A computer is a programmable machine designed to perform arithmetic The characteristics of computers that have made them so Write short notes on a. ACHARYA ronaldweinland.info AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY. LECTURE NOTES. Course No: STCA Introduction to Computer Applications. Prepared by. ronaldweinland.info File Size: kb. File Type: pdf. Download File. ronaldweinland.info File Size: kb. File Type: pdf.
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Introduction to Computer. Computer. A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept data. The software is the instructions that makes the computer work. Software is held either on your computers hard disk, CD-ROM,. DVD or on a diskette (floppy disk) . access human rights to education and information. Using Computer and. Managing Files. Notes . This is an icon for a file in the PDF format named syllabus.
Describe the following terms as used in Ms Access giving examples: a. Database: b. Database system c. Database management system 2. Name and explain six data types as used in Ms Access.
All computers use three types of basic buses. The name of the bus is generally determined by the type of signal it is carrying or the method of operation. We group the buses into three areas as you see them in their most common uses.
They are as follows: I.
Control bus II. Data bus III. Address bus Control Bus The control bus is used by the CPU to direct and monitor the actions of the other functional areas of the computer.
It is used to transmit a variety of individual signals read, write, interrupt, acknowledge, and so forth necessary to control and coordinate the operations of the computer. The individual signals transmitted over these buses carry control signal from ALU to memory and from memory to ALU and then to the output unit. Address Bus The address bus consists of all the signals necessary to define any of the possible memory address locations within the computer, or for modular memories any of the possible memory address locations within a module.
An address is defined as a label, symbol, or other set of characters used to designate a location or register where information is stored.
The width of the address bus determines the amount of memory that can be addressed.
This explains the 4 GB memory restriction on bit operating systems. Data Bus The bidirectional data bus, sometimes called the memory bus, handles the transfer of all data and instructions between functional areas of the computer. The bidirectional data bus can only transmit in one direction at a time. The data bus is used to transfer instructions from memory to the CPU for execution. It carries data operands to and from the CPU and memory as required by instruction translation. The information on the data bus is either written into The data bus is not limited to transferring data; it is also used to transfer program instructions.
Discuss six roles of operating systems Without an operating system, a computer is little more than a bundle of plastic, metal, and a few bits of expensive silicon. Whereas most software runs on a computer, the operating system is the software that runs the computer.
Below are major roles of operating systems I. Provides a user interface: Facilitates easy communication between user and computer with interpretation of commands and instructions. CLI requires the user to interact with operating system in the form of text keyed in from the keyboard. In this, the user has to learn and remember the different commands required for copying, deleting, opening a file or folder etc. File management: the operating system manages reading and writing in the file system and the user and application file access authorizations.
It keeps track of where all the files are on the computer. The file management system allows the user to perform such tasks as creating files and directories, renaming files, coping and moving files, and deleting files. Also keeps track of where files are located on the hard drive through the type of file system.
Management of the random access memory: the operating system is responsible for managing the memory space allocated to each application and, where relevant, to each user. Also responsible for managing all system memory which is currently in use by programs.
This ensures that a program does not interfere with memory already in use by another program. Since programs time share, each program must have independent access to memory. The activities of memory management handled by OS are— 1 allocate memory, 2 free memory, 3 re-allocate memory to a program when a used block is freed, and 4 keep track of memory usage. Protection and Security— OS protects the resources of system.
User authentication, file attributes like read, write, encryption, and back-up of data are used by OS to provide basic protection. The access of programs, processes, and users, to the resources defined by the computer are controlled by the protection mechanism. Protection ensures that the resources of the computer are used in a consistent way. Security mechanism prevents unauthorized access to the computer.
Security concerns include—security of software, security of data stored in the computer, and security of physical resources of the computer. In a personal computer, security can be ensured using— 1 user accounts— individual accounts for each user, 2 user authentication—using password protection 3 access rights—define rights for access of different kind of information for different people, 4 data encryption—store data in computer in encrypted form, and 5 data backup—storing data on a peripheral device other than the hard disk.
In a networked environment, only trusted computers should be able to share data. Some of the common security threats occur due to hacking, viruses etc. Device Management— The device management tasks handled by OS are— 1 open, close and write device drivers, and 2 communicate, control and monitor the device driver.
Several peripheral devices like mouse, hard disk, printer, plotter etc. The peripheral devices have varying characteristics like character or block device, sequential or random access device, and dedicated or shared device. OS manages and controls the devices attached to the computer.
OS provides appropriate functionality to the application programs for controlling different aspects of the devices. OS handles the devices by combining both hardware and software techniques.
The device driver software comes along with each device.
A device communicates with the computer hardware via a port for example, a serial port or a parallel port. Bus is a common set of wires used by one or more devices. A device controller operates a port, bus, and a device. Device controller is just like a bridge between the device and the operating system. Device driver is the software with which the device controller communicates with the operating system.
A process is a program in a state of execution. It is a unit of work for the operating system. A process can be created, executed, and stopped. In contrast, a program is always static and does not have any state. A program may have two or more processes running. A process and a program are, thus, two different entities. The process management function of an operating system handles allocation of resources to the processes in an efficient manner.
The allocation of resources required by a process is made during process creation and process execution. A process changes its state as it is executed. A standard process describes the steps needed for processing to take place.
The Fetch-Decode-Execute cycle of a computer is the process by which a computer: 1. This cycle is repeated continuously by the central processing unit CPU , from bootup to when the computer is shut down. FECTH The first step the CPU carries out is to fetch some data and instructions program from main memory then store them in its own internal temporary memory areas.
The CPU places the address of the next item to be fetched on to the address bus. Each make of CPU has different instruction set. The CPU decodes the instruction and prepares various areas within the chip in readiness of the next step. The instruction is carried out upon the data executed. The result of this processing is stored in yet another register. Once the execute stage is complete, the CPU sets up to begin another cycle once more. Applied computer science aims at identifying certain computer science concepts that can be used directly in solving real world problems.
Modern cryptography is largely related to computer science, for many encryption and decryption algorithms are based on their computational complexity. The study is connected to many other fields in computer science, including computer vision, image processing, and computational geometry, and is heavily applied in the fields of special effects and video games.
It focuses largely on the way by which the central processing unit performs internally and accesses addresses in memory. The field often involves disciplines of computer engineering and electrical engineering, selecting and interconnecting hardware components to create computers that meet functional, performance, and cost goals.
The skills include server setup, support and administration, network setup, troubleshooting and repair, identifying and implementing security policies, and installing appropriate hardware and software to support a secure and robust network. In practical use, it is typically the application of computer simulation and other forms of computation to problems in various scientific disciplines.
Integrating technology with teaching means the use of learning technologies to introduce, reinforce, supplement and extend skills. This process of determining where and how technology fits is known among users of educational technology as integration. In the exemplary classrooms, student use of computers is woven integrally into the p a t t e r n s o f teaching; software is a natural extension of student tools.
Rather the function of technol ogy in schools is to enhance teaching and learning. Using technology in any other way is not true integration. I n g e n e r a l m o s t effective approach is one of solving instructional problems. T h e y c o u l d e a s i l y a c c e s s a n a l m o s t l i m i t l e s s variety of resources and share information with their peers anytime, anywhere since electronic communication compose no boundaries of time or geographical l o c a t i o n.
A number of the websites may help learners in a mixed skills and activities for accelerated s t u d e n t s a n d r e m e d i a l o r t u t o r i a l material for slower learners.
The pupils themselves say that they pay more attention during class and his is especially true for pupils in the 5th grade. The study finds also that ICT supports differentiation: primary schools report that most teachers have experienced a favorable impact on both academically strong and academically weak students when using ICT. Pupils who use the computer more than six hours a week report they learn more when using computers than those who use the computer less frequently.
Students demonstrated a strong engagement with tasks, even working over break times to complete their work. It reduced the gap between the pupils with poorer educational situations and the national average by making them motivated to go to school -with the help of ICT. During the project, ICT was used in an innovative way. It explored with pupils aged factors such as repetition and sequences, variation, combination, complementarities and contrasts, movement and rhythm, and proportions.
The different disciplines, such as mathematics and music, were examined in the same way. ICT improves pupils' performance, provided software is used appropriately and coherently in terms of curriculum objectives.
ICT can offer meaningful opportunities for communication and cooperation. Discuss how ICT facilitates E-learning in education sector ICT enhancing teaching and learning process: ICTs have the potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen Skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create Economic viability for tomorrow's workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change.
ICTs by their very nature are tools that encourage and support independent learning. Students using ICTs for learning purposes become immersed in the process of learning and as more and more students use computers as information sources and cognitive tools.
Teachers generate meaningful and engaging learning experiences for their students, strategically using ICT to enhance learning. Students enjoy learning, and the independent enquiry which innovative and appropriate use of ICT can foster.
They begin to acquire the important 21st century skills which they will need in their future lives. ICT enhancing the quality and accessibility of education: ICT increases the flexibility of delivery of education so that learners can access knowledge anytime and from anywhere.
It can influence the way students are taught and how they learn as now the processes are learner driven and not by teachers. This in turn would better prepare the learners for lifelong learning as well as to improve the quality of learning.
With the help of ICT, students can now browse through e-books, sample examination papers; previous year papers etc. This flexibility has heightened the availability of just-in-time learning and provided learning opportunities for many more learners who previously were constrained by other commitments.
Wider availability of best practices and best course material in education, which can be shared by means of ICT, can foster better teaching. ICT also allows the academic institutions to reach disadvantaged groups and new international educational markets.
As well as learning at anytime, teachers are also finding the capabilities of teaching at any time to be opportunistic and able to be used to advantage. Mobile technologies and seamless communications technologies support 24x7 teaching and learning. Choosing how much time will be used within the 24x7 envelope and what periods of time are challenges that will face the educators of the future.
Thus, ICT enabled education will ultimately lead to the democratization of education. Especially in developing countries like India, effective use of ICT for the purpose of education has the potential to bridge the digital divide.
ICT enhancing learning Environment: ICT presents an entirely new learning environment for students, thus requiring a different skill set to be successful. Critical thinking, research, and evaluation skills are growing in importance as students have increasing volumes of information from a variety of sources to sort through. ICT is changing processes of teaching and learning by adding elements of vitality to learning environments including virtual environments for the 6purpose.
ICT is a potentially powerful tool for offering educational opportunities. It is difficult and maybe even impossible to imagine future learning environments that are not supported, in one way or another, by Information and Communication Technologies ICT. When looking at the current widespread diffusion and use of ICT in modern societies, especially by the young the so-called digital generation then it should be clear that ICT will affect the complete learning process today and in the future Learning environments need to reflect the potential uses of knowledge that pupils are expected to master, in order to prevent the acquired knowledge from becoming inert.
In addition, teachers should stimulate pupils to engage in active knowledge construction. This calls for open-ended learning environments instead of learning environments which focus on a mere transmission of facts.
This refers not only to the number of computers, but also to the placement of the equipment, e. The ICT environment has been developed by using different software and also the extended experience in developing web based and multimedia materials. ICTs have an important role to play in changing and modernizing educational systems and ways of learning. ICT enhancing learning motivation: ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways, by increasing learner motivation and engagement, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by enhancing teacher training.
ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner centered environment.
ICTs, especially computers and Internet technologies, enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow teachers and students to do what they have done before in a better way. ICT has an impact not only on what students should learn, but it also plays a major role on how the students should learn.
ICT provides-Motivation to Learn. ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that combine text, sound, and colourful moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process.
It is forerunner of all mechanical machines. All the above were based on mechanical precision and since mechanical precision was not that accurate during those days the reliability of the machines was rather questionable. In Difference Engine the level difference between the values computed for a formula, remains the same.
However, financial constraints and inadequate technological advancements electricity was discovered only in 's , his devices remained unfinished. Similarly, Lady Ada Lovelace is famous as the First Programmer, for having devised a suitable use of Binary Number system for programs and data to be fed into the Analytical Computer.
Once Mark I developed a certain fault and no amount of effort was spared to locate the same. Every portion of the huge Mark I, computers of those days used to be monstrously big machines occupying several rooms, was thoroughly searched for the fault.
After spending considerable time and effort it was found that on one of the electrical connections of the "Back-Plane Panel" of the machine a "MOTH" had got struck bringing the machine to a grinding halt.
The moth was removed when Mark-I started functioning. It was then stated that "Mark I was 'Debugged'. These two words are commonly used words now in relation to both the hardware and software of computer.
After this the progress in the Digital Computers has been simply stupendous amazing.