Author: Ronald Takaki Pages: Publication Date Release Date: ISBN: Product Group:Book Read ebook Ebook download A. This books (A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America [PDF]) Made by Ronald Takaki About Books Title: A Different Mirror(A History. From Different Shores: Perspectives on Race and. Ethnicity Strangers from a Different Shore: A History A different mirror: a history of multicultural America I.
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DIFFERENT MIRROR. A History. Of. Multicultural. America. LITTLE, BROWN AND COMPANY Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. Upon its first publication, A Different Mirror was hailed by critics and academics everywhere as a dramatic new retelling of our nation's past. Beginning with the. multicultural education, The rearview mirror reflected a white man in his forties. Entitled "The. Significance of the Frontier in American History,” his paper would.
Ronald Takaki of the University of California at Berkeley, whose recent book, A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, has received wide attention, addresses the opportunities and difficulties these questions pose for history teachers. George M. Fredrickson of Stanford University and Robert K. Fullinwider of the University of Maryland respond directly to Dr. Takaki's assessment. In the Viewpoints column, Earl Lewis of the University of Michigan addresses many of the same concerns. How can we teach history so that it includes all of the peoples who have lived and worked in this place called the United States of America?
Of course, we need to study the cultures of the world, but this should not be confused with, or be allowed to substitute for, an understanding of multicultural American society. Even when we as history teachers do get it right in terms of focus, some of us sometimes also unknowingly contribute to the continued marginalization of minorities. This problem is especially evident in some efforts to explode racial stereotypes.
For example, some of us have fallen victim to the Orientalist trope. In challenging the negative images of Asians, we center our analysis on Western culture's portrayals of the "Oriental Other. We also debunk Hollywood depictions of Fu Manchu and Charlie Chan as simplistic and racist, but we do not offer counterpointing and realistic portraits of Asian Americans as complex human beings.
In our very critique, we reinforce stereotypes by failing to penetrate beyond the notions of the exotic and by leaving Asians still faceless and voiceless. Thus, "Orientals" remain "Orientalized. Berkhofer, Jr. In our examination of the nature of white racism, we have, in effect reproduced the very monocultural perspective we have been aiming to challenge. One way to avoid this trap is for history teachers to focus on the members of the excluded groups as first persons, as men and women with minds, wills, and voices.
In the telling of their stories, these individuals provide alternative perspectives to the past and help to re-vision history. Similarly, the story of westward expansion, for the Indians, was the history of how the West was lost. Stories from multicultural America can also promote greater understanding. I think very few American people really know anything about Chinese. They also introduce firsthand knowledge.
After she escaped from slavery, Harriet Jacobs wrote, "[My purpose] is not to tell you what I have heard but what I have seen—and what I have suffered. The "varied carols" of Americans, to use Walt Whitman's poetic description of our stories, invite all of us to become listeners. The stories also take us beyond what critics of multiculturalism such as Schlesinger castigate as "victim studies.
They share their fierce visions of the new land. Spreading from shtetl to shtetl across Russia, a song pointed the way for Jewish immigrants: As the Russians, mercilessly There is a land, America, Where everyone lives free. Coming from a different shore, a Japanese immigrant wrote: Day of spacious dreams! I sailed for America, Overblown with hope. But do the stories of our many groups represent disparate narratives? One pursuit of our multicultural past has been to study the history of a specific group, focusing on its separate memory.
Rodriguez's Puerto Ricans: Born in the U. This approach is also found in courses that focus narrowly on individual groups such as African Americans or Asian Americans. One problem of such teaching is a tendency to fragmentize the study of society and thus deny opportunities for different groups to learn about one another.
Seeking to avoid this pitfall, we sometimes turn to the "add-on" approach. This soft option allows us to maintain the traditional focus of a course while adding a week on African Americans and another on Hispanics. Meanwhile, however, intergroup relationships remain invisible, and the big picture is missing.
Do our various stories, when studied together, connect the diverse memories and communities to a larger national narrative? In exploring this question, some historians have chosen a pluralistic rather than a particularistic perspective.
A multicultural mirror of our past can enable us as history teachers to help students study differences among groups: African Americans were enslaved, Indian tribes like the Cherokees and Choctaws were forced by the federal government to migrate west of the Mississippi River, and Mexicans were incorporated by war. Though they were targets of nativist prejudices, Irish and Jewish immigrants were at least allowed to become citizens.
But Asian immigrants were excluded from citizenship: the Naturalization Law of reserved citizenship to "white" persons.
This act remained in effect until A broad comparative approach can also enable students to connect our diversity to the major developments and events in American history such as westward expansion, the industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, the American Revolution, the Civil War, and World War II. From this vantage point, students can see how the experiences of our many ethnic communities occurred within shared contexts.
During the nineteenth century, for example, Irish immigrants worked in New England factories manufacturing textiles from cotton cultivated by enslaved blacks on lands taken from Indians and Mexicans. In northern cities, blacks and Irish competed for jobs as dockworkers and domestic servants.
Like blacks, the Irish were stereotyped as "savages," ruled by passions rather than the "civilized" virtues of self-control and hard work. The workplace was frequently the site where different ethnic groups were pitted against one another. In , Mississippi planters recruited Chinese immigrants to discipline newly freed blacks. During that same year, Chinese immigrant laborers were transported from California to Massachusetts to break an Irish immigrant strike.
The Irish responded initially by trying to organize a Chinese lodge of their labor union called the Knights of St. Crispins in order to promote intergroup class solidarity. There were other instances of interethnic labor solidarity and sympathy.
In , Mexican and Japanese farm laborers went on strike together in California: their union officers had names like Lizarras and Yamaguchi, and their strike meetings were conducted in Spanish and Japanese. Speaking in impassioned Yiddish during the garment workers' strike in New York, Clara Lemlich compared the abuse of Jewish laborers to the experience of blacks: "[The bosses] yell at the girls and 'call them down' even worse than I imagine the Negro slaves were in the South.
Here we can help students understand that our diverse groups have been appropriating America's principle that "all men are created equal," endowed with "unalienable rights" of life and liberty. They have helped to transform these great ideas into a more inclusive vision. Frederick Douglass pointed out that the Constitution stated, "We the People," not "we the white people.
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