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PDF | "Uma inovadora metodologia multidisciplinar da observação e análise do jogo de Futebol para treinadores, atletas e investigadores. Composta por sete. PDF | The electronic game industry have been increasing in the last years, Este capítulo trata da produção de um jogo MMORPG - Multiplayer Massive. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Ana Zimmermann and others published O jogo: sobre encontro e tradições.


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The invitation to the participants was made personally to all the students in contacts with the school. Those who showed interest and availability participated in the study. A total of 67 young people were registered, among which 27 entered the game. Six months after the registration, the data generated by the interaction with the game were extracted for analysis purposes, constituting the empirical material for eliciting the narratives. The corpus was produced from data composed of the discursive answers to the game situations and problems and by the comments of the adolescents, compared to the responses of the peers.

Patients were assessed for main types of games played. Each subject was asked to list, preferably 1, or also 2 main forms of gambling if the patient considered that both forms of gambling were equally important. This choice should be made regarding frequency of gambling, amount money bet, negative consequences and worries associated with the game.

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We considered with GD due to BAG the participants who listed this game as the only main form of gambling or as 1 of 2 main forms of gambling when the subject considered that 2 forms of gambling were equally important.

All participants were evaluated for age, gender, ethnicity, educational level and marital status. We evaluated the following variables associated with gambling behavior including GD course, specific DSM-5 criteria and illegal acts correlated to gambling:.

GD course: According to Grant and Potenza, the course of GD can give important information about triggers and progression of the disorder Grant and Potenza, Illegal acts associated with gambling: We assessed several variables associated with psychopathology, which focus mainly on phenomenology and severity:. DSM-5 GD criteria associated with psychopathology: Urges to gamble during the past week: GD severity: GD severity was assessed in two different ways; 1 by the total number of DSM-5 criteria endorsed, which is related to different levels of severity American Psychiatric Association ; and 2 by the total G-SAS score Kim et al, Psychiatric comorbidities: This instrument is usually performed in approximately 45 minutes and was applied by professionals after a brief clinical training.

First, a univariate comparison between the two groups was conducted. They were compared for demographics, psychopathological variables and gambling behavior variables.

o Jogo - Neil Strauss

We used Chi-square test for categorical variables. ANOVA and Mann-Whitney's tests were conducted to assess, respectively, continuous variables with normal and non-parametric distributions.

A significance level p of 0. We also performed a binary logistic regression model where we introduced all the clinically significant and statistically relevant variables p of 0. A forward strategy was used to achieve a final model that suggest the most significant variables that differentiate the patients with GD due to BAG and subjects with GD associated with other forms of gambling.

We collected written informed consent from all participants of this research. The demographic comparison between patients with gambling disorder due to BAG compared to GD associated with other games demonstrated relevant differences in all variables evaluated except ethcinity, which was not statistically significant Table 1 presents the results for demographics.

In short, BAG gamblers were older, predominantly males, achieved a lower educational level and were more frequently partnered.

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Demographics of patients with gambling disorder due to Brazilian animal game BAG compared to gambling disorder GD associated with other games. Table 2 displays the main forms of games played by the comparison group, which consisted of subjects with GD due to other games. Non-strategic games were the most common, particularly the electronic machines. Description of main forms of games played by patients with gambling disorder associated with games other than Brazilian Animal Game comparison group.

This choice was made considering frequency of gambling, amount money bet, negative consequences and worries associated with the game. In terms of gambling behavior the comparison also showed significant differences Table 3. BAG players sought treatment for the first time at an older age, had slower progression from recreational gambling to GD and a longer lag time between GD and seeking treatment.

There was no statistical difference on GD severity or psychiatric comorbidities between the samples. Psychopathological variables of patients with gambling disorder due to Brazilian animal game BAG compared to gambling disorder associated with other games. Finally, we conducted a forward binary logistic regression to analyze which factors critically discriminate the two samples.

In this model the main form of game was the dependent variable BAG group versus other games and the covariates were the clinically relevant and statistically significant elements.

The final model obtained Table 5 suggests the factors that are highly relevant to differentiate the samples. Forward binary logistic regression for patients with gambling disorder GD due to Brazilian animal game and GD associated with other games, final model.

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Model summary: For this purpose we assessed demographics, gambling behavior and psychopathological variables in adults.

Sixty-three subjects endorsed BAG as their main form of gambling, and patients presented with GD associated with other forms of gambling.

Some of the key results were: With respect to the demographics, BAG gamblers were predominantly males A recent representative research conducted in the United States with 4, participants regarding lottery and illegal lottery-like games showed that men gambled in these games more frequently than women Barnes et al.

Another study showed that males tend to gamble higher figures than females in lottery Welte et al, An analogous rationale may potentially be true for BAG, a particular kind of lottery-like game. Our data also showed that BAG gamblers tend to achieve a lower formal educational level only The Brazilian national average for this variable is Several factors may play a role in the association between BAG and low education: Therefore BAG might be more accessible for subjects who attained lower educational level.

The lower income and lower economic reserve also may explain why BAG gamblers depend financially on others more often compared to other-games gamblers. These findings raise the issue of how education might affect the efficacy of psychological treatments for GD due to BAG. Adaptations in traditional CBT might turn it more efficient for that population Thorn et al.

Further research on cognitive functioning of GD associated to BAG is needed for proper tailoring of psychotherapeutic approaches. In terms of GD course the subjects with GD due to BAG have a longer lag between the start of recreational gambling and the development of the disorder.

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This may be partially explained by the fact that BAG has a relatively low frequency of reinforcements since there is a reasonable time between the bet and the result. This is especially true when compared to some other games, such as electronic gaming machines, which have a high frequency of reinforcements and consequently a faster progression to GD Tavares et al, ; Williams et al.

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In addition, BAG gamblers take more time to seek treatment i. One may speculate that because BAG is traditional, popular and well accepted in Brazil Tavares, many people fail to think it is causing problems for them and therefore they delay seeking professional help. As a result of longer lags between onset of recreational gambling and GD and between development of GD and seek of treatment, BAG gamblers found in health care services tend to be older.

As the development of responsible gambling campaigns in an illegal game has obvious difficulties, effective government supervision in Brazil seems to be the best possible policy to reduce the rates of GD due to BAG. We highlight that this study has an important limitation that is the use of treatment-seeking patients, which may weaken the potential of generalization to population level.

Nonetheless, the results of this research are clearly useful in clinical practice. However, our Outpatient Unit took 18 years to actively enlist those gamblers what may correlate to the high acceptance of this form of gambling. In light of these issues and as this is the first study conducted on GD due to BAG, we might consider the sample reasonable. This study showed that there are highly important differences in several demographics, gambling behavior and psychopathological variables between individuals presenting with GD associated to BAG compared to GD due to other games.

These particularities of BAG may directly affect treatment strategies as, for example, suggest some adaptations in psychotherapeutic approaches. Note that AMCE has a positive value for all considered subpopulations; for example, both male and female respondents indicated a preference for sparing females, but the latter group showed a stronger preference. The three colours of the dendrogram branches represent three large clusters: Western, Eastern, and Southern.

The names of the countries are coloured according to the Inglehart—Welzel Cultural Map — The dendrogram is essentially similar to that shown in Fig. The histogram shows the distributions of purity and maximum matching values derived from randomly assigning countries to nine clusters. The red dotted lines indicate purity and maximum matching values computed from the clustering output of the hierarchical clustering algorithm using ACME values. Distributions are based on gender a , age b , income c , and education attributes d.

Most users on Moral Machine are male, went through college, and are in their 20s or 30s. In light of the current issues with the literature, the aim of this study is to conduct, the first study approaching gambling behavior and psychopathology of GD due to BAG.

We assessed in a standardized and systematic way demographics, gambling behavior and psychopathological variables in adults 63 with GD due to BAG and patients with GD associated with other forms of gambling as a comparison group.

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Our hypothesis is that GD due to BAG presents in unique clinical ways and that this comparison may lead to a better understanding of its presentation and might suggest more tailored and effective therapeutic approaches. The individuals sought the Institute voluntarily to participate in clinical treatment. The sample was enlisted from to Exclusion criteria were: 1 unstable medical illnesses or need for emergency care, 2 relevant abnormalities on physical examination, 3 less than 5 years of formal education 4 psychotic symptoms and 5 refusal to participate in the research.

The criteria obtained before the release of DSM-5 were electronically saved and, then, retrospectively processed for a proper adaptation to current DSM-5 GD criteria.

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Main types of games played Patients were assessed for main types of games played. Each subject was asked to list, preferably 1, or also 2 main forms of gambling if the patient considered that both forms of gambling were equally important. This choice should be made regarding frequency of gambling, amount money bet, negative consequences and worries associated with the game.

We considered with GD due to BAG the participants who listed this game as the only main form of gambling or as 1 of 2 main forms of gambling when the subject considered that 2 forms of gambling were equally important. Demographics All participants were evaluated for age, gender, ethnicity, educational level and marital status. Gambling behavior variables We evaluated the following variables associated with gambling behavior including GD course, specific DSM-5 criteria and illegal acts correlated to gambling: GD course: we assessed age of onset of recreational gambling, age of onset of GD, age of onset of treatment, lag between onset of recreational gambling and onset of GD, lag between onset of GD and onset of treatment.

According to Grant and Potenza, the course of GD can give important information about triggers and progression of the disorder Grant and Potenza, We separately evaluated DSM-5 GD criteria directly associated with GD negative consequences: 1 Gambling led to significant problems in relationships or professionally; 2 Dependence on others financially American Psychiatric Association, Illegal acts associated with gambling: an important behavior when evaluating GD because it is associated with a range of other disruptive behaviors and personal impairment Granero et al, Psychopathological variables We assessed several variables associated with psychopathology, which focus mainly on phenomenology and severity: DSM-5 GD criteria associated with psychopathology: 1 need to increase the amount of money on bets; 2 feelings of restlessness or irritability when stops gambling; 3 unsuccessful attempts to stop or reduce gambling; 4 significant preoccupation with gambling; 5 use of gambling as a way to relieve uncomfortable emotions; 6 chasing after losing money, tries to recover and 7 lies about involvement with gambling American Psychiatric Association, Urges to gamble during the past week: which can be reliably measured by the first 4 questions of the Gambling Symptoms Assessment Scale, G-SAS Kim et al, This instrument is usually performed in approximately 45 minutes and was applied by professionals after a brief clinical training.

Statistical Analysis First, a univariate comparison between the two groups was conducted. They were compared for demographics, psychopathological variables and gambling behavior variables.