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Investigating translation of compliments in comedy film subtitles from English into Persian using Leech Politeness Taxonomy 6. A study of address terms and their translations in film subtitles from English into Persian and from Persian into English based on Peter Newmark's translation procedures 7. An analytical study on translating colloquialisms in adventures of Huckleberry Finn 8. An investigation into writing creativity invariance across first language, foreign language and translation 9. The differences between professional and novice translators in translating cohesive devices from English to Persian Metacognitive strategies in assessing translation quality An investigation of translation strategies in dubbing socio-cultural expressions; Taboo and politeness elements
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Even the smallest movement or flash of light caused by other flying insects. Crack ielts in a flash listening pdf files. Access password crack er Main features of the Prototype 2 are: The Power of Tendrils: The amazing new tendrils lets you lift and tear apart vehicles, beasts and enemies. The most obvious difference is the way they hold their wings while at rest.
Dragonflies hold their wings out to the side while damselflies fold their wings back. Dragonflies have very large eyes that seem to cover the entire face because they are so close together that they touch each other.
Dragonflies are larger and stronger animals than damselflies and fly longer distances. Thus, they can be found in woods and fields away from the water. Damselflies are not such strong fliers and are most often seen around the edges of ponds and streams since they do not normally fly far from the water. The largest odonata living today are the Hawaiian endemic dragonfly and the Central American damselfly, each of these species having a wingspan of 19 centimeters. The smallest is the libellulid dragonfly, native to east Asia, with a wingspan of just 20 millimeters.
Dragonflies and damselflies both lay their eggs on or just below the surface of the water in a pond or stream. Some species lay their eggs on the stem of an aquatic plant. The babies emerge from the eggs in the form of nymphs. They live underwater, breathing through gills and preying upon water insects, tadpoles, small fish, and even other nymphs.
They hunt by hiding in the shadows at the bottom of a pond or stream, waiting for prey animals to swim by. They have a special lip that they can extend far forward in order to grab their prey when it comes close.
Depending on the species, they live this way for several months or even several years. As the nymph grows, it sheds its skin several times. Finally, it leaves the water and sheds its skin one last time. The adult emerges, ready to live the next few weeks or months on land and in the air. The adults do not live for more than four months, and many species live as adults for only a few weeks.
Their special eyes give them a nearly degree field of vision, and they can detect even the smallest movement or flash of light caused by other flying insects. This gives them great maneuverability1 in the air, which is important to these creatures because they catch their prey while flying.
They can hover, make sharp turns, and fly backward. Some species of dragonflies can fly 60 kilometers an hour or more. Their prey consists of flying insects such as mosquitoes, deerflies, smaller dragonflies, and butterflies and moths.
One species of dragonfly takes spiders out of their webs. Bloodthirsty predators that they are, dragonflies and damselflies are prey for other animals in their turn. The nymphs are eaten by fish, frogs, toads, and other aquatic creatures. In the adult stage, they are hunted by birds, frogs, and larger dragonflies and damselflies. What goes around comes around. A if it is a fact about dragonflies only B if it is a fact about damselflies only C if it is a fact about both dragonflies and damselflies 1 They have sawlike jaws.
When they are almost fully grown, they leave the water. For many centuries that followed, fire equipment was limited to buckets of water that got passed from person to person. The ax3 was 1B ritish: Watchmen also learned to create firebreaks with long hooked poles and ropes in order to pull down structures that provided fuel for a fire. In , in order to reduce the risk of fire in thatched-roof houses, King William the Conqueror made a ruling: Citizens had to extinguish their cooking fires at night.
The event that had the largest influence in the history of fire fighting was the Great Fire of London in At the onset, Lord Mayor Bludworth showed little concern for the fire, assuming it would extinguish itself before he could organize a group of men to attend to it. However, the summer of had been uncharacteristically hot and dry, and the wooden houses nearby caught fire quickly. Although the procedure of pulling down buildings to prevent a fire from spreading was standard in Britain, the mayor grew concerned over the cost it would involve to rebuild the city and ordered that the surrounding structures be left intact.
It was not until the Duke of York ordered the Paper House to be destroyed in order to create a crucial firebreak that the London fire finally began to lose its fuel. At the hands of architects such as Christopher Wren, most of London was rebuilt using stone and brick, materials that were far less flammable than wood and straw.
As insurance became a profitable business, companies soon realized1 the monetary benefits of hiring men to extinguish fires. If a fire broke out and a building did not contain the insurance mark, the fire brigades were called away and the building was left to burn.
The first fire engines were simple tubs on wheels that were pulled to the location of the fire, with water being supplied by a bucket brigade. Eventually, a hand pump was designed to push the water out of the tub into a hose with a nozzle.
The pump allowed for a steady stream of water to shoot through a hose directly at the fire source. Before long, companies began to utilize water pipes made from hollowed tree trunks that were built under the roadway. By digging down into the road, firemen could insert a hole into the tree-trunk pipe and access the water to feed into the pump. After a series of fires destroyed parts of London, fire-fighting companies were forced to reconsider their intentions.
By the eighteenth century, fire brigades began to join forces, and in the Sun Insurance Company along with ten other London companies created the London Fire Engine Establishment. Though the firemen were well paid, they were constantly on duty and thus obliged to call their fire station home for both themselves and their families. New technology for fighting fires continued to develop in both Europe and the New World.
Leather hoses with couplings that joined the lengths together were hand-sewn in the Netherlands and used until the latels, when rubber hoses became available. The technology for steam engine fire trucks was available in Britain and America in , but most brigades were hesitant to use them until the s.
It was the public that eventually forced the brigades into putting the more efficient equipment to use.
In the early s, when the internal-combustion engine was developed, the trucks became motorized. Questions 14— 20 Complete the chart below. Write your answers on lines 14—20 on your answer sheet.
Thatched-roof houses burn down easily. The King ordered people to 15 their fires nightly. At the time of the Great Fire of London, the The fire spread quickly. The Great Fire destroyed most of London. People built new buildings out of 18 There had been many 19 in People started to download insurance to protect their London over time.
B used hand pumps. C had very long hoses. B fire brigades began to join forces. C the Metropolitan Fire Brigade was established. B lived at the fire station. C were not allowed to marry. Questions 2 4 -2 6 Do the following statements agree with the information in the reading passage?
On lines 24—2 6 on your answer sheet, write: The word derives from the name Ned Ludd, a man who may or may not have actually existed. These weavers made lace and stockings by hand, carrying out their craft independently in their homes according to traditional methods. In the s, automated power looms and stocking frames were introduced, radically changing the traditional work system.
The new machines were not difficult to run. They could be operated by unskilled workers and turned out an inferior product, but they produced large quantities cheaply, which was the aim of the new factory owners. The makers of finely crafted, handmade textiles could not compete with the new machines. Instead of continuing their tradition as skilled, independent workers, they would have to go to work in factories for low wages. The industrial revolution was happening everywhere.
In the textile-producing towns of England, workers focused on the new weaving machines as the source of their troubles. The height of Luddite activity occurred in the years Groups of men, often in disguise, would arrive at a factory and make demands for higher wages and better working conditions. If these demands were not met, the group retaliated by smashing the factory machines.
These groups often claimed that they were working under the command of General Ned Ludd, and thus came to be called Luddites. Who was Ned Ludd? Rumors1 about this mysterious person abounded. He came to be associated with that traditional champion of the poor, Robin Hood. The original Luddite activity was centered2 around Nottingham, and many said that Ned Ludd hid out in nearby Sherwood Forest, just as the legendary Robin Hood had.
There were food riots in several towns, and Luddite activity spread. In the winter of , the 1British: The government sent thousands of troops into areas affected by the riots. In the spring of that year, several factory owners were killed during Luddite riots, and a number of textile workers died as well. Following one of the largest incidents, when rioters set fire to a mill in Westhoughton, four rioters, including a young boy, were executed.
In another incident that spring, a group of over a thousand workers attacked a mill in Lancashire with sticks and rocks. The wave of violence resulted in a crack down by the government.
Suspected Luddites were arrested and imprisoned, and many of them were hanged. By the summer of , Luddite activity had begun to die down, although there continued to be sporadic incidents over the next several years. In , a bad harvest and economic downturn led to a small revival of rioting.
Government troops were brought in to stop the violence. In the end, six of the rioters were executed for their participation. However, rioting never again reached the levels it had in and The Luddites were short-lived, but they left an impressive mark. They were responsible for destroying close to one thousand weaving machines during the height of their activity in , as well as burning down several factories.
The famed English novelist Charlotte Bronte set her novel Shirley in Yorkshire at the time of the riots. This novel is still widely read today.
Although the responses to it may differ, concern about the changes brought on by technology continues. There are more effects in List B than you will need, so you will not tise them all. List A Causes 27 The new weaving machines were expensive to download.
B Weavers stopped working at home and went to work in factories. C Rioters often wore disguises. D Workers destroyed factory equipment. E Many rioters were hanged. F Charlotte Bronte wrote a novel about the Luddites. G Prices went up, and salaries went down.
H Factory owners did not need to hire skilled weavers. I Luddite rioting resumed for a short while. Questions 33—40 Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passage?
TRUE if the statement agrees with the information! All answers must be written on the separate answer booklet provided. Answer sheets can be found beginning on page Information for Candidates There are 2 tasks on this question paper.
You must do both tasks. Under-length answers will be penalized. Write at least words. The diagram below explains the process o f making woodpellets, used to heat buildings. Summarize1 the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. How Wood Pellets Are Made Wood pellets manufactured by this process are suitable for use in both pellet stoves and pellet furnaces. Summarise 2British: Write about the following topic: Everybody should be allowed admission to university study programs1 regardless o f their level o f academic ability.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement? Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Part 1 Describe the neighborhood1 where you live. What do you like about living there? What do you dislike about your neighborhood?
What kind of neighborhood would you like to live in? Do you like walking? Why or why not? Are there places you can walk near your house? Do people in your country like walking? What other kinds of exercise do you enjoy? Part 2 Describe a friend who is important to you.
You should say: The name of your friend When and where you met this friend What kinds of things you and this friend like to do together and explain why this friend is important to you You will have one to two minutes to talk about this topic. You will have one minute to prepare what you are going to say.
Part 3 Generally, friendships are important to people? How can friends help each other? Do people spend more time with friends or with relatives? How do our friendships change as we grow older? Wednesday and Friday Tuesday; Sunday Lindsay True 4. No True 5. Yes True 6. Not Given Not Given 7. True 8. False 9. False This is the level of the Japanese class that meets Tuesday and Thursday mornings.
The intermediate French class meets on Friday mornings. He is in charge of student registration. A The tour begins at the bookstore, marked with a star. C The cafe is the next building up from the bookstore.
F On the corner is the clothing store, and the souvenir store is next to that. H The art gallery is one building down from the corner and across the street from the souvenir store. I Harbor Park is next to the art gallery.
Tuesday; Sunday. B The student mentions the room devoted to maps, and the librarian remarks that the room is on the third floor.
It causes no pollution Their distance from cities, where the most electricity is needed, is another issue. C Paragraph 1: B Paragraph 2: A Paragraph 2: C Paragraph 3: A Paragraph 3: E Paragraph 4: F Paragraph 4: H Paragraph 4: B Paragraph 4: I Paragraph 4: D Paragraph 5: This gives them great maneuverability in the air.
A Paragraph 5: Paragraph 1: Paragraph 2: Paragraph 3: A Paragraph 4: C Paragraph 5: Choice A is mentioned in the same paragraph but not as something that occurred in Choice B is mentioned as something that happened in the eighteenth century or earlier.
B Paragraph 5: Paragraph 6: Paragraph 6 explains that steam engine fire trucks were used from about the s until the early s, when the trucks became motorized. N ot Given. World War I is mentioned, but its particular effect on London is not. B Paragraph 1: H Paragraph 1: They could be operated by unskilled workers D Paragraph 2: I Paragraph 5: Opening sentence: In the s, automated power looms and stocking frames were introduced Paragraph 4: The article describes Luddite activity in England but does not mention whether it occurred in other countries.
Paragraph 3 discusses possible explanations of who Ned Ludd was and implies that none of them is accepted as fact. Paragraph 5: According to Paragraphs 2 and 5, most Luddite activity occurred in the years and Not Given.
Paragraph 6 describes Neo-Luddites as people concerned about technological advances but does not give any specifics about their activities. Writing These are models. Your answers will vary. See page vi in the Introduction to see the criteria for scoring. They are made from sawdust. The manufacturing process takes several steps and uses several different types of machines.
The first machine that is used is the hammer mill. When the sawdust arrives from the sawmill, it is put into the hammer mill. There, the sawdust is hammered into fibers. The fibers are all the same length. The fibers are then dampened with steam, and they are ready for the next machine. It is called the pellet machine. This machine forms the damp fibers into pellets by forcing them through holes. After the pellets come out of the machine, they are cooled.
The cool pellets are vacuumed to remove the loose dust. Finally, the finished pellets are packed into kilo pound bags. They are then ready for sale. They can be burned in either a pellet stove or a pellet furnace to heat any kind of building.
In the first place, everyone has the right to an education and no one can take this away. Also, people are generally attracted to educational programs that fit their interests and abilities. Some people choose to go to a university while others choose some other form of training. No matter what form of education a person chooses, no one else has the right to make that choice for him or her.
They do not need someone else to tell them what they can and cannot do. If a person is interested in studying law, for example, it is probably because he or she feels it is something he or she likes and will do well at. Also, when students are interested in their program of study, they are motivated to work hard, even when some of the assignments are difficult for them.
There are all different kinds of university programs. There are programs that suit different interests, goals, and abilities. Because of this, there is no reason to deny a university education to anyone. There is something for everyone who wants it at the university level. Everyone has the right to an education, including a university education if that is what he or she chooses. It should not be denied to anyone. Speaking These are models. PART 1 Describe the neighborhood where you live.
The neighborhood I live in is right outside of the city. The houses are small with small yards. People in the neighborhood really like to garden, so there are a lot of flowers and nice plants. There are a few small stores that sell food and newspapers and things like that. I can afford to live there and not spend all my money on rent. My neighborhood is in a boring area. If I want to do something interesting like go to a movie or a concert or if I want to shop at good stores, I have to go to the city.
What kind o f neighborhood would you like to live in? I walk to get places, but I never walk for fun. A lot of my neighbors go there to take walks. Walking is popular in my country. A lot of people walk for their health. In fact, there are walking clubs. These are the walking clubs. They walk together every morning, I think. What other kinds o f exercise do you enjoy? I never walk for exercise, but I enjoy bike riding.
I go wherever I can find bike trails. There are a lot of them near where I live. When the weather is bad, I go to the gym and use the exercise machines there. I really like doing that. I like to play soccer, too. I play it with my friends every week. We like to do a lot of things together. When we were little kids, we played a lot of different kinds of games together. We play soccer with some other friends at least once a week, and we go to soccer games together.
We grew up together. I guess you could say we know just about everything about each other. I know if I ever needed serious help or if I needed money or any kind of support, Bob would help me.
And I would help him if he needed it. I hope so. PART 3 Generally, are friendships important to people? I think friendships are important to most people. Nobody likes to be alone.
Friends like to do the same things you like to do. Friends understand how you feel. Friends can help each other at work and school. Close friends can help each other with personal problems, and they can be company for each other.
Do people spend more time with fiend s or with relatives? I think this depends on the time of life. Children and teenagers spend a lot of time with their friends. When the children are older and spending more time with their friends, then the parents might have time again for their own friendships. How do ourfriendships change as we grow older? As we grow older, our lives change, so our friendships change too. Children have a lot of time to play with their friends.
When you start a family, then your family becomes more important than your friends. Your friends might be other parents and you help each other out with your children. C D player, refer to th e a u d io scrip ts s ta rtin g on page 4 0 8 w hen p ro m p te d Example Plainfield J center1 to listen to an au d io passage. B near the front entrance.
C at the end of the aisle. C encourage shoppers to walk in certain directions. B keeping the doors closed.
C lowering the prices. B slow customers down. C make customers shop faster. B bakeries. C clothing stores. They traveled1 as far west as Newfoundland in present-day Canada, and as far east as Baghdad. By , the Vikings were settling Iceland. They forced the English king to acknowledge their control of much of England under the so-called Danelaw. The Vikings remained a major power in Ireland until the early eleventh century. To the south, the Vikings conquered France, moving swiftly up rivers in long boats, powered by oar and sail.
From to , they surged up the Seine to attack Paris three times. Farther south, in , the Vikings had raided Portugal and Spain, then largely controlled by Arab Moors.
A fleet of Viking ships seized Lisbon and boldly 1British: However, the Moors dealt them a rare defeat. The Moors catapulted flaming projectiles onto the Viking vessels, forcing a retreat.
Still other Vikings sailed much farther, to raid Morocco, then to the eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Many of these Vikings enlisted with the military forces of the Byzantine Empire, the Greek-speaking successors to the Roman Empire. In , hundreds of Varangians served as marines during a Byzantine naval assault on the island of Crete.
Varangians battled Arab forces in Syria in , and even fought in Jerusalem. So many men left Scandinavia for the Byzantine Empire that, to stem the outflow, Sweden passed a law denying inherited property to anyone serving under the Byzantines. The Vikings of Sweden, meanwhile, were moving out of Scandinavia to the east and south.
They journeyed through the Baltic Sea, then built inland trading posts in Germany and Poland. Viking merchants on horseback penetrated far into the Asian heartland, trading with towns on the Caspian and Black seas.
The most significant settlements were in Russia and Ukraine. In , Vikings settled in the town of Novgorod, in northwestern Russia. It became the capital of a country called Rus, after the Finnish name for the Swedes. Another important Viking market town was Bulgar, on the Volga River. There, merchants peddled honey, wax, amber, and steel swords. They also traded hazelnuts, fish, cattle, and falcons. Another commodity was slaves, many of them Slavs from Eastern Europe. The merchants eagerly exchanged their goods for Arab silver coins.
In Sweden, archeologists1 have excavated about , such coins, minted in such distant cities as Cairo and Tashkent. Like their Danish and Norwegian relatives, the Swedish Vikings traveled to the most exotic realms. They took part in the Silk Road trade with India and China.
Archeological evidence shows that Viking traders even traveled by camel caravan to Baghdad. The book contains numerous practice exercises for each and every type of question. Explore the decaying family manor your grew up in to find the true legacy.
The book focuses on approximately essential words that will help you do well on the test. Profile On the other hand, a hard to find manual will take a minimum of 2 to 3 weeks to arrive since it takes time for the manufacturer to locate your specific manual.
In the Speaking section, if you have recorded your responses on a recording device, you can compare them with the descriptions in the Answers section and with the rubrics.
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