8. After the fact. vol. 2, The art of historical by · After the fact. vol. 2, The art of historical detection. by James West Davidson; Mark Hamilton Lytle. Print book. HIST The Art of Historical Detection: The Modern Middle East (Spring ) with reference to issues of fact, causation, interpretation and significance. 4. . For instance, at the end of a class meeting or after several meetings, I might ask. "After the Fact" is a text on the various methods a historian has at his disposal to help interpret the events of the past. The authors are both historians and History.
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Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Mark H. Lytle received his Ph.D. from Yale University and is Professor of History and Environmental Studies. he has served . A subreddit for everyone's favorite class! /r/APUSH is where you can: Share studying websites; Give tips; Meet students like you; And do.
Introduces non-history majors to the methods of the discipline by undertaking a series of case studies in historical inquiry. Each case study will consist of a close examination of a single historical question, covering the general background to that question and exploring relevant primary and secondary sources. Students will then use this evidence to propose well-reasoned solutions to the question at hand. Goals By the end of this course, you will have gained a solid understanding of the discipline of history and methods of historical research, including the examination of primary and secondary sources. You will also have become fluent in important debates in big history, Middle Eastern history, media history, and gender history. You will be able to present ideas, create essays and artworks, and participate in discussions on all of these topics. Finally, you will be able to locate and use scholarly resources on these topics in libraries and online.
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For more information refer to the Student Resources where you will find the Student Policies. Introduction January 14 Introductions, discussion of course contents and objectives. The relevance of history January 21 1. Guldi, Jo, and David Armitage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, March 30, December 3, Esposito, James, and Greg Jenner. June 26, Poe, Marshall and Audrey Kurth Cronin. May 28, Big history January 28 1. Poe, Marshall, and Fred Spier. October 1, Poe, Marshall, and John L.
June 4, Poe, Marshall, and Anthony Penna.
July 18, Poe, Marshall, and John R. February 26, Poe, Marshall, and Jared Diamond. April 25, Poe, Marshall, and Francis Fukuyama. May 3, Poe, Marshall, and Azar Gat. April 9, LeMay, Eric, and Marta Zaraska.
July 5, Nappi, Carla, and William J. November 13, Poe, Marshall, and Dorothy H. October 16, History as science and art February 4 1. March 11, January 20, Wilson, Robert M.
April 30, A historical movie, historical novel, historical video game or another artwork of your choice with a historical theme 6. A historical movie, historical novel, historical video game or another artwork of your choice with a historical theme 7.
A historical movie, historical novel, historical video game or another artwork of your choice with a historical theme 5. The state in modern Middle Eastern history: secondary sources February 25 10 1. August 23, Fahmy, Khaled. The state in modern Middle Eastern history: primary sources March 11 1. Stein, Mark L. Camron Michael Amin, Benjamin C. Frierson, 3—6.
Bournoutian, George. Landen, Robert G. Ringer, Monica. Benjamin C. Yaghoubian, David. Steinberg, Guido. The media in modern Middle Eastern history: secondary sources March 18 11 1. Schwartz, Kathryn, and Nir Shafir. July 15, Sheehi, Stephen. Asseraf, Arthur, and Nir Shafir. January 23, Mansour, Nadirah, and Andrea L. September 14, Mellor, Noha. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, The media in modern Middle Eastern history: primary sources March 25 1.
Camron, Michael Amin. Frierson, 99— Gesink, Indira Falk. Khalid, Adeeb. Brummet, Palmira. Laffan, Michael. Eliot, Matthew. Kadivar, Cyrus, and Jahanshah Javid.
Researching gender history April 8 1. Frader, Laura Levine. Meade and Merry E. Malden, MA: Blackwell, Illes and Kristjanson and Antes reported great individual variability in durations of fixations of both experts and laypersons viewing paintings.
Representational art depicts elements that are easily recognized by most people, whereas with increasing level of abstraction the recognizable elements disappear. Non-professional art viewers prefer representational over abstract paintings. They also give higher scores on an affective scale to representational rather than abstract paintings Uusitalo et al. Art education and frequency of visits to art galleries were linked to a tendency for positive ratings of abstract art Furnham and Walker, ; Uusitalo et al.
Similarly, Illes found a clear preference for figurative paintings and dispreference for non-figurative ones in laypersons, but not in artists or experts. An interesting, but largely overlooked, question is the relationship between the cognitive and bodily measures of experiencing art.
De Jong compared the esthetic likings and skin conductances between three groups: students of art history, students of art, and non-experts. Self-reported evaluations of valence and skin conductance responses evoked by viewing emotional pictures did not correlate with each other and were associated with activation of different brain areas Anders et al.
However, many of the earlier studies suffer either from a small number of subjects Yarbus, ; Nodine et al. One of the motivations for the present study was to replicate and expand earlier results on art expertise by investigating a larger number of subjects and paintings.
By increasing the number of paintings, we were further able to group the paintings into subcategories along the continuum from representational to abstract.
In our study, two of the authors, both experts on art history and esthetics, selected and categorized the paintings. Attention was also paid to specifying the group of experts. As discussed by Vogt and Magnussen , the expertise that painters acquire by training to produce figurative art may be supported by special perceptual information-processing strategies.
As these strategies are not necessarily typical for all artists or experts on art, the studied groups should be carefully defined. We investigated whether the expertise acquired by professional studies in art history affects esthetic judgments and gaze patterns of subjects viewing digitized images of paintings. Specifically, we were interested to analyze whether the continuum from representational to abstract paintings five categories would be reflected in these measures.
As non-experts tend to dislike abstract paintings see above , we hypothesized that the increasing level of abstraction would gradually decrease the esthetic judgments of laypersons, while those of experts would not change.
Further, as laypersons spend more time looking at the figurative elements Vogt, ; Vogt and Magnussen, , we examined whether the increasing level of abstraction and disintegration of the figurative elements would affect differently the fixation parameters of the experts compared with those of the laypersons. Thus viewing and evaluating paintings had formed an important part of their training.
In addition to the educational background, the groups were matched by gender and age. Both groups included 17 females and 3 males.
The mean age was All subjects signed an informed consent form before the experiment. The representational—abstract continuum had five categories: I representational paintings, II less representational paintings where the subject matter can be well-recognized despite less details than in category I due to style, technique used etc. Each category had seven paintings.
All paintings, except those in the abstract category, depicted human beings, landscapes, or urban scenes. Table 1 Paintings in the five categories from representational I to most abstract V. Digitized copies of the paintings were projected Mitsubishi Electric HC at resolution of by pixels to a screen cm width, cm height about 2.
The Presentation software Neurobehavioral Systems, Inc. The software ran on a stimulus PC which was connected to the eye-tracking PC to provide correct timing. The experiment consisted of two viewing sequences Parts 1 and 2 of all paintings; thus each painting was displayed twice.
Subsequent to each painting, the subject had to answer questions on a printed questionnaire see below. We used a presentation time of 10 s in Part 1 and a presentation time of 30 s in Part 2 since it is known that 10 s is sufficient to obtain an overview of a picture while 30 s is the average observation duration for an esthetic judgment when unlimited time is given Locher et al.
In the Metropolitan Museum of Art, visitors typically view paintings for less than 30 s, with a median of 17 s Smith and Smith, In Part 1, following the 10 s of image presentation, the subjects had 30 s to answer the questions. After that, a sound indicated the end of the answering period, and the subjects had to switch their gaze back to the screen. In Part 2, subsequent to the s presentation, a s period was given for answering.
To avoid confusion, paintings were numbered sequentially 1—35 , and the respective number was printed on the questionnaire and shown on the screen during the answering period.
The full experiment, including preparation time, lasted on average 1. The paintings were shown in a fixed pre-randomized order to one half of the subjects, and in the reverse order to the other half.
The rehearsal paintings were presented to acquaint the subjects with the duration of picture presentation and the time for answering the questions, as well as to give an overview of the different image categories for facilitating the subsequent ratings.
The rehearsal paintings were used as control pictures to separate the effect of information.