Propagación y técnicas de cultivo de la Papaya (Carica papaya), Entre las variedades más conocidas está la papaya maradol, la papaya amarilla, la roja y la amameyada. Puedes descargar este artículo en formato PDF. plantlets of C. papaya cv. Maradol. The histograms show the relative .. El cultivo de papaya representa un gran impacto socioeconómico debido a que el 90 In: ronaldweinland.info Somatic embryogenesis in papaya cultivar 'Maradol Roja' as La baja capacidad de enraizamiento de las plantas de papaya durante su cultivo in vitro incre-.
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PDF | La baja capacidad de enraizamiento de las plantas de papaya durante su cultivo in vitro incrementa la mortalidad durante su. El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar los coeficientes de cultivo (Kc) y la sin estrés hídrico (p) de la papaya, variedad Maradol, cultivada en el sur de. En Cuba, donde la base genética de la papaya es estrecha, sustentada fundamentalmente en el cultivo de la variedad Maradol Roja, la diversificación de.
Published online May Find articles by Mireille N. Find articles by Luis J. Abstract In Europe, papaya consumption is growing due to its nutritional properties. The proximity of consumer markets to Southeast Spain allows fruits to be harvested at a more advanced stage of maturity compared to exporting countries from outside Europe, a timeline which improves the quality of the papaya. Experiments have been carried out to assess the adaptation of papaya to protected cropping systems under greenhouse in the region. In this paper, we showed the results obtained in an experiment with five varieties, taking the most cultivated variety as control, which was grafted on its own female rootstock, in addition to another four new varieties that were introduced.
Half of a papaya is only about 70 calories, contains 2 grams of fiber, and is rich in antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals. Effect of phloroglucinol on rooting and in vitro acclimatization of papaya Carica papaya L. Init cultivated approximately 16, hectares, with a production oftons [ 2 ]. Functional response of Phytoseiulus macropilis under different Tetranychus urticae Acari: The dynamics of predation of Stethorus picipes Coleoptera.
Identified species included four tetranychids: It has a wide distribution in the Americas, mainly in tropical and subtropical areas. So far, there was found a single marasol on the papaya tissue culture in vitro by using photoautotrophic conditions , but no details were referred about the most critical phase: Similar malformations have been attributed to another mite, P.
Transmission electron microscope studies of the diseased plant leaves and fruit latex samples indicated the presence of a large number of isometric particles of approximately 50 nm in diameter. Type I and II predatory mites are morphologically and physiologically adapted to prey on mite species forming dense colonies and producing abundant webbing; they are voraceous and highly fecund when feeding on mites.
De acuerdo con Moraes et al.
The latex oxidizes after atmospheric exposure, resulting in a sticky feature on the fruit from which the name of the disease originates. Agricultural practices are responsible for the spread of the disease within the orchard because the dispersion of the sticky disease often occurs along the array of the crop row [ 9 ].
Tetranychus cinnabarinus and P. Pathogen resistant plants can arise naturally or be developed by classic genetics or through the use of transgenic plants. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. Bienvenido a Pamasur Therefore, these proteins are marker candidates useful for an additional analysis of papaya sticky disease to help better understand and control this disease [ 49 ].
Tarsonemidae y el virus de la mancha anular del papayo PRSV-p. Double-stranded RNA-mediated interference with plant virus infection. A manual of Acarology. The papaya is a small, sparsely branched tree, usually with a single stem growing from 5 to 10 m 16 to 33 ft tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The upregulation of proteasome-related proteins supports the assumption that PMeV proteins, or even host proteins, which are essential for the viral infection can be targeted for degradation [ 49 ].
Natural control potential of Galendromus floridanus Acarina: De acuerdo conDickman et al. Mexican agriculturists have recently noticed strong increases of mite infestations in papaya Carica papaya L. All this has led to the preferential use of SE for papaya propagation and its genetic improvement. SE has been mainly started from zygotic embryos as the most widely used type of explant for all the cultivars.
Nevertheless, a high number of works report callus formation prior to the generation of the somatic embryos, even in the case of using tissues with embryogenic-predetermined cells zygotic embryos , thereby increasing the risks of genetic variability in the plants obtained .
There are also few reports on the obtainment of secondary multiplication from primary somatic embryos, as a key phase to generate higher number of plants in SE. Besides, somatic embryo germination is affected by hyperhydricity and callus formation at the base of the explant, leading to incomplete germination , and having the in vitro shoots to be passed to a culture medium for rooting.
All this constitutes the main problem of tissue culture for this species . Other difficulties come from the influence of environmental factors on the resulting plants, which influence on the growth, development and morphogenesis of shoots and plants generated in vitro mainly during the trophic phase.
According to Kozai , in vitro photoautotrophism can be induced by excluding carbohydrates from the culture medium and by increasing gas exchange in the culture vessel.
Photoautotrophic culture provides several advantages, including growth and photosynthesis stimulation, high percentage of survival during the in vitro to ex vitro transition, the correction of physiological and morphological disorders in the cultured plants, avoids callus formation at the base of the explant what increases rooting, and reduces the losses due to microbial contamination.
All these could provide an alternative for papaya cultivation, in order to circumvent the plant losses during the ex vitro acclimatization phase. So far, there was found a single report on the papaya tissue culture in vitro by using photoautotrophic conditions , but no details were referred about the most critical phase: rooting. Specifically for SE, there were no reports on the use of zeolite as substrate for shoots or in vitro plants, or by using the culture flask with increase aeration.
Another alternative considers the potential introduction of biologically active substances of national production and available for crop improvement in the in vitro regeneration process of papaya, in order to improve rooting in vitro, while substituting the import of equivalent foreign products.
It is produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of pectic acid extracted from Persian lime Citrus latifolia Tanaka . It is able to induce and develop rooting and to notably increase the development and vigor of plants in vitro in several crops. Another product to be considered is phloroglucinol PG , a phenolic compound obtained by degrading floridcin and a precursor in the synthetic pathway of lignin. It has been demonstrated to display vegetal growth promotion activity, with positive effects in the lignification of in vitro plants, the elimination of callus formation at the base of explants obtained from somatic embryos, and in the rooting phase .
In addition, current morphologic, cytological, isoenzymatic and phenol contents analysis techniques are unable to determine plant sex in papaya seeds or seedlings .
Most systems do not distinguish hermaphrodite plants and are not suitable for screening a high number of samples. This has led to the implementation of strategies using molecular markers for sex determination in this species, particularly techniques based on PCR amplification of molecular markers to determine the sex at early stages of development under field conditions .
Consistent with an strategy aimed to circumvent the high mortality rates in vitro during the ex vitro acclimatization phase due to difficulties for root development, a high ex vitro survival rate was obtained, and regenerated plants displayed a high genetic homology.
Several work report callus formation for other papaya cultivars prior to the formation of somatic embryos, despite of starting from zygotic embryo tissues with embryogenic predetermined cells which ultimately lead to an increase in genetic variability risks. Conversely, few reports are available on the secondary multiplication of primary somatic embryos, a phase considered crucial for high multiplication rates in SE.
The methodology developed was supported by histology and electron microscopy studies, and provides a consistent tool to increase the efficiency of the propagation process.
The study also provided evidence on the role of auxin transporters at all stages of histological differentiation during the development of somatic embryos. Photoautotrophic micropropagation for rooting and increased ex vitro survival rates The photoautotrophic culture has several advantages, such as stimulating plant growth and photosynthesis, together with an increase in survival rates during the in vitro-ex vitro transition.
Our results of in vitro cultivation of papaya showed that the methodology developed was able to preserve somatic embryos from death during the ex vitro acclimatization phase. This was possible due to the increased ventilation of culture vessels, by capping them with metallic foil paper with two holes. Also, the flow of photosynthetic photons estabilized in the range of This was also complemented with the use of zeolite as substrate for plant in vitro cultivation, resulting in higher photosynthesis rates, the correction of morpho-physiological disorders, the prevention of basal callus formation, which combined with indole butyric acid treatment in the culture medium supported high percentages of rooting.
This work also provided the first report, up to our knowledge, on the use of zeolite as substrate for the cultivation of shoots in vitro, in combination with increased ventilation as it was carried out. This procedure allowed us to improve the quality of the plants obtained with a better ex vitro acclimatization of in vitro obtained explants, and higher survival rates.
These results also accounted for the pioneering studies on the photoautotrophic culture conditions in Cuba for this plant species . Increased rooting to PG treatment also improved the morpho-physiological parameters of the plants obtained. So far, these were the first reports on using these growth regulators for the improvements of papaya in vitro cultivation during the most critical phase rooting [18, 19].
The methodology established can be implemented in commercial laboratories biofactories in Cuba and abroad. It is expected that these results could have a positive impact on the propagation of this commercially relevant crop in Cuba in the short time, also setting guidelines for future research on the genetic regulation during SE in papaya species.
Factors that influence the yield and viability of protoplasts from Carica papaya L. Afr J Biotechnol.