Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. SIL Electronic Book Reviews An introduction to applied linguistics ( 2nd edition). Edited by Norbert Schmitt. London: Hodder Education, Pp. An introduction to applied linguistics. [Norbert Schmitt;] -- Written for students on MA programmes, this book provides a complete and authoritative overview of.
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An Introduction to Applied Linguistics This page intentionally left blank An Introduction to Applied Linguistics edited by Norbert Schmitt Orders: please contact. PDF | On Dec 1, , Francisco Ramos and others published An Introduction to Applied Linguistics, 2nd ed., N. Schmitt (Ed.). Hodder. volume by Alan Davies: An Introduction to Applied Linguistics: from practice to theory. It is hoped that . Spolsky , Schmitt , Cook , Davies and Elder , Sealey and Carter. , Kaplan Linguistics. BAAL website: http ://ronaldweinland.info Schmitt, Norbert (ed.) (), An.
It does so in sixteen chapters divided into the following sections: An overview; I. Description of language and language use containing five chapters; II. Then, there is an added chapter providing suggested solutions to the problems posed in the 'Hands on Activities' in chapters Each chapter is written by at least two applied linguists, considered specialists in the domain of their chosen chapters. Each chapter is written and organised in order to be maximally user-friendly given the constraints of the subject matter. Thus, each one comprises a general introduction to the specific subject matter pointing out areas of importance and provides some acquaintance with the research methodology and orientations thereof. Crucially, in my view, the editor has insisted on all authors' devoting a section to 'pedagogical implications'.
As far as 'teaching grammar' is concerned, the authors sensibly underline its necessity providing it is supported by productive practice in meaningful contexts. Welcome in this chapter is the reservation expressed concerning the value of one of the current 'buzz' concepts in SLA: 'noticing' which has spawned countless articles recounting research using a variety of imaginative means of having students 'notice' grammatical features.
Unfortunately, such 'noticing' has not been demonstrated to result in effective learning bringing about improvement in productive skills, a result which justifies the authors' position. On a less positive note, the authors fall in line with the contemporary rejection of the possibility that it is feasible to learn grammatical features one after another. This, they base on the assumption of the validity of Pienemann's developmental sequences and principles of 'learnability' and 'teachabiility'.
Unfortunately, they omit to point out that nowhere in the literature has it been demonstrated that the application of Pienemann's ideas to normal classrooms to be more effective than that of syllabi based on sequential teaching of grammatical features.
Further, they fail to make clear that countless numbers of fluent speakers of second languages began their learning with such sequential learning. The dismal record of the application of such theoretical ideas as those of Pienemann to the classroom is such that applied linguists need to base their recommendations on what can be supported by the empirical evidence available and not on the empirically-unsupported hypotheses of applied linguists.
Fortunately, except for this one example, the authors demonstrate an eminently sensible eclecticism which clearly derives from experience in the classroom. Chapter 3. However, what is given deserved prominence in the chapter is the section on 'How should vocabulary be learned?
See, for example, Coady and Huckin, It thus deals with learning vocabulary both from context and through direct learning. Following Nation's lead, it thus frees teachers from the unmotivated constraints of the 70's which maintained that vocabulary should only be learned from context and made teachers feel guilty for resorting to L1 equivalents, paired lists and other strategies associated with direct learning.
The authors state quite clearly that 'Studies comparing incidental vocabulary learning with direct vocabulary learning characteristically show that direct learning is more effective.
However, at the same time, they also deal with situations in which context based-learning may have a contribution to make. Chapter 4. These three authors define discourse analysis as the analysis of language in its social context, both written and oral, and demonstrate its relevance to the classroom. They then provide an overview of the diverse ways in which various fields have exploited it: sociology in conversation analysis; sociolinguistics in ethnography and variation theory, various schools of linguistics in the contributions made by rigorous analyses based on recordings of real conversations.
In a similar context, it underlines the important contribution made by corpus linguistics. The latter part of the chapter addressees issues nearer to the hearts of practising teachers in dealing with differences between the grammar of spoken and written English and in the lexical patterns identifiable in spoken English. It concludes by discussing pedagogical implications, proposing that they mainly lie in making both teacher trainers, materials writers and teachers, themselves, aware of the true nature of both written and spoken language.
Thankfully, it makes no claims, unsupported or otherwise, as to how discourse analysis may improve the effectiveness of language teaching Chapter 5. The authors begin by establishing the credentials for Pragmatics by explaining the necessity to go beyond the code-model as a means of explaining the nature of communication. It then adopts an approach which will endear it to readers new to the field.
Rather than dealing with abstractions, it deals with an extract from a real conversation and uses the principles of pragmatics to illustrate how enlightening it is to compare the meaning as provided by a code-model and a pragmatics- model.
Thus, in the conversation about plans for the evening between a Greek and English student sharing a flat in London, the authors demonstrate, among other things, the one-up-manship manifested by the English student in the ironic use of the expression 'Nice one' when the Greek student mentions a club she frequents which the English student would not be seen dead in.
However, the authors would appear to have a constrained perception of the code-model if they contend that it is unable to provide for such analyses.
This conversation is further used as a means of explaining pragmatic meaning, assigning reference in context, assigning sense in context, inferring illocutionary force, and working out implicated meaning. It then moves to the broader concerns of the field in discussing the impact of social factors, context, conversational patterns and structures, and research paradigms and methods. It concludes with what again will appeal to teachers: Implications for language teaching, learning and use.
Here, teachers will find of particular interest the issue of the 'possibility or likelihood of pragmatic transfer'. That is, the transferring of pragmatic factors from the L1 to the L2, resulting in the loss or distortion of intended meaning. However, such readers will be disappointed for this section provides no concrete examples to illustrate this underlying principle. This is surprising given the authors' concern with concrete examples shown by the initial use of an actual conversation and the myriad examples apparent to anyone aware of bilingual contexts.
It would surely have been easy to provide such examples.
One amongst many springs to mind from my own experience here in Quebec. Here, one might offer to do someone a favour by enabling that person to participate in some activity or other. In an anglophone context, a normal response would be something like, 'Gee, thanks. I'd love to. Chapter 6. Corpus Linguistics by Randi Reppen and Rita Simpson The authors usefully provide the following four features as a means of describing this field: a It is empirical, analysing the actual patterns of use in natural texts.
It then goes on to exemplify these features by discussing the various uses to which corpus linguistics has been put such as in general corpora aiming to provide a faithful representation of the language in general as opposed to specialized corpora, something of a growth area in the field, dealing with fascinating areas such as differences between dialects, diachronic studies and the 'slanguage' of teenagers.
The chapter also points out the major role played by computers in allowing analysts to carry out a myriad of procedures permitting highly sophisticated analyses. However, at the same time, the authors rightly make clear that although computers have now become an essential tool of corpus linguistics, much useful work was carried out in the field before computers became a defining feature of modern life in the new millennium.
A final section is devoted to 'How can Corpora inform Language Teaching? They also offer a number of activities allowing students to carry out their own analyses of corpora. They perceive of this as bringing students to a better understanding of the aspects of the language concerned. This may well stimulate interest in the short term thanks partly to the novelty of the task involved. However, it takes but a moment's thought to realise that an experienced teacher can provide the knowledge involved very efficiently in a brief explanation whereas it would take a great deal of time to acquire the same knowledge by means of corpus analysis.
The example they give is of interest here. They take the uses of 'turn', 'go' and 'come' as meaning 'become'. They point out that though dictionaries often consider the three words as synonyms in this sense, corpus analysis reveals that 'turn' is used when a change of colour is involved He turned green at the thought of eating snails. The meat went bad after being left out of the fridge. He came alive at the thought of seeing her again.
However, the first dictionary I turned to on reading this was Harrap's Essential English Dictionary which gives the use of 'turn' with colours but also provides counter-examples such as 'The weather turned stormy'; 'He suddenly turned nasty'. Moreover, nowhere did I find any dictionary contending that these three words were synonyms when meaning 'become'. Further, resorting to the antithesis of corpus analysis, introspection, I came up with several counter-examples in a few minutes of thinking about the problem.
For example, one says: 'His legs turned to jelly at the thought of taking the deciding penalty. As to the use of 'come' meaning 'become', it has an extremely limited number of uses; however, I could find no counter-examples off the top of my head. Nor could I find any in the dictionaries I consulted. The lesson here for practitioners of corpus analysis is not to be so dazzled by the potential of computer analysis to forget the achievements of dictionary-makers.
The case in point is not to the credit of the authors even though they were repeating an example from elsewhere. They should surely have done a little more work before stating 'Most dictionaries provide no clues to how these words might differ in meaning'. Apart from this, however, the chapter provides a very complete account of corpus linguistics which will serve readers well.
Chapter 7 Second Language Acquisition by Nina Spada and Patsy Lightbown This chapter provides a thorough account of the expanding field of SLA dealing with: theories of L2 learning; universal grammar; monitor theory; psychological perspectives including behaviourism, cognitive psychology, connectionism and the multidimensional model going on to devote a good deal of space to developmental sequences and L1 influence in a section on learner language.
It concludes with a section on what will most interest teachers: instruction and second language acquisition. Here it provides an adequate account of current issues concerning the nature of instruction. Unfortunately, it chooses not to address the issue underlying their conclusion that instructional input has greater value when it is explicit.
This begs the question for the burning issue concerns the degree to which it needs to be explicit. The position of Lightbown is that most instruction should be carried out in no more than second breaks from communicative activity. Others such as Doughty and Williams and Lyster are more circumspect. The latter states that the issue of the explicitness of instruction remains " Others, such as myself, contend that Lightbown's prescription is wholly unjustified based on the available empirical evidence and, more importantly, wholly inadequate given the nature of the pedagogical rules involved and the practicalities of the classroom.
This is an issue where one would like to have been able to promote the helpful role of AL in L2 language teaching. Unfortunately, this is not possible. Advocacies of language teaching approaches presented by applied linguists have been largely motivated by doctrinaire positions on the nature of SLA and NOT by the available empirical evidence and, most importantly, NOT by the positive trialling in real classrooms - which possibly explains the failure of such advocacies.
Unfortunately, the authors omit to address this issue and, therefore, continue to present the relationship between AL and language teaching as being far rosier than it actually is.
To conclude this account of this chapter, I'll make some comments on the authors' treatment of 'developmental sequences' and this, because it reveals something of a syndrome of the relationship between SLA research and L2 language teaching and learning.. As previously stated, in this book, AL is defined as a field using what we know about a language, b how it is learned and c how it is used, in order to achieve some purpose or solve some problem in the real world.
In the case of studies in SLA, there are two broad groups: those whose aim is to construct a theory of SLA without being concerned with its immediate relevance to the real world of classroom language learning. Then there are those such as the two authors who are very much concerned with this real problem and have rightly based much of their work on classroom- based research.
No problem here. Academics are largely free to pursue their research wherever their interests take them. A major problem arises, however, when applied linguists such as the authors endeavour to apply to the real world of classroom language learning concepts such as 'developmental sequences' which contend that in acquiring certain grammatical features such as negatives and interrogatives, L2-learners are constrained to pass through developmental stages as, though instruction may accelerate passage through a stage, it does not permit learners to miss one out.
The authors contend that the existence of such stages 'is widely accepted' p. This does not reflect reality. Further, even the research findings in the authors' own work do not justify the relevance of developmental sequences to classroom language learning as indeed Lightbown recognises elsewhere Lightbown, Such sequences derive from Pienemann's processability theory. See, particularly, Pienemann However, rather than being widely accepted, it has provoked the expression of serious reservations on the part of such well-known figures in AL such as Schachter, Kempen, Hulstjin, and de Bott, published in the same volume in their responses.
Further, even though the authors in their chapter present the stages through which learners 'must pass' in the acquisition of interrogatives, their own work provides no supportive evidence. Spada and Lightbown conducted a study on the development of questions by year old ESL learners in Quebec.
The report on the study provides scant evidence of the production of any question forms at all, there being no more than ten in the whole article and none of these is linked to a single learner. There is, therefore no evidence whatsoever of developmental sequences. More importantly, in Lightbown et al. Somewhat surprisingly, there is no provision of the actual oral production of the learners concerned and, therefore, no evidence of learners passing through any developmental stages.
This is partially supported by my own study Sheen, which explored the production of questions by students similar to those in Spada and Lightbown At the beginning of the study, the students had been exposed for two years to strong communicative language teaching and, therefore, had had no explicit instruction. At that point, most were producing what is termed 'wh-fronting, no inversion' e. Where the boy go? However, according to the teacher, this is a form that some students used when they first began asking questions.
Then, eight months after the study began, the students in the control group who had had no instruction, continued to produce those same forms. On the other hand, the students in the experimental group who had received explicit instruction on question forms demonstrated an ability to produce orally forms such as ' Where does your father work? Supporters of the existence of developmental sequences might respond to this by contending that it supports the hypothesis that instruction accelerates passage through a stage.
However such a riposte loses much of its force when one realises that in studies carried out on Quebec secondary graduating students Sheen, the large majority of ordinary students are still producing questions with no inversion.
That is, in many cases such students have been producing the same no-inversion interrogative structure for between six and eight years. Further, much to the dismay of professors, a good number of students in TESL programmes at university are still unable to spontaneously produce third person interrogatives with correct inversions.
Surely, such a finding must be considered valid counter evidence against the existence of developmental sequences - at least in Quebec. I have spent some time on this point as it illustrates a tendency amongst applied linguists such as Spada and Lightbown who present the situation concerning the relationship between studies in SLA and classroom language learning in a far more favourable light than it deserves See Spada, and Lightbown, The reality is that applied linguists would be hard put to identify any empirically- verifiable improvement which has accrued from the influence of SLA research concerns on classroom language learning.
In fact, the opposite may be the case. See Valette, Given this, it is unfortunate that applied linguists have not manifested more accountability in terms of this failure.
Therefore, though one would not want the authors to display all the dirty laundry of AL in such an introductory text, one has the right to expect an account of the relevance of such issues as developmental sequences to second language learning to be presented in a way which at least bears some resemblance to reality. Chapter 8.
Kroll The authors begin with a succinct definition of psycholinguistics: ' However, given the nature of the book, they justifiably devote the chapter to the treatment of psycholinguistics as it relates to bilinguals, defining that term in the broad sense as 'individuals who are acquiring or actively using more than one language'.
Though this approach would in a longer work require treatment of a myriad of issues, the authors focus on 'the way in which psycholinguists construct cognitive models to characterize the representations and processes that underlie language performance. It might, therefore, have been preferable to discuss the achievements of AL rather than throwing readers into the deep end, so to speak, in discussing more cutting-edge issues.
However, the choice the authors have made does have the advantage of introducing readers to intriguing questions concerning how bilinguals keep their two languages separate and how they do manage not to use words from one language while speaking the other.
They do this by introducing the performance model of Levelt and explain how it helps in answering the above questions by using components such as the 'conceptualizer' and the 'formulator' in describing the process of performance from the pre- verbal stage to actual utterance.
The final part of the chapter is devoted to illustrative research in SLA and bilingualism, introducing domains such as the 'non-selective nature of lexical access', 'developing lexical proficiency in a second language' and the fascinating issue of 'language attrition' an area with which I seem to be acquiring more and more first-hand knowledge by the day. The chapter concludes with a brief glance at the implications of the theoretical research described.
Here it suggests that research on bilingualism may finally put an end to the myth that being bilingual will have a negative effect on cognitive processing. In my view, no such myth should be allowed to discourage parents from giving to their off-spring the inestimable gift of natural bilingualism and, failing that, encouraging them to become post-puberty bilinguals to escape from the confines of monolingualism.
Chapter 9. Sociolinguistics by Carmen Llamas and Peter Stockwell The chapter begins by addressing the tricky question of arriving at an informative definition of the field beyond 'the study of language in society'.
After discussing the difficulty of rendering compatible the desirable objectivity of sociolinguistic description with the ethical questions inextricably involved in questions of culture and social class, the authors offer the definition, 'the study of language variation and language change'.
They proceed to a discussion of issues in sociolinguistics such as 'idiolect and sociolect', 'standard, non-standard and codification', prestige, stigmatization and language loyalty', 'dialect, accent and language planning' and 'speech communities'. They then devote an important part of the chapter to the issue of language variation without which the field would, of course, not exist. To do this, the authors first describe the descriptive tools of sociolinguistic variation in terms of linguistic sub-disciplines and related language elements such as pragmatics and utterance, syntax and phrase and morphology and morpheme and their necessity to account for any linguistic variable i.
To exemplify this, the authors then discuss variation at the levels of phonology without, however, providing an actual example, grammar, the adding by some British school children of third person 's' to all present tense verb forms, lexis, the use of 'block' by New Yorkers for what Philadelphians call a 'square', discourse, again without providing a concrete example, and of language itself as in bilingual situations in Canada, Belgium and Switzerland.
The chapter then addresses the essential issue of correlation between such examples of linguistic variation and social factors as 'geographical and social mobility', 'gender and power', 'age', 'audience' and 'identity'. The chapter concludes with issues related to the collection of sociolinguistic data and provides detailed descriptions of actual sociolinguistic research as exemplified by work called The Teeside Study conducted by one of the authors, Carmen Llamas.
The study provides an excellent introduction for newcomers to the field and partly explains why, as the authors maintain, that sociolinguistics has practical applications to government policy on language planning and education. Chapter This chapter tackles the crucial area of learner features, first providing brief descriptions of the features over which teachers have no control: Age, gender and language aptitude. It then comes to the heart of the chapter which will appeal to teachers: those features upon which that actions of teachers may have both positive and negative effects: motivation.
It begins this section by proposing that L2 motivation is qualitatively different from that involved in other subject matter, basing the argument on the assumption that learning an L2 involves 'an alteration in self-image, the adoption of new social and cultural behaviors and ways of being, and therefore has a significant impact on the social behavior of the learner.
As it would not be difficult to imagine other subject matter such as 'drama' which have the same requirements and as such 'make-overs' hardly apply to many L2 language courses, this is probably stretching things a bit but the point is taken. Be that as it may, the authors make the significant point that motivation entails a dynamic process which makes it susceptible to the intervention of teachers thanks to which they can generate it, maintain and protect it, and encourage learners to reflect on the affect of their motivation on their learning.
There are, therefore, the expected categories of 'integrative motivation', instrumental motivation' and 'integrative motive', to which are added a variety of factors related to the learners' environment such as 'novelty', 'pleasantness', goal or needed significance' etc.
This strikes me as having a touch of the 'reductio ad absurdum' about it so one might welcome the following section on 'Motivating Learners' except for the fact that it remains on the level of abstractions such as ' However, this is a book about applied linguistics which is supposed to use what we know about a language, b how it is learned and c how it is used, in order to achieve some purpose or solve some problem in the real world.
Readers, therefore, might have expected a chapter on motivation to tell us how the two authors think that all this taxonomy has resulted in helping teachers being able to increase the motivation of learners, an expectation bolstered by the rhetorical question asked by the authors: 'How can motivation research help classroom practitioners?
Unfortunately, in the ensuing section, all we get is further classification. Nowhere do the authors provide any empirical evidence which demonstrates that teachers who altered their behaviour in accordance with what the authors recommend have brought about identifiable improvement in students' learning.
This failure is resonant of the record of applied linguists who are quick to recommend how teachers should teach but painfully slow in providing empirical evidence to back up their recommendations, often because no such evidence exists.
The chapter subsequently deals with 'learning styles' and 'learner strategies'. As to the former, it deals with the well-trodden ground of the dichotomies of 'visual-auditory', 'extrovert-introvert', abstract-concrete', 'openness-closure orientedness', 'global- particular' and 'synthetic-analytic'.
It then usefully illustrates how these style factors may function in a reading comprehension task and in doing so provide a clearer understanding of those factors. As to the latter, 'learner strategies', the chapter provides a comprehensive account of the wide range of strategies which have been revealed in the literature and though the omission of the seminal work of Naiman et al.
In the concluding section, the authors address the important issue of pedagogical implications which they uncontroversially suggest partly lie in learners' becoming aware of their own learning styles and the strategies compatible therewith.
However, they do not address the most pressing problem for both schools and teachers. Given that it is virtually impossible to homogenise classes in terms of learning style, how do schools and teachers maximise their use of what is known about this domain of research?
Listening by Tony Lynch and David Mendelsohn. After making clear the complex and interpretive nature of listening, involving factors related to context and non-linguistics variables, the authors introduce the models of listening known as: the communicative theory model, the information processing model, the social-contextual model, the situated action model. They point out these models are 'complementary rather than mutually exclusive' and draw elements therefrom to classify the two different types of listening: one-way listening as in the receiving of information and two-way listening in which interaction is dominant.
They then provide a taxonomy of the many factors involved in listening skills noting the contributions of Richards and Rost in creating a taxonomy of the elements involved in the micro-skills of listening. In the latter section, the authors deal with how all the theorising on the nature of listening might be applied in practice to the classroom.
Here they justifiably make much of the necessity of skills training in teaching students how to listen and to therefore exploit pre- and post- listening activities as a necessary complement to listening itself. In this comprehensive account of both the theoretical and practical factors involved in the activity of listening, there is one omission which manifests a problems which besets so many sub-fields of applied linguistics.
That is a certain apparent parochialism which leads to an unfortunate compartmentalisation of which so many of us are guilty. Thus, the case in point concerns my own focus of interest, methodology and optimal means of teaching grammar in the communicative classroom. Listening is, therefore, peripheral to my interests which probably explains why the work of the two authors of this chapter was largely unknown to me before doing this review even though they both have some prominence in their own sub-field.
At the same time, I hazard the guess that they may be equally unaware of what is happening in my sub- field. How else can one explain their failure to refer to work such as that of VanPatten in VanPatten and Sanz who in the last decade or so has made listening an essential part of grammar instruction. He has rightly proposed that listening comprehension termed 'processing instruction' be an essential step between explicit instruction and oral production.
In other words, learners need to be taught how, while listening to texts, to recognise the grammar elements learned, thus bridging the gap between the fields of listening and grammar instruction. However, as the authors make no mention of VanPatten's work, I assume they are unaware of it.
I do so as VanPatten's research findings demonstrate a positive effect on learning of the listening process he proposes, findings which are significantly absent from the research cited by the two authors. Chapter 12 Speaking and Pronunciation by Anne Burns and Barbara Seidlhofer The authors base much of their chapter on an analysis of recorded conversation between two Australian friends.
This is as welcome here as it is in Chaper 5 on Pragmatics for it provides the necessary contextual exemplification.
This is particularly necessary as the authors choose to adopt as their model of speaking one based on 'text and function' rather than the one that is the prevailing model based on 'sentence and form'. As their chosen context is second language teaching, they justify this approach by arguing that natural conversation occurs in context which sentence-based analysis cannot account for.
Given their model, the authors' choice of approach is that of discourse analysis. This in turn leads them to the inevitable classification of genres of speaking, generic structure, exchange, turn-taking and turn types and topic management Then, in discussing 'issues in pronunciation', their approach is once again classificatory as they examine the function of 'tone units', 'chunking', 'prominence', 'turn taking', 'introducing and ending topics', 'social meaning and roles- degrees of involvement' 'stress and unstress' and 'sound segments'.
The discussion provides enlightening examples of these multiple factors manifest in pronunciation. Then we come to 'pedagogical implications' where I would contend that the house of cards built up by the previous classifications tumble to the table if, that is, we take seriously the purpose of applied linguistics provided by the editor, Norbert Schmitt.
That is, in this case, solving the problem of learning how to speak on the part of second language learners. Here they stack the not-yet-fallen cards in their favour by suggesting that their discourse analysis approach is preferable to following '' 'recipe' type models in a slavish fashion''. History[ edit ] The tradition of applied linguistics established itself in part as a response to the narrowing of focus in linguistics with the advent in the late s of generative linguistics , and has always maintained a socially-accountable role, demonstrated by its central interest in language problems.
Applied linguistics first concerned itself with principles and practices on the basis of linguistics. In the s, however, applied linguistics was expanded to include language assessment, language policy , and second language acquisition. As early as the s, applied linguistics became a problem-driven field rather than theoretical linguistics , including the solution of language-related problems in the real world. By the s, applied linguistics had broadened including critical studies and multilingualism.
Research in applied linguistics was shifted to "the theoretical and empirical investigation of real world problems in which language is a central issue. The linguistics applied approach to language teaching was promulgated most strenuously by Leonard Bloomfield , who developed the foundation for the Army Specialized Training Program , and by Charles C.
In , Applied linguistics became a recognized field of studies in the aforementioned university. In the late s, applied linguistics began to establish its own identity as an interdisciplinary field of linguistics concerned with real-world language issues. The new identity was solidified by the creation of the American Association for Applied Linguistics in AILA has affiliates in more than thirty countries, some of which are listed below.