Op Amp Applications Handbook, Edited by Walt Jung, Published by Newnes/ Elsevier, , ISBN (Also published as Op Amp Applications, Analog Op Amps with Data Converters (pdf); Section 4: Sensor Signal Conditioning. TI assumes no liability for applications assistance or customer product design. feedback op amp equations, and they teach the concept of relative stability and. Op Amp Applications Handbook [Book Review]. Article (PDF Available) in IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine 22(6) · December
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Op Amp Applications Handbook. Walt Jung, Editor with the technical staff of Analog Devices. A Volume in the Analog Devices Series. AMSTERDAM • BOSTON. During the course of preparing Op Amp Applications, many key contributions were Hearty thanks goes next to Walt Kester of the ADI Central Applications. knowledge of operational amplifiers is needed to use this handbook. amplifiers , yet the basic principles of application remain the same. Please do not hesitate.
Dan Sheingold and Bob Pease tell how traces of radio-active elements were used to insure reliable operation of neon bulbs inside K2 amplifier modules added Dan Sheingold, Bob Pease and tell the history of the plastic cases and sockets of the K2 amplifier shell. Philbrick stuff, anyhow? Dan Sheingold added comments to the list. The list was not published earlier as it awaited completion.
After an introductory section on sensor types and their processing requirements, the remaining four sections deal with the different sensor types. The second section is on bridge circuits, covering the considerations in optimizing performance with respect to bridge drive mode, output mode, and impedance. The third section covers strain, force, pressure, and flow measurements, along with examples of high performance circuits with representative transducers.
The fourth section, on high impedance sensors, covers a multitude of measurement types. Among these are photodiode amplifiers, charge amplifiers, and pH amplifiers. The fifth section of the chapter covers temperature sensors of various types, such as thermocouples, RTDs, thermistor and semiconductor-based transducers. This chapter occupies about 82 pages. Chapter 5, Analog Filters, has eight sections authored by Hank Zumbahlen. This chapter could be considered a stand-alone treatise on how to implement modern analog filters.
The eight sections, starting with an introduction, include transfer functions, time domain response, standard responses, frequency transformations, filter realizations, practical problems, and design examples.
This chapter is more mathematical than any other within the book, with many response tables as design aids. One key highlight is the design example section, where an online filter-builder design tool is described in active filter implementation examples using Sallen-Key, multiple feedback, state variable, and frequency dependent negative resistance filter types.
This chapter, another book-within-a-book, occupies about pages. In the audio, video, and communications amplifier sections, various op amp circuit examples are shown, with emphasis in these sections on performance to high specifications— audio, video, or communications, as the case may be.
The final section, on composite amplifiers, shows how additional discrete devices can be added to either the input or output of an op amp to enhance net performance. This book-within-a-book chapter occupies about pages. All of these practical topics have a commonality that they are not completely covered if at all by the op amp data sheet.
But, most importantly, they can be just as critical as the device specifications towards achieving the final results. Chapter 8, the History chapter has four sections authored by Walt Jung.
It provides a detailed account of not only the beginnings of operational amplifiers, but also their progress and the ultimate evolution into the IC form known today.
This began with the underlying development of feedback amplifier principles, by Harold Black and others at Bell Telephone Laboratories. From the first practical analog computer feedback amplifier building blocks used during World War II, vacuum tube op amps later grew in sophistication, popularity x Preface and diversity of use. The first monolithic IC op amp appeared in the early s, and there have been continuous developments in circuitry, processes and packaging since then.
This chapter occupies about 68 pages, and includes several hundred literature references.
The book is concluded with a thorough index with three pointer types: subject, ADI part number, and standard part numbers. In the preparation phase many key contributions were made, and these are here acknowledged with sincere thanks. He also commented helpfully on the manuscript throughout.
Special thanks go to Walt, as well as the many other named section authors who contributed material. Special thanks goes to Dan Sheingold of ADI, who provided innumerable comments and critiques, and special insights from his many years of op amp experience dating from the vacuum tube era at George A. Philbrick Researches. Thanks to Carolyn Hobson, who was instrumental in obtaining many of the historical references. Thanks to Judith Douville for preparation of the index and helpful manuscript comments.
Walt Jung and Walt Kester together prepared slides for the book, and coordinated the stylistic design. Walt Jung did the original book page layout and typesetting. Specific-to-Section Acknowledgments Acknowledged here are focused comments from many individuals, specific to the section cited.
All were very much appreciated. Op Amp History; Introduction: Particularly useful to this section of the project was reference information received from vacuum tube historian Gary Longrie.
He provided information on early vacuum tube amplifiers, the feedback experiments of B. Tellegen at N. Philips, and made numerous improvement comments on the manuscript. Dan Sheingold provided constructive comments on the manuscript. Bob Milne offered many comments towards improvement of the manuscript.
Gary also reviewed the manuscript and made numerous improvement comments. Without his enthusiastic inputs, the vacuum tube related sections of this narrative would be less complete.
Dan Sheingold supplied reference material, reviewed the manuscript, and made numerous constructive comments.
Without his inputs, the vacuum tube op amp story would have less meaning. Bel Losmandy provided many helpful manuscript inputs, including his example vacuum tube op amp design.
He also reviewed the manuscript and made many helpful comments. Paul de R. Bob Milne reviewed the manuscript and offered various improvement comments. Steve Bench provided helpful comment on several points related to the manuscript. Both offered many details on the early days of working with George Philbrick, and Bob Pease furnished a previously unpublished circuit of the P65 amplifier.
Dick Burwen offered detailed information on some of his early ADI designs, and made helpful comments on the development of the narrative. Lew Counts assisted with comments on the background of the high speed modular FET amplifier developments. During the preparation of this material the author received helpful comments and other inputs from Per Lundahl of Lundahl Transformers, and from Arne Offenberg of Norway. The above acknowledgments document helpful inputs received for the Analog Devices Amplifier Seminar edition of Op Amp Applications.
In addition, Scott Wayne and Claire Shaw aided in preparation of the manuscript for this Newnes edition. While reasonable efforts have been made to make this work error-free, some inaccuracies may have escaped detection. The editors accept responsibility for error correction within future editions, and will appreciate errata notification s. Black applies for patent on his feedback amplifier invention.
Patent No. Tellegen publishes a paper on feedback amplifiers, with attributions to H. Black and K. George A. Philbrick publishes article describing a single-tube circuit that performs some op amp functions. Input bias currents and input offset[ edit ] Practical operational amplifiers draw a small current from each of their inputs due to bias requirements in the case of bipolar junction transistor-based inputs or leakage in the case of MOSFET-based inputs. These currents flow through the resistances connected to the inputs and produce small voltage drops across those resistances.
Appropriate design of the feedback network can alleviate problems associated with input bias currents and common-mode gain, as explained below. The heuristic rule is to ensure that the impedance "looking out" of each input terminal is identical. To the extent that the input bias currents do not match, there will be an effective input offset voltage present, which can lead to problems in circuit performance.
Many commercial op-amp offerings provide a method for tuning the operational amplifier to balance the inputs e. Alternatively, a tunable external voltage can be added to one of the inputs in order to balance out the offset effect. In cases where a design calls for one input to be short-circuited to ground, that short circuit can be replaced with a variable resistance that can be tuned to mitigate the offset problem.
Operational amplifiers using MOSFET -based input stages have input leakage currents that will be, in many designs, negligible. Power supply effects[ edit ] Although power supplies are not indicated in the simplified operational amplifier designs below, they are nonetheless present and can be critical in operational amplifier circuit design.
Supply noise[ edit ] Power supply imperfections e. For example, operational amplifiers have a specified power supply rejection ratio that indicates how well the output can reject signals that appear on the power supply inputs.
Power supply inputs are often noisy in large designs because the power supply is used by nearly every component in the design, and inductance effects prevent current from being instantaneously delivered to every component at once.
As a consequence, when a component requires large injections of current e.