Editorial Reviews. Review. ' the most comprehensive and useful text on dinosaurs on the Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History 3rd Edition, Kindle Edition. Concisc inorganic chemistry I J.D. Lee. -4th ed. p. cm. Rev ed: of: A new concise inorganic Concise Inorg Dinosaurs: A Concise Natural History. Get this from a library! Dinosaurs: a concise natural history. [David E Fastovsky; David B Weishampel] -- From the authors of The Evolution and Extinction of the.
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Dinosaurs. A Concise Natural History. David E. Fastovsky. University of Rhode Island and David B. Weishampel. The Johns Hopkins University. With illustrations . Request PDF on ResearchGate | Dinosaurs: A concise natural history | From the authors of The Evolution and Extinction of the Dinosaurs comes an introduction. Cambridge University Press, pp. US$, hardcover ISBN To cite this Article Parker, William G.() 'A Review of “Dinosaurs: a Concise Natural History”, by David E. Fastovsky. A Concise Natural History (DCNH hereafter).
To catch a dinosaur ; Dinosaur days ; Who's related to whom : and how do we know? Theropoda I : nature red in tooth and claw ; Theropoda II : meet the theropods ; Theropoda III : the origin and early evolution of birds ; Sauropodomorpha : the big, the bizarre, and the majestic -- Part III: Ornithischia : armored, horned, and duck-billed dinosaur. Thyreophorans : the armor-bearers ; Marginocephalia : bumps, bosses, and beaks ; Ornithopoda : magnificent mesozoic masticators -- Part IV: Endothermy, endemism, and extinction. Dinosaur thermoregulation : some like it hot ; The flowering of the mesozoic ; A history of paleontology through ideas ; The cretaceous-tertiary extinction : the frill is gone -- Glossary. Responsibility: David E. Abstract: Dinosaurs continues to make science exciting and understandable to non-science majors through its emphasis on scientific concepts rather than endless facts.
This contrasts markedly with the magnitude of the extinction among terrestrial tetrapods dinosaurs and mammals in which all dinosaurs went extinct, many, but obviously not all, birds went extinct including all those with teeth , and many mammals again, obviously not all went extinct. In the marine realm, the extinction was equally impressive. The great nutrient cycles that characterized the Cretaceous oceans were disrupted, and there were major extinctions of planktonic microorganisms.
Marine turtles also underwent a sizeable extinction. Finally, pterosaurs all went extinct at the boundary. Our understanding of what went extinct, what didnt, and how quickly all that took place is hampered by the fact that the terrestrial vertebrate data, in particular, are limited to just a few localities in the western interior of North America.
The plant data are not much better, although at least other continents are represented. The record from the marine realm is far better, with many, many localities providing insights into the nature and rate of the extinction. Describe the studies that concluded that the dinosaurs died abruptly. Three field-based studies have been carried out to determine the speed with which dinosaurs went extinct.
In each of these three studies, the methods used were similar in some respects, but differed in others. In two studies of the latest Cretaceous North American coastal plain, families and species were tallied through the thickness of the formation that preserved them the Hell Creek Formation.
In the first study1, 1 Sheehan, P. Since the answer was determined statistically to be no, the inference was that the community structures remained constant until the very end of the Cretaceous, and that therefore the killing agent had to be something geologically instantaneous.
In the second study2 on the Hell Creek coastal plain, the question was asked, at the species level, does diversity change through the thickness of the Hell Creek? Again, the answer was statistically no, and again a geologically instantaneous killing agent was implied. The third study3 was carried out in intermontane basin sediments of the Rocky Mountains.
In this study, the diversity of the rich faunas were counted through across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and well into the earliest Tertiary. Again, no change in diversity was obtained in the Cretaceous part of the section; all the extinctions took place at the boundary. It is significant that each of the three field-based studies designed to address the question of the rate of the dinosaur extinction came independently to exactly the same conclusion: that the extinction was instantaneous.
This points to an instantaneous killing agent, such as the asteroid is proposed to have been. What is meant by geologically abrupt when speaking of the extinction of the dinosaurs? In fact, it is almost certainly less than that, but our data do not allow much more precision. We like to note that, even though , years is a long time on ecological timescales, it rules out classes of potential causes that occur on million-year timescales.
Science, , Vertebrate faunal changes through Lanican and Puercan time in southern Wyoming. Journal of Paleontology, 73, Describe the kinds of physical events that might have occurred when the asteroid hit the Earth?
The most recent models suggest a two-step process; a nearinstantaneous infrared pulse caused by the return to the Earth of ejecta and a second, month interval of darkness caused by material remaining in the atmosphere. The energy transfer of the impact is thought to have been such that both the asteroid and much of the target would have been instantaneously vaporized. This material would have been injected into the atmosphere, where it would have cooled, and rained back to Earth.
The initial infrared pulse is derived from the first rain of the heaviest particles of material returning to Earth after being blasted into space.
In theory, heat transfer in the form of infrared waves as the particles moved through the atmosphere would have heated the Earths surface to the temperature equivalent of an oven left on broil. It is possible that the footprint of this event was most intense in the region north and east from the asteroid strike the western interior of North America , but certainly ejecta are thought to have been blown into the Earths atmosphere on a global scale.
The heavier pieces of ejecta would have rained out faster; the lighter ones remained suspended longer. The assumption is that, like a volcanic explosion, ash-sized particulates would have remained in the atmosphere for years; however, complete blockage of the sun is thought to have occurred only on months-long timescales. Choose four extinction hypotheses from Table Hume was sceptical of the application of enumerative induction and reason to reach certainty about unobservables and especially the inference of causality from the fact that modifying an aspect of a relationship prevents or produces a particular outcome.
Awakened from "dogmatic slumber" by a German translation of Hume's work, Kant sought to explain the possibility of metaphysics. In , Kant's Critique of Pure Reason introduced rationalism as a path toward knowledge distinct from empiricism.
Kant sorted statements into two types. Analytic statements are true by virtue of the arrangement of their terms and meanings , thus analytic statements are tautologies , merely logical truths, true by necessity.
Whereas synthetic statements hold meanings to refer to states of facts, contingencies. Finding it impossible to know objects as they truly are in themselves, however, Kant concluded that the philosopher's task should not be to try to peer behind the veil of appearance to view the noumena , but simply that of handling phenomena.
Reasoning that the mind must contain its own categories for organizing sense data , making experience of space and time possible, Kant concluded that the uniformity of nature was an a priori truth. Kant thus saved both metaphysics and Newton's law of universal gravitation , but as a consequence discarded scientific realism and developed transcendental idealism. Kant's transcendental idealism gave birth to the movement of German idealism.
Hegel 's absolute idealism subsequently flourished across continental Europe.
Late modern philosophy[ edit ] Positivism , developed by Saint-Simon and promulgated in the s by his former student Comte , was the first late modern philosophy of science. In the aftermath of the French Revolution , fearing society's ruin, Comte opposed metaphysics.
Human knowledge had evolved from religion to metaphysics to science, said Comte, which had flowed from mathematics to astronomy to physics to chemistry to biology to sociology —in that order—describing increasingly intricate domains.
All of society's knowledge had become scientific, with questions of theology and of metaphysics being unanswerable. Comte found enumerative induction reliable as a consequence of its grounding in available experience. He asserted the use of science, rather than metaphysical truth, as the correct method for the improvement of human society. According to Comte, scientific method frames predictions, confirms them, and states laws—positive statements—irrefutable by theology or by metaphysics.
Regarding experience as justifying enumerative induction by demonstrating the uniformity of nature ,  the British philosopher John Stuart Mill welcomed Comte's positivism, but thought scientific laws susceptible to recall or revision and Mill also withheld from Comte's Religion of Humanity. Comte was confident in treating scientific law as an irrefutable foundation for all knowledge , and believed that churches, honouring eminent scientists, ought to focus public mindset on altruism —a term Comte coined—to apply science for humankind's social welfare via sociology , Comte's leading science.
During the s and s, while Comte and Mill were the leading philosophers of science, William Whewell found enumerative induction not nearly as convincing, and, despite the dominance of inductivism, formulated "superinduction".
The creation of Conceptions is easily overlooked and prior to Whewell was rarely recognised. Having once had the phenomena bound together in their minds in virtue of the Conception, men can no longer easily restore them back to detached and incoherent condition in which they were before they were thus combined. Perhaps to accommodate the prevailing view of science as inductivist method, Whewell devoted several chapters to "methods of induction" and sometimes used the phrase "logic of induction", despite the fact that induction lacks rules and cannot be trained.
Peirce recognized induction but always insisted on a third type of inference that Peirce variously termed abduction or retroduction or hypothesis or presumption. The principle of induction, as applied to causation, says that, if A has been found very often accompanied or followed by B, then it is probable that on the next occasion on which A is observed, it will be accompanied or followed by B.
If the principle is to be adequate, a sufficient number of instances must make the probability not far short of certainty. If this principle, or any other from which it can be deduced, is true, then the casual inferences which Hume rejects are valid, not indeed as giving certainty, but as giving a sufficient probability for practical purposes. If this principle is not true, every attempt to arrive at general scientific laws from particular observations is fallacious, and Hume's skepticism is inescapable for an empiricist.
The principle itself cannot, of course, without circularity, be inferred from observed uniformities, since it is required to justify any such inference. It must, therefore, be, or be deduced from, an independent principle not based on experience. To this extent, Hume has proved that pure empiricism is not a sufficient basis for science. But if this one principle is admitted, everything else can proceed in accordance with the theory that all our knowledge is based on experience.
It must be granted that this is a serious departure from pure empiricism, and that those who are not empiricists may ask why, if one departure is allowed, others are forbidden. These, however, are not questions directly raised by Hume's arguments. What these arguments prove—and I do not think the proof can be controverted—is that induction is an independent logical principle, incapable of being inferred either from experience or from other logical principles, and that without this principle, science is impossible.
Recognizing this, Hume highlighted the fact that our mind often draws conclusions from relatively limited experiences that appear correct but which are actually far from certain. In deduction, the truth value of the conclusion is based on the truth of the premise.
In induction, however, the dependence of the conclusion on the premise is always uncertain. For example, let us assume that all ravens are black.
The fact that there are numerous black ravens supports the assumption. Our assumption, however, becomes invalid once it is discovered that there are white ravens.
Therefore, the general rule "all ravens are black" is not the kind of statement that can ever be certain. Hume further argued that it is impossible to justify inductive reasoning: this is because it cannot be justified deductively, so our only option is to justify it inductively. Since this argument is circular, with the help of Hume's fork he concluded that our use of induction is unjustifiable.
So instead of a position of severe skepticism , Hume advocated a practical skepticism based on common sense , where the inevitability of induction is accepted. It is neither a psychological fact, nor a fact of ordinary life, nor one of scientific procedure. Even so, inductive reasoning is overwhelmingly absent from science.
Examples of these biases include the availability heuristic , confirmation bias , and the predictable-world bias. The availability heuristic causes the reasoner to depend primarily upon information that is readily available to him or her.
People have a tendency to rely on information that is easily accessible in the world around them. For example, in surveys, when people are asked to estimate the percentage of people who died from various causes, most respondents choose the causes that have been most prevalent in the media such as terrorism, murders, and airplane accidents, rather than causes such as disease and traffic accidents, which have been technically "less accessible" to the individual since they are not emphasized as heavily in the world around them.
The confirmation bias is based on the natural tendency to confirm rather than to deny a current hypothesis. Research has demonstrated that people are inclined to seek solutions to problems that are more consistent with known hypotheses rather than attempt to refute those hypotheses. Often, in experiments, subjects will ask questions that seek answers that fit established hypotheses, thus confirming these hypotheses.
For example, if it is hypothesized that Sally is a sociable individual, subjects will naturally seek to confirm the premise by asking questions that would produce answers confirming that Sally is, in fact, a sociable individual. The predictable-world bias revolves around the inclination to perceive order where it has not been proved to exist, either at all or at a particular level of abstraction.
Gambling, for example, is one of the most popular examples of predictable-world bias. Gamblers often begin to think that they see simple and obvious patterns in the outcomes and therefore believe that they are able to predict outcomes based upon what they have witnessed. In reality, however, the outcomes of these games are difficult to predict and highly complex in nature. In general, people tend to seek some type of simplistic order to explain or justify their beliefs and experiences, and it is often difficult for them to realise that their perceptions of order may be entirely different from the truth.