gettext and the related PHP library by using your package manager, like apt-get or yum. Here we will also be using Poedit to create translation files. There are three files you usually deal with while working with gettext. Those template files are not mandatory: There are some cases, in big projects, where you might need to separate translations when the same words convey different meaning given a context.
In those cases, you split them into different domains. In Symfony projects, for example, domains are used to separate the translation for validation messages. A locale is simply a code that identifies one version of a language. For rare languages , three letters are used. For some speakers, the country part may seem redundant. To use Gettext, we will need to adhere to a specific structure of folders. First, you will need to select an arbitrary root for your l10n files in your source repository.
As we said in the introduction, different languages might sport different plural rules. However, gettext saves us from this trouble once again. When creating a new. When calling Gettext in code, you will have to specify the number related to the sentence, and it will work out the correct form to use - even using string substitution if needed.
Plural rules include the number of plurals available and a boolean test with n that would define in which rule the given number falls starting the count with 0. For example:. When calling out Gettext to do localization on sentences with counters, you will have to give him the related number as well. Gettext will work out what rule should be in effect and use the correct localized version. You will need to include in the.
The first section works like a header, having the msgid and msgstr especially empty. It describes the file encoding, plural forms and other things that are less relevant. The second section translates a simple string from English to Brazilian Portuguese, and the third does the same, but leveraging string replacement from sprintf so the translation may contain the user name and visit date.
The last section is a sample of pluralization forms, displaying the singular and plural version as msgid in English and their corresponding translations as msgstr 0 and 1 following the number given by the plural rule. The plural forms always have two msgid singular and plural , so it is advised not to use a complex language as the source of translation. As you might have noticed, we are using as source ID the actual sentence in English. That msgid is the same used throughout all your.
The Gettext manual favors the first approach as, in general, it is easier for translators and users in case of trouble. That is how we will be working here as well. However, the Symfony documentation favors keyword-based translation, to allow for independent changes of all translations without affecting templates as well. In a typical application, you would use some Gettext functions while writing static text in your pages.
Those sentences would then appear in. One of the great advantages Gettext has over custom framework i18n packages is its extensive and powerful file format. This guide is based on PoEdit 1. Now, save the file - using that directory structure we mentioned as well.
After setting those points it will run a scan through your source files to find all the localization calls. Kindle DX's display is two and a half times the size of the Kindle display. Whether you're reading the latest bestseller or a financial report, text and images are amazingly sharp on the 9.
Kindle DX is as thin as most magazines. Just over a third of an inch in profile, you'll find Kindle DX fits perfectly in your hands. Now with Zoom capability to easily view small print and detailed tables or graphics. Unload the loose documents from your briefcase or backpack, and put them all on Kindle. From neighborhood newsletters to financial statements to case studies and product manuals--you can take them all with you on Kindle DX. Native PDF support allows you to carry and read all of your personal and professional documents on the go.
With Amazon's Whispernet service, you can send your documents directly to your Kindle DX and read them anytime, anywhere. Some features such as annotations and read-to-me are not currently supported for PDF.
You also have the option to have your PDF document converted to the Kindle format so that it reflows. Auto-Rotating Screen: Display auto-rotates from portrait to landscape as you turn the device so you can view full-width maps, graphs, tables, and Web pages Read-to-Me: With the text-to-speech feature, Kindle DX can read newspapers, magazines, blogs, and books out loud to you, unless the book's rights holder made the feature unavailable Simple to Use, No Computer Required Unlike most electronic devices, we wanted to keep Kindle simple.
Auto-Rotating Screen By simply turning the device, you can immediately see full-width landscape views of maps, graphs, tables and Web pages. The U. Holds Up To 3, Books The ultimate travel companion, Kindle DX is as thin as a magazine and holds up to 3, books, newspapers, magazines, and documents. No longer pick and choose which books fit in your carry-on.
Now you can always have your personal and professional libraries with you. Worry-Free Archive Delete with abandon. We even back up your last page read and annotations, so when you re-download to the device you can pick up where you left off with all of your notes still in place.
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